Asali Da Yaduwar Makamin Nukiliya a Duniya

Asali da Bunkasar Makamin Nukiliya a Duniya

Wannan makami mai matukar tasiri wajen darkake rayuka da muhallin dan Adam ya samo asali ne shekaru kusan tamanin da suka gabata, lokacin da Hukumar Gwamnatin Amurka ta samo wasu kwararru kan makamashin nukiliya daga kasashen Jamus da Ingila da kuma Kanada.  Wannan ya faru bayan yakin duniya na daya, lokacin da Hukumar Nazi da ke kasar Jamus ta aikata ta’addanci mafi girma kan wasu kasashe da kabilu irinsu Yahudawa da sauransu.  Wannan tasa gwamnatin Amurka ta fara jin cewa zaman lafiyarta da kuma burinta wajen ci gaba da neman hanyoyin mallake duniya na fuskantar kalubale mafi girma.  Don haka ta samo wadannan kwararru a boye, wajajen shekarun 1930s, don tsarawa da kuma kera mata makamin nukiliyarta ta farko, wanda kuma su ne tayi amfani da su kan kasar Jafan lokacin yakin duniya na biyu.

 

Wadannan makamai ta kera su a wani tsari mai suna The Manhattan Project, ta kuma yi gwajin makaman nukilyarta na farko ne a watan Yuli na shekarar 1945, a wani gari mai suna Alamogordo da ke New Mexico, a nan Amurka.  Hakan ya faru ne wata guda kafin  ta kai hari kasar Jafan.  Daga nan sai kasar Hadaddiyar Daular Sobiet, wato kasar Rasha kenan a yanzu.  Ta kuma samo dabarunta daga wasu ‘yan leken asiri da ta tura kasar Amurka suka sato fasahar tsarawa da kuma kera wannan makami.  Kasar ta gama kera nata makaman ne a karon farko, cikin shekarar 1949, lokacin da tayi nata gwajin a fili kowa ya gani.  Wannan ya faru ne bayan shekaru hudu da gama yakin duniya na biyu.

 

Da aka shiga shekarar 1950 zuwa shekarar 1960s, sai tsarin ginawa da kuma tsara wannan makami ya fara sauyawa.  Makamin nukiliya da kasashen biyu suka fara kerawa shi ne nau’in farko cikin nau’uka nukiliya biyu da bayanansu suka gabata a sama, wato nau’in Atomic Bomb.  Ana shiga shekarar 1950 sai suka shiga tseren kera wasu sabbin nau’ukan wannan makami.  A lokacin ne aka fara kera nau’in Hydrogen Bomb ko Fusion Bomb.  A wajajen shekarar 1955 kuma aka kera hanyoyi dabam-dabam da ake amfani dasu wajen jefawa ko harba wannan makami.  Shahararren makamin da suka kera shi ne roket, wanda ke sawwake daukan makamin nukilya cikin kwansonsa, ta hanyar roket din, don adana shi ko jefa shi a gari ko kasar da ake son aika mata.  Hanyar farko wacce kasar Amurka tayi amfani da ita wajen darkake kasar Jafan lokacin yakin duniya na biyu ita ce ta yin amfani da jirgi mai dauke da makamin don jefawa a inda ake son jefawa, wato Airborne.  Amma a wannan lokaci sai aka fara kirkirar makamin roket a matsayin makami na musamman don aikawa da shi, wanda shi ya fi tsananin sauri da dacewa wajen isarwa.

 

Har way au, wannan hanya ce tafi karancin hasarar rayuka ko jirage ta bangaren kasa mai aikawa, ko da wacce aka aika mata da mukabulanci makamin.  Saita shi kawai za a yi, a harba, ya rage wa kasar da aka jefo mata, idan tana da roket mai iya darkake wannan makami shikenan.  In kuma bata dashi, sai Allah Sarki.

 

Wadannan kasashe biyu na samun wannan makami sai duniya ta sake shiga halin zaman dardar; kowacce nai wa ‘yar uwarta kallon hadarin kaji.  Idan kasar Amurka tayi gwaji, sai ita ma kasar Rasha tayi nata gwajin.  Ya zama kowacce na takama da nata makamin.  Daga nan sai kasar Ingila ta shiga layi ita ma; ta mallaki nata makamin na nukiliya ta hanyar samun taimako daga kasar Amurka, babbar yaya kenan! Tana samun nata, sai kasar Faransa ita ma ta mallaki nata makamin. Duk ta hanyar kasar Amurka suka.  Domin a lokacin an shiga zamanin yakin cacar-baki, inda kasashen duniya suka rabu uku; da masu goyon bayan kasar Amurka (irinsu Ingila da Faransa da sauran kasashen Turai), da masu goyon bayan kasar Rasha (irinsu kasar Koriya ta Arewa da Sin da sauransu), sai kuma ‘Yan Baruwanmu.

