Ayyukan Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta (1)

Muhimman Ayyukan Babbar Manhaja

A baya masu karatu sun ji bayanai kan nau’ukan babbar manhaja guda biyu muhimmai da ake dasu a duniya, da irin siffofin kowacce daga cikinsu.  Wannan zai taimaka wa mai karatu gane kowacce daga cikinsu a duk sadda yaci karo da kwamfuta, ko ma ya sani nashi. Bayan haka, siffofin da na zayyana ya kebance wadda ke dauke da siffofin ne.  A daya bangaren kuma, kowace babbar manhajar kwamfuta na aiwatar da muhimman ayyuka guda hudu ne, a talakance.  Ma’ana, duk lalacewar babbar manhajar kwamfuta, dole ne a same ta tana iya aiwatar da wasu ayyuka guda hudu da bayaninsu zai zo nan kadan. Rashin iya gudanar da daya daga cikinsu kadai na nuna bata cika ka’idar zama babbar manhajar kwamfuta bane ko kadan.  Don haka sai mu kiyaye, mu natsu don fahimtar wadannan muhimman ayyuka.  Idan ka saba amfani da kwamfuta ko da na tsawon wata guda ne, ya kamata ka iya tantance wadannan ayyuka nata.  Wadannan bayanai za su zo ne a fayyace.  Allah mana jagora, amin.

 

Alaka da Gangar-jikin Kwamfuta

Babban aiki muhimmi na farko da kowace babbar manhajar kwamfuta ke gudanarwa shi ne hada alaka tsakaninta da gangar-jikin kwamfutar, ko kace kwarangwal; wato Hardware kenan.  Fahimtar hakan ba abu bane mai wahala ko kadan, amma akwai sarkakiya a cikinsa.  Tabbas abu ne sananne cewa daya daga cikin ayyukan ruhin dan adam shi ne hada alaka tsakaninta da gangar-jiki baki daya.  A bangaren babbar manhajar kwamfuta na yin hakan ne ta hanyoyi kamar haka:

 

Hanyar farko ita ce ta hanyar wasu kananan masarrafai da kowace na’urar sadarwa ke zuwa da ita, wadanda ke basu damar musayar bayanai tsakaninsu da kwamfuta.  Wadannan kananan masarrafai su ake kira “Device Drivers” a harshen Turanci.  Duk wata na’urar sadarwa ta zamani – irin su wayar salula, da ma’adanar filash, da babbar ma’adanar kwamfuta, da talabijin kwamfuta da sauransu – duk suna zuwa ne da wadannan kananan masarrafai.  Da zarar ka makala su a jikin kwamfutarka, nan take za ka ga ta ce maka: “Installing Device Drivers.”  Idan babbar manhaja ta gama loda wadannan masarrafai, sai ta sanar dakai.  Daga nan sai kaci gaba da amfani da na’ruar.  Babbar manhaja takan yi wannan aiki ne a karon farko idan ka loda mata kowace irin nau’urar sadarwa don musayar bayanai ko kallon wasu abubuwa.  Manufar yin hakan shi ne don ta samu cikakken bayani kan suna da nau’in wannan na’urar da aka shigar mata.

 

Bayan haka, ba wai abubuwan da ake iya makala wa kwamfuta kadai ba, hatta wasu masarrafai ko manhajoji da muke amfani dasu a kwamfuta, duk suna da ire-iren wadannan masarrafai masu suna “Drivers” ko “Jami’ai” kamar yadda nake ambatonsu.  Haka a duk sadda kwamfutarka ta kasa kamo tashar Intanet bayan ka sa mata Modem a misali, ko ta kasa fitar da sauti bayan kayi kokarin kadawa, ko ta daina nuna hoton bidiyo, alhali kana da masarrafar da ke iya nuna bidiyon lafiyar kalau, to za ka samu matsalar duk ta rashin wadannan “Jami’ai” ne, wato Drivers.  Idan kana son gano haka, ka je “Start”, sai ka hau kan “Computer” ka matsa bangaren daman beran kwamfutarka, wato “Right-Click” sai ka je “Properties” can karshe kenan; ka matsa. Idan shafi ya budo, sai ka lalubo “Device Manager” daga can bangaren hagu a sama, ka matsa.

