Asalin ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) da Alakarsu da Kwayar Cutar Kwamfuta (2)

Daidai shekarar 1980 aka fara samun majalisun tattaunawa (Mailing List), babban dandalin da kwararru ke tattaunawa kan kwarewan su wajen magance matsalolin kwamfuta.  A ire-iren wadannan majalisu suke kara samun fasahar sana’ar su.  Daga nan aka samu kungiyar ‘yan Dandatsa ta  farko mai suna The Legion of Doom, a kasar Amurka.  Ita wannan kungiya taro ce ta ire-iren wadannan samari masu sha’awan sana’ar ta’addanci ga kwamfutocin mutane, wato Hackers.  Wannan kungiya ta fitar da mujallarta na farko cikin shekarar 1984, mai suna The 2600 Magazine.  Wannan mujalla ce da  ke fitowa duk wata, kuma tana dauke ne da hikimomi ko dabarun iya sarrafa kwamfuta ta hanyoyin da suka shafi sato bayanai daga kwamfutar zuwa wata; ko gano sirrin da ke cikin wata kwamfutar; da kuma iya shiga cikin rumbun bayanan da ke dauke da ita ta hanyar da mai kwamfutar bai sani ba.

 

Bayyanar wannan mujalla ya dada nuna irin kafuwar wannan kungiya da samun karbuwan ta wajen sauran kwararru kan wannan sana’a.  Wannan mugun aiki da wannan kungiya ta ci gaba da yadawa ne ya jawo hankalin gwamnati a Amurka, har aka kirkiri dokar haramta wannan aiki, mai suna Computer Fraud & Abuse Act (CFAA).  Wannan doka ta haramta duk wani zamba cikin-aminci da wani ka iya yi ta hanyar kwamfuta, da kuma amfani da kwamfuta wajen cutar da wasu ko wani, gaba daya.  Wannan doka ta fara aiki ne cikin shekarar 1986.  Amma kamar an kara ma wuta fetur, sai wannan sana’a ta ci gaba da  yaduwa zuwa wasu kasashe irin su Ingila da Rasha da Sin da ma sauran kasashe masu arzikin tattalin arzikin kasa da sadarwa.  Wannan yaduwa ta haddasa samuwar yaduwar gamammiyar cutar kwamfuta a kasashen duniya.

 

Wanda ya bude kofa shi ne wani saurayi masanin kwamfuta, mai suna Morris, wanda kuma ya yada gamammiyar cutar kwamfuta da ta game kusan dukkan kwamfutocin jami’o’i da na hukumomin gwamnatin Amurka. Wannan cuta aka sanya mata suna The Morris Worm, kuma kamar yadda Bill Gates ya rubuta a wani littafin sa, ta haddasa hasaran miliyoyin daloli na arziki da lokaci ga hukumomi da makarantun kasarDaga nan kuma sai ga Kevin Metrick ya watso tasa cutar, wacce ya tura zuwa galibin gidajen yanar sadarwan bankunan Amurka, don sato masa lambobin katin adashin bankin mutane, wato Credit Card Numbers. Wannan cuta da Metrick ya yada a shekarar 1995, ta sato masa lambobin katin adashin bankin jama’a sama da dubu ashirin, a lokaci guda, ban da barnar da tayi wa kwamfutocin wadannan bankuna.  Duk da dokar da gwamnati ta kafa, wannan bai razana su ba, domin suna da yakinin da zarar an kama su, duk dai bai wuce ai musu tara na ‘yan daloli shikenan.

 

Bayan haka kuma, galibin masu wannan ta’ada zaka samu yara ne ‘yan kasa da shekaru ashirin ko shatakwas, wanda kuma a dokar Amurka, basu kai matsayin a daure su a gidan yari ba.  Kuma kasancewar galibin mutane na amfani ne da babban manhajan kwamfuta na kamfanin Microsoft, wato Windows Operating System, hakan ya kara ma wannan aiki nasu tasiri wajen yaduwa, domin kusan kashi casa’in cikin dari na ire-iren wadannan kwayoyin cuta na iya cutar da kwamfutar da ke dauke da masarrafa ko manhajar Windows ne.  Don haka ana shiga shekarar 1999, sai kamfanin Microsoft ya fitar da wani nau’in manhajar da yi masa kwaskwarima. Duk da haka wannan bai rage tasirin sana’arsu ba,  domin wannan babban manhaja na Windows na tattare ne da manya-manyan kafofin da ke iya ba su daman yin aikin su.  Wannan shi ake kira Security Holes a ilimin tsarin tsaron lafiyar kwamfuta.  Kuma har zuwa wannan lokaci ko shekara da kamfanin ya fitar da sabon manhajan sa mai suna Windows Vista, ba a tsira ba.  Don a kullun kara bullo da dabaru suke wajen kirkiro manhajoji ko masarrafan da zasu iya taimaka musu wajen aikata wannan haramtaccen aiki da suke yi.

 

A duniyar yau ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) sun yadu ko ina, kuma suna iya aika cutar kwamfuta daga kasar Sin zuwa kwamfutar da ke kasar Kanada, don ta sadar ma kwamfutar da ke wata makaranta ko wani banki da ke ajiye da bayanai masu muhimmanci da ke kasar Afirka ta Kudi, a misali.  Shahararrun kungiyoyin Dandatsa (Hacking Clubs) suna nan a kasar Sin, da Ingila da Jafan da Amurka da Rasha da Koriya ta Kudu da sauran kasashe irin su Awstiraliya da Newzealand da Singafo.  Wadanda suka fi tasiri a siyasar duniya su ne na kasashen Rasha da na Sin.  Za mu kawo cikakken bayani kan haka a kasidun da ke tafe nan da wasu makonni.

 

Manufofinsu

Suna da manufofi, sosai ma kuwa.  Da farko dai kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, babban abin da ya kai su fara wannan aiki shi ne don gwajin abin da suka koya. Al’ada ce ga duk wanda ya koyi wani ilimi ya gwada shi a aikace, don samun tabbaci.  To amma da suka sanya ma kan su suna, suka nuna ma duniya abin da suke yi a aikace, sai manufofin su suka kara yawa, dangane da yanayin da suka samu kan su.

 

Bayan sha’awa, akwai birgewa. Kawai idan saurayi masanin kwamfuta ya cika ya batse da ilimi sai ya ga cewa me zai hana ya tarwatsa ma wata kwamfuta hankalin ta, ya hana ta sakewa, ya ga me zai faru ?  Wasu kuma tsabar isa ke sa su cutar da kwamfutar wasu. Watakil suna jayayya a tsakanin su, cewa ga wani kamfani mai cike da tsaro a gidan yanar sadarwan ta.  Sai kawai wani yace kai duk shirme ne, ko ni ina iya barka kofan in shige ciki.  Me ye a wurin !  Daga irin wannan jayayya, sai kawai a kai ga gwaji da ta’addanci.  Wasun su kuma tsaban ramuwa ce.  Shekarun baya wasu ‘yan Dandatsa suka banke kofar gidan yanar sadarwan kasar Indonesiya, suka shiga ciki suka caccanza bayanan da ke ciki, daga maganganu masu dadi zuwa zage-zage.  Kai da jin haka ka san masu neman ‘yan cin kai ne da ke Timor ta Gabas, wato East Timor.  

 

Wasu kuma don kyashi da keta.  Galibin masu wannan manufa ana hayan su ne don suyi ta’addanci a biya su.  Misali, cikin shekarar 2003 an samu wanda ya shiga gidan yanar sadarwan Al-Jazeerah ya aikata ta’addanci, ya sauya tsarin gidan yanar sadarwan, ya kuma umarci kwamfutar da ke dauke da gidan yanar da ta rika aikawa da dukkan sakkonnin Imel da jama’a ke aiko musu, zuwa wata kwamfuta da ke wata kasa cikin Turai, wanda ba abin da ke cikin ta sai harkan caca da tambola. Kai da jin wanda yayi wannan aiki ka san sanya shi aka yi.  Manufa ta karshe kuma ita ce don sace-sace.  Kai da jin abin da Metrick yayi, kasan barawo ne.  Sato lambobin katin adashin bankin jama’a yayi har dubu ashirin.  Da ya tsira watakila da yayi kudi yanzu!

 

Kammalawa

Kada mai karatu ya gaji, a mako mai zuwa za mu ci gaba da bayani kan tsarin ayyukan su da kuma hanyoyin da suke bi wajen wannan sana’a. a ziyarce mu a http://fasahar-intanet.blogspot.com, ko ta 08034592444.  Idan kana da Imel, ka aiko ta fasaha2007@yahoo.comA ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mu.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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