 

Don haka sai Amurka ta ci gaba da taimaka wa nata bangaren, ita kuma Rasha da ganin haka, sai ta koya.  Kasar Faransa na samun nata, sai ga kasar Sin ita ma ta mallaki nata makamin na nukiliya.  Wadannan kasashe su ake kira The Nuclear Club a duniya kuma daga kan su aka fara nazarin tasirin kowace kasa ta mallaki wannan makami a duniya, don haka sai aka fara neman hanyoyin magance yaduwarsa a duniya ta hanyar wasu yarjejeniyoyi da  mai karatu zai samu bayaninsu nan gaba.

 

Daidai lokacin da aka kawo karshen yakin cacar-baki tsakanin kasar Amurka da Jumhoriyar Sobiet, sanadiyyar rushewar wannan jumhoriyar da kuma samuwar kasar Rasha ta yanzu, sai kasashen biyu (wato Amurka da  Rasha) suka yi wa kawunansu karatun ta-natsu; inda suka kulla yarjejeniyar tsayar da habaka rumbunan makaman nukiliyarsu.  Wannan ke nufin daga wancan lokaci, za su daina kera wasu sabbin makamai, da kuma ci gaba da adana wadanda suka mallaka kafin nan, don tsaron kasa.  A wannan lokaci har wa yau, kusan dukkan makaman nukiliya da tsohuwar Jumhoriyar Sobiet ta mallaka suka koma hannun kasar Rasha, in ka kebe wasu kadan da aka rarraba wa wasu kasashe irinsu Yukiren da sauransu.  Wannan yarjejeniya da kasashen Amurka da Rasha suka kulla ta sha bamban da wacce Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta kafa.  Wannan yarjejeniya ce a tsakaninsu, kuma sun yi hakan ne (a cewarsu), don rage zaman dar-dar da duniya ta shiga lokacin yakin cacar-baki.

 

Ana kara wasu ‘yan shekaru kuma, sai ga kasar Indiya ita ma ta mallaki nata makaman na nukilya.  An kuma fahimci hakan ne ta hanyar gwajin makaman da tayi, wanda hakan ce hanya mafi tabbaci wajen nuna wa duniya cewa ita ma ta mallaki nata makaman, ayi hankali da ita.  Ga dukkan alamu, kasar Indiya ta samu nata fasahar ne daga kasar Amurka, sabanin kasar Sin da ake tunanin daga kasar Rasha ta samu.  Kamar yadda kowa ya sani, ba a ga-maciji tsakanin kasar Indiya da kasar Pakistan, wato makwabciyarta.  Don haka sai kasar Pakistan ta dauki wannan a matsayin hannunka-mai-sanda ne makwabciyarta ke mata.  Don haka, ana shiga shekarar 1998, sai ita ma kasar Pakistan tai nata gwajin, don nuna wa duniya (musamman ma kasar Indiya) cewa  ita ma fa ta kawo!  Daidai lokacin da kasar Pakistan tayi wannan gwaji, sauran kasashe sunyi ta korafi, musamman ma kasashen Turai da Amurka.  To ita kuma daga ina ta samo nata fasahar?  Za mu yi bayani nan gaba in Allah Ya yarda.

 

Wannan gwaji da kasar Pakistan tayi a shekarar 1998 ya kawo adadin kasashe masu mallakan makamin nukiliya zuwa bakwai.  Daga nan dai Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, karkashin Cibiyar Makamashin Nukiliya ta Duniya, wato International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), wacce Mohammad El-Baradai ke shugabanta, taci gaba da karfafa kudirin ragewa da kuma hana yaduwar makamin a duniya, don samun lumana.  Ana cikin haka sai aka fara samun rade-radin cewa kasar Koriya ta Arewa na shirya makamin nukiliya da ma wasu mizail masu cin dogon zango.  Wannan tasa sauran kasashen yamma irin su Turai da Amurka, suka sa mata ido.  Cikin shekarar 2006, sai Koriya ta Arewa ta yi nata gwajin, wanda ta gudanar ta karkashin kasa da cikin teku.  Da farko wasu kasashen basu gasgata wannan ikirari nata ba, sai da wani hukumar tsaron Amurka ta yi nazarin tsarin hayakin da gwajin ya haifar, wanda ta dauko  daga na’urorin hangen-nesa  da ta kafa cikin teku, sannan ta tabbatar da cewa lallai abin da wannan kasa ta harba makamin nukiliya ne.  Hakan ya cika adadin kasashen zuwa takwas, wadanda suka fito fili, suka nuna wa jama’a ko duniya, cewa lallai sun mallaki wannan makami.