 

Shi “Device Manager” wani bangare ne mai matukar muhimmanci, wanda ke dauke da dukkan kananan manhajojin kwarangwal din kwamfutar baki daya, da duk wani abin da ke iya hada alaka tsakanin kwamfutar da wata kwamfutar.  Za ka ga jerinsu tare da sunan kowannen, daga sama zuwa kasa.  Duk inda ka ga tambarin alamar tambaya (Question mark) mai launin rawaya, to, na’urar da ke dauke da wannan tambari ta samu matsala kenan.  Ma’ana, babu “Driver” dinta kenan, ko kuma akwai amma ya samu matsala sanadiyyar wata manhaja da ka saukar, wacce bata dace da babbar manhajar kwamfutar ba. Wannan ke nuna mana cewa, babbar manhajar kwamfuta ce ke hada alaka tsakanin manhajojin dake dauke a kanta, da kwarangwal din kwamfutar baki daya.  Ba wannan ba kadai, ita ce ke hada alaka ta hanyar sadarwa, tsakanin mai mu’amala da ita, da ainihin kwarangwal din kwamfutar, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata makonnin baya.

 

Hanya ta biyu na samuwa ne ta tsarin “Plug and Play” ko “PnP” a gajarce.  Wannan shi ne tsarin da ke tabbatar da alaka tsakanin kwamfuta da duk wani abin da aka makala mata na sadarwa – musayar bayanai wajen shigarwa ko karba.  Tsarin “PnP” wani ginannen tsari ne da kamfanin Microsoft ya fara gina shi tun a babbar manhajarsa mai suna “Windows 95,” babbar manhajarsa ta farko da ta fara yin fice, kafin nau’in Windows XP ta maye gurbinta.  Tun sannan kamfanin Microsoft ke dada inganta wannan tsari, don taimaka wa masu mu’amala da kwamfutar da ke dauke da Babbar manhajar Windows iya mu’amala da bayanan da suke son shigar wa kwamfutar, kai tsaye.

 

Yadda tsarin yake shi ne, da zarar ka soka ma’adanar filash (Flash Drive) a jikin kwamfutarka misali, nan take babbar manhaja za ta tsara (Configure) wannan ma’adana, sannan tana iya budo maka abin da ke dauke cikinta (Autoplay) na bayanai nan take (kana iya hana ta yin hakan a bangaren “Control Panel” don kare ta daga kwayoyin cutar kwamfuta masu shigar da kansu nan take da zarar babbar manhaja ta karbi ma’adanar da aka shigar mata). Wannan tsari na “Plug and Play” na da alaka ne na kai tsaye da babbar titin sadarwa da ke jikin kundun kwamfuta, wato “Computer Bus.”

 

Hanya ta uku da babbar manhajar kwamfuta ke hada alaka a tsakaninta da gangar-jikin kwamfuta shi ne ta rumbun adireshin masarrafai, wato “System Registry” kenan.  Wannan cibiya babbar matattara ce dake dauke da bayanin inda kowace manhaja ko masarrafa ke ajiye a kwamfutar.  Idan kana son fahimtar wannan rumbu ka dubi bangaren adana bayanan ma’akatan gwamnati ko hukumomi, wato “Registry.”  A wannan wuri ne jakar bayanin sirrin (Secret File) na kowane ma’aikaci yake. Da zarar ka loda (Install) wa kwamfutarka sabuwar manhaja ko masarrafa (Application/Software), babbar manhaja za ta taskance adireshin inda wannan manhaja da ka loda take.

 

Ba manhaja kadai ba, hatta na’urar da ka jona wa kwamfutarka, ko da kuwa sau daya ne, nan take babbar manhaja za ta adana suna da lambar wannan na’urar da ka jona wa kwamfutarka.  Da zarar ka sake jona mata a karo na biyu, nan take za ta fahimci cewa a baya an taba loda mata shi, ba sai ta sake neman loda ‘yar karamar masarrafar da ke dauke a na’urar ba, wato “Driver.”  Wannan runbum adireshin bayanai na dauke ne da adireshin duk wani abu da ke tattare da kwamfuta; masarrafa ce, manhaja ce, ko na’ura ce da ke makale a jikinta ko ake jona mata lookaci-lokaci.

 

Idan kana son ganin wannan rumbun adireshin manhajoji da na’urori, ka je “Start” (idan Widnows 7 ce, ko kasa ta ita), sai ka rubuta “regedit” ka matsa “Enter” nan take za a budo maka.  Amma fa ba za ka iya fahimtar komai a ciki ba idan ba kwararre bane kai.  Domin lambobi ne da wasu kalmomi da kwararru ne kadai ke iya saninsu, a makare a ciki.