 

Akwai wasu kasashe kuma wadanda ko dai sun ki fitowa fili su nuna wa duniya cewa sun mallaki wannan makami, duk cikakkiyar tabbaci da ake dashi kan sun mallaka, irin su kasar Isra’ila.  Ko kuma wadanda zarginsu kawai ake cewa sun mallaka, amma babu tabbaci. Watakil saboda siyasar duniya.  Kamar kasar Isra’ila misali, wacce ta ki fitowa fili ta nuna wa duniya cewa ta mallaki wannan makami, amma sauran kasashen duniya, hatta kasar Amurka, suna da tabbacin cewa kasar Isra’ila ta mallaki wannan makami tun wajajen shekarar 1986, amma gwamnatin Amurka bata fitowa fili tayi magana wanda ya shafi hani ko goyon baya ba.  Sai dai akwai rahotanni da wasu jaridun Ingila da na Amurka suka bayar, da ke nuna cewa kasar Isra’ila ta mallaki a kalla makamin nukiliya kusan dari biyu.  Bayan haka, a wannan shekarar tsohon shugaban kasar Amurka Jimmy Carter, ya gaya wa ‘yan jaridu cewa kasar Isra’ila ta mallaki wannan makami, amma hukumomi a Tel Aviv sun kasa fitowa fili su tabbatar ko karyata ire-iren wadannan rahotanni.  Wannan ke nuna cewa akwai kamshin gaskiya a cikinsu.  Sai kuma kasar Iran, wacce ake ta kai ruwa rana da ita kan cewa ta mallaki wannan makami ko kuma, a kalla, tana shirin mallakan wannan. Duk da cewa jami’an Cibiyan Binciken Makamin Nukilya ta Duniya wato IAEA, sun kai ziyara kasar, suka kuma tabbatar da cewa har yanzu babu wasu alamu da ke nuna cewa Iran ta mallaka ko kuma tana shirin kerawa, sauran kasashen Turai da Amurka basu yarda ba.

 

Kasa ta karshe da ake ta rade-radin cewa tana shirin kera wannan makami ita ce kasar Siriya, wacce cikin shekarar 2007 kasar Isra’ila ta kai hari kan wani gini da ke kasar, cewa hukumar Siriya ta gina shi ne don fara shirinta na makamin nukiliya.  Watanni biyu da suka gabata Hukumar IAEA ta tura jami’anta zuwa kasar Siriya don yin nazarin wannan gini da kasar Isra’ila ta darkake, don tabbatar da wannan zargi ko rashinsa.

 

Har wa yau, akwai wasu kasashe da suka fara shirin mallakan wannan makami, amma daga baya, ko dai saboda siyasar duniya ko kuma tsoron fushin kasashen Turai, suka bata shirin, tare da wargaza cibiyar da suka tanada a farko.  Wadannan kasashe sun hada da kasar Libya, wacce ta bata nata shirin sanadiyyar surutun kasashen Turai.  Tai haka ne don neman yardarsu, musamman da suka mata alkawarin bata tallafi don habaka makamashin lantarki da tace shi ne sanadiyyar da tasa ta fara wancan shiri.  Shekaru kusan hudu da bata wannan shiri nata, bana tunanin sun cika mata alkawarin da suka dauka na bata tallafin kudi don habaka makamashin lantarkin da suka yi alkawari.  Haka kasar Afirka ta Kudu ita ma ta fara wannan shiri na mallakan makaman nukiliya, amma sai ta wargaza, ba tare da ta bayar da wasu dalilai a fayyace ba.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

One thought on “Asali Da Yaduwar Makamin Nukiliya a Duniya

  • July 29, 2017 at 9:02 am
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    It is really helpful.

    Reply

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