 

Wannan shi ne aiki mai muhimmanci na farko da babbar manhajar kwamfuta ke yi; wato hada laka tsakaninta ko tsakaninka da gangar-jikin kwamfutar baki daya.  Domin wannan shi ne abin da ke tabbatar da matsayinta da a baya nace: “Babbar manhajar kwamfuta ce ke tafiyar da kwamfutar baki daya.”  Ka ga kuwa idan ya zama ba ta iya hada alaka tsakaninka ko tsakaninta da gangar-jikin kwamfutar, ba kanta kenan, wai Dansanda ya rasa idanu.

 

Tsara Bayanan Manhaja

Wannan aiki ne ja, inji mutan dan ja.  Domin abin da hakan ke nufi kuwa shi ne, duk wata manhaja da ke cikin kwamfutar, aikin babbar manhaja ne ta tanadi wurin adana bayanan da suka shafe ta, sannan ta tsara bayanan, ba wai tanada musu mahalli kadai ba.  Misali, idan ka loda wa kwamfutarka manhajar sauraron sauti ko kallon bidiyo mai suna VLC Media Player, babbar manhaja ce za ta loda wannan manhaja a cikin ma’adanar kwamfutar, sannan bude burgamin adana bayanai (Folder) na musamman, da sunan manhajar, ta zuba dukkan bayanan da manhajar ke dauke dasu.  Ba wai na sauran manhajoji kadai ba, hatta ita kanta babbar manhaja, a sadda ake loda wa kwamfutar, da kanta ta kirkiri mahallin da za ta rika ajiye bayanan da suka shafe ta.

 

Wannan tsari ko aiki na adana bayanan manhaja, tare da tsara su a wuri guda don baiwa mai mu’amala damar amfani dasu a duk sadda ya tashi yi, shi ake kira “File Structure.”

 

Kamfanin Microsoft na da tsarin adana bayanan manhaja iri biyu, tun sadda ya fara kirkirar babbar manhajar kwamfuta.  Tsarin farko, wanda a halin yanzu ya daina amfani dashi, shi ake kira “File Allocation Table” ko “FAT” a gajarce.  Akwai nau’ukansa da dama, irin su: “FAT,” da “FAT16,” da “FAT32” da dai sauransu.  Tsari ne da ke la’akari da girman mizanin babbar ma’adanar kwamfuta, da girman mizanin babbar maanhaja, wajen adanawa da kuma tsara jakunkunan bayanai da suka shafi masarrafa da dukkan karikitan da ke cikin kwamfuta mai dauke da babbar manhajar Windows.  Nau’i na biyu kuma shi ake kira “New Technology File System” ko “NTFS” a gajarce.  Wannan tsari ya fi nau’in farko inganci, saboda ya fi daukan bayanai masu dimbin yawa a ma’adana, kuma kamfanin Microsoft ya fara amfani dashi ne a babbar manhajar Windows XP, zuwa Windows Vista, da Windows 7, sai kuma nau’in Windows 8 da ake yayi a halin yanzu.

 

Idan mai karatu na son ganin da fahimtar yadda babbar manhajar kwamfuta musamman nau’in Windows ke adana bayanan masarrafai ko manhajojin da ke dauke a cikinta, ya shiga: “Computer” ko “My Computer”, ya je ma’adanar “Ma’adanar C” ya budo.  Da zarar ya bude, zai ci karo da burgamin bayanai (Folder)  mai suna: “Program Files.”  Wannan shi ne ke dauke da dukkan masarrafai ko manhajojin da ke cikin kwamfutar, wadanda basu shafi babbar manhaja ba kai tsaye.  Kada ya kuskura ya goge ko daya daga cikinsu, domin duk wanda aka goge, to manhajar da abin da ya shafa ba za taba iya budewa ba; ya goge ta kenan gaba daya.  Idan yana son ganin wadanda babbar manhajar ta kirkira na kanta kuma, sai ya gangara can kasa, zai ci karo da burgamin bayanai (Folder) mai suna: “Windows.”  Idan ya budo nan zai ga dukkan bayanan da suka danganci babbar manhajar.  Su wadannan bayanai da zarar ya goge su, to kwamfutar ma ba za ta kara iya tashi ba. Ya kashe ta kenan kurmus, sai an mata sabon zubi.  Sai a kiyaye.

 

A mako mai zuwa zan kawo ragowar muhimman ayyukan babbar manhajar kwamfuta.  Da fatan mai karatu zai samu lokaci na musamman ya bincika wadannan bayanai da ya karanta a wannan mako, idan yana da kwamfuta kenan.  Wannan zai sa ya samu karin fahimta daga kalmomin da suka gabata.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *