Bincike Kan Bacci Da Mafarki A Mahangar Kimiyya (1)

Gabatarwa

 

Idan akwai wani yanayin dabi’ar aiki da jikin dan adam ke yawan maimaita shi a dukkan lokuta da sa’o’in rayuwarmu, mai ban mamaki da al’ajabi, wanda kuma bamu cika damuwa da sanin hakikanin yadda yake ba, to, shi ne bacci da yadda mafarki ke aukuwa a yayin da dan adam ke halin yinsa a kan gado ko tabarmarsa.  Bacci wani yanayi ne mai ban al’ajabi; baka isa ka jawo shi yazo da karfi ba.  Idan kuwa har yazo ta sanadiyyar tilasta masa da kayi, to, a karshe za ka ji jiki.  Haka idan ya bijiro maka saboda lokacin yinsa yayi, amma ka ki amincewa ku tafi tare, to, nan ma za  ka ji jiki bayan wasu lokuta.  Shi ne dabi’a guda, wanda idan kayi shi a lokacinsa, za ka samu karin kuzari da gyaruwar fahimta, da kuma karin lafiya.  Shi ne dabi’a guda, wanda ke raba ka da wannan duniya ta gwagwarmaya, zuwa wata duniya mai kama da kawalwalniya, amma kuma a galibin lokuta hakika ce.  Shi ne dabi’ar jiki guda daya, wanda duk mulkinka, duk kudinka, duk ikonka, duk talaucinka, duk koshinka, duk yunwarka, duk malantarka, duk fushinka, duk farin cikinka, duk shagulgulanka, sai ka yi shi idan ya bijiro –  a tsaye ne, a jingine da bango ne, a kwance ne, ko kana tafiya ne.  Bacci, kamar yadda muka sanshi, wani tilasci ne na dabi’ar halittar dan adam da wasu cikin dabbobi; idan lokacinsa yayi, dole sai an dukufa.

 

To amma, me ke haddasa bacci ne?  Ta yaya jikin dan adam ke fahimtar lokacin da ya kamata yayi bacci?  Wani bangaren jikin dan adam ne ke da alhakin wannan aiki?  Shin, wai bacci ma nau’i nawa ne tukun?  Kuma meye bambancin da ke tsakanin nau’ukan baccin dan adam da wasu halittu?  Iya yawan kwanaki nawa ne dan adam zai iya jure wa kin bacci bayan alamun baccin sun bayayya a tare da shi?  Kuma meye sakamakon cin bashin bacci (Sleep Debt) ga lafiyar jikin dan adam?  A daya bangaren kuma, idan dan adam ya lazimci bacci a iya lokutan da suka kamata, wani alfanu zai samu wajen karin ingancin lafiyarsa?  Shin, tun yaushe malaman kimiyya suka fara bincike a kimiyyance kan yadda bacci yake?  Me suka gano?  Meye har yanzu ya bace musu wajen bincikensu?  Ta wani bangare Al-Kur’ani ya tallafa wa malaman kimiyya wajen hutar dasu ko kara musu kuzari don fadada bincike idan basu yarda ba?  Yaya mafarki yake? Shi ma me ke haddasa shi ne?  An gano hakan a kimiyyance kuwa?  In eh, me aka gano? In a a, me ya gagari masu binciken ne? Mafarki nau’i nawa ne?  Me ya bambanta su?  Meye tallafin ilimin addinin musulunci wajen fahimtar hakikani da yanayi da kuma nau’ukan mafarki?  Sannan, a karshe mu ji tasirin mafarki a rayuwar dan adam a mahangar addinin musulunci.

 

Wannan kasida za ta tsawaita iya gwargwado, sannan za ta kunshi sakamakon binciken malaman kimiyya na karni na 19 zuwa 21 (19th to 21st Century), da irin kokarin da suka yi wajen neman gano hakikanin yadda bacci da mafarki ke samuwa a rayuwar dan adam.  Wannan bayani zai zo ne a mahangar tarihi ko a sigar tarihi.  Sannan za mu ta cin karo da zantukan manyan malaman musulunci da na kimiyya, da kuma nassoshin Kur’ani da hadisai ingantattu da suka shafi wannan maudu’i. Dalilin da yasa nake yawan yin wannan shi ne don mu rika fahimtar cewa duk abin da Kur’ani ya tabbatar da shi a kimiyyance, to  haka yake.  Idan malaman kimiyya sun gano haka, fa ni’ima, idan sun kasa ganowa, wannan ba ya nuna cewa abin ba haka yake ba; tsawon lokaci zai kaisu gare shi.  Idan kuma Kur’ani ya kore samuwar wani abu, to, ko an ce akwai shi, a karshe za ka ga ba hakikanin abin bane, wani abu ne daban.  Abin da wannan dogon zance ke nuna mana shi ne, in dai kimiyya ya kama hanyar daidai, babu yadda za a yi ya saba wa Kur’ani, sam ko kadan.  Sannan kuskure ne musulmi yaji wani sakamakon binciken kimiyya, mai ban al’ajabi, haka kawai ba tare da ya san ilmin Kur’ani da Shari’a ba, ya karyata samuwarsa don kawai kwakwalwarsa na inkarin yiwuwar abin a dabi’ance.

 

Malam Bacci, Yaya Kake?

 

Bacci wani yanayi ne na dabi’ar jiki, wanda ke da cikakkiyar alaka da ruhin dan adam a lokacin samuwarsa.  Idan mutum ya shiga halin bacci, dukkan gabobin jikinsa da sauran hanyoyin sadarwa na gani, da zance, da shaka, duk suna kullewa; su daina aiki, face hanyar sadarwa guda daya.  Nan gaba mai karatu zai san dalili kan haka. A sadda dan adam ke halin bacci, yana numfashi, amma kuma babu hakikanin zatinsa.  Rashin samuwar hakikanin zatin adan adam a halin bacci ne ke sa ya rasa wadancan hanyoyin sadarwa na jikinsa face guda daya.  A takaice ma iya cewa lallai bacci wani yanayin dabi’ar jiki ne da ke tsakanin yanayin suma, da yanayin farke.  Ma’ana, wanda ke bacci ba a farke yake ba, domin ba shi da cikakkiyar tsarin hankaltar yanayin da yake ciki, sannan kuma ba a sume yake ba, domin yana numfashi ana ji.  Wannan wani al’amari ne mai matukar ban mamaki da al’ajabi.

 

Duk da cewa zai yi wahala ace tun halittar duniya babu wanda ya taba bincike kan wannan yanayi na dabi’ar jiki, amma abin da tarihi ya taskance mana a yau shi ne kokarin da malaman falsafa, da malaman kimiyyar zamani suka yi tun cikin karni na 19.  Wannan kokari ya haifar da bunkasar bincike kan hakikanin yadda bacci ke samuwa a mahangar kimiyya ta amfani da tsarin binciken kimiyya na zamani, da kuma nassoshin Kur’ani kan yadda wannan lamari ke samuwa.  A halin yanzu ba wai a Jami’o’in kasashen yamma kadai ba, hatta a wasu jami’o’in kasashen musulunci a yau, akwai Cibiyar Bincike na musamman kan bacci (Sleep Research Center), a bangaren Fannin Ilmin Dabi’a (Psychology).   Wannan shi ne babban dalilin da ke nuna mana cewa lallai bacci, hatta a mahangar binciken ilmi na zamani, an yarda cewa wani abu ne da ke da alaka ta kut-da-kut da ruhin dan adam.  Amma ta yaya abin ya faro?

 

Binciken Kimiyya a Karni na 19 (19th Century)

 

Karni na 19 shi ne tsawon shekaru dari da suka faro daga shekarar 1800 zuwa 1900.  A wannan lokaci ko karni an samu nau’ukan bincike na ilmi da wasu malamai na kimiyya suka gudanar kan bacci da abubuwan da suka shafe shi.  A cikin wannan karni, abin da suka fi damuwa da shi kuwa shi ne: meye hakikanin abin da ke haddasa bacci a jikin dan adam?  Wasu daga cikin masana suka ce ai cikowar jini ne a kwakwalwar dan adam ke haddasa bacci.  Wasu kuma a sakamakon bincikensu suka ce a a, karfin bugawar jini ne a kwakwalwa.  A nasu bangaren, wasu kuma suka ce rashin samuwar jinin ne ma ke jawo wa dan adam bacci.  Ma’ana da zarar jini ya janye daga kwakwalwa nan take sai bacci ya kama mutum.  To amma wadannan sakamakon bincike basu dore ba, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani nan gaba.

 

Da shekaru suka karu sai wani sakamako ya sake fitowa mai nuna cewa dan adam na shiga halin bacci ne sanadiyyar wata iska da ke samuwa a kwakwalwarsa. Ko gundarin kitse (Cholesterol) da ke haifuwa a kwakwalwar dan adam.  Ko kuma sanadiyyar wata sarrafaffiyar iska (Carbon dioxide) da ke taruwa a kwakwalwar dan adam a lokacin yini, wajen kujuba-kujubarsa na rayuwar yau da kullum.  Suka ce idan wannan kitse ta taru, sai bacci ya rinjayeshi, nan take sai ya kama bacci.  Da zarar ya shiga halin bacci, a hankali wannan kitse tana narkewa, har sai an rasa ta, daga nan sai ya farka.  Babban magana!  Wannan sakamakon bincike shi ma bai dore ba.  Sai wani sabon sakamako ya bayyana, wanda ke nuna cewa wayoyin sinadarar lantarkin sadarwar jikin dan adam (wato: Nervous System) ke haddasa bacci, sanadiyyar sandarewarsu a lokacin da dan adam ke bacci.

 

Ana cikin haka sai wasu masu bincike suka ce sun gano bakin zaren.  A sakamakon bincikensu sun nuna cewa lallai ba kwakwalwa bane ke da alhaki dari bisa dari, akwai wani yanayi ne a jikin dan adam wanda ke haddasa masa bacci.  Wannan yanayi malaman sun kira da suna Inhibitory Reflex, ma’ana wani yanayi da ke samar da kansa, a wani lokaci na musamman.  Da tafiya tayi nisa sai masu wannan fahimta suka fadada bincike, inda suka sake gano cewa wannan yanayi na kai-komo ne tsakanin bacci da farkawa.  Ma’ana, idan lokacin bacci yazo, sai yanayin farkawa ya gudu.  Idan lokacin farkawa yayi, sai yanayin bacci ya gudu, don samar da yanayin farkawa.  Wannan canji na yanayi, a cewarsu, yana samuwa ne a kwakwalwa.  Amma bayan wasu ‘yan shekaru sai aka karyata wannan tsarin tunani da bincike, shi ma.  Hakan kuwa ya faru ne daidai lokacin da aka gano matsayin Sandar jijiyar kwakwalwa (Brain Stem) wajen haddasa bacci da farkawa, ba wai a cikin kwakwalwar ba.  A shekarar 1836 kuma sai ga Charles Dickens da nashi sakamakon bincike, inda ya gano cewa lallai gwarti ko minshari a lokacin bacci, na daga cikin matsalolin da wasu ke samu  a bangaren lafiya.  Ma’ana, yin minshari ba wai dabi’a ce ta musamman ga mai bacci ba, rashin lafiya ce ta musamman wacce ke bayyana kanta a lokacin baccin.

 

Haka dai lamarin ya ci gaba, malaman basu yi kasa a gwiwa ba.  Tsakanin shekarun 1845 – 1866 sai aka gano tasirin mahalli wajen haddasa bacci.  Masu wannan tsarin fahimta suka ce lallai akwai alaka mai karfi tsakanin yanayin mahalli (hasken yini da duhun dare) wajen haddasa bacci ga dan adam, da dabbobi, kai hatta shuke-shuke.  Wannan sakamakon bincike shi ya samar da wani fanni na musamman kan ilmin bacci mai suna Chronobiology.  Ana kara shekaru biyu gaba (wato a shekarar 1868), sai wasu daga cikin malaman Daular Girka suka kunno kai da nasu sakamakon binciken.  Wadannan galibinsu malaman falsafa ne (Philosophers).  Wanda yayi hobbasa na farko shi ne Williams Griensinger, wanda ya gano yadda kwayar idon dan adam ke jujjuyawa a lokacin da yake bacci, duk da cewa fatar idon a rufe take.  Wannan yanayin bacci shi ake kira Rapid Eye Movement, ko REM a gajarce.  Wannan sakamakon bincike kam ya tabbata gaskiya ne, bayan samuwar na’urorin binciken kimiyya na zamani, musamman Electroencephalogram (EEG).  Daga nan kuma sai binciken shahararren malamin fannin Falsafa mai suna Sigmund Freud, wanda ya rubuta littafi na musamman kan fassarar mafarki mai suna Dream Interpretation.  A bangaren bacci, Freud ya gano cewa lallai jijiyoyin jikin dan adam kan sandare ya kasa motsi. Wannan yanayi shi ake kira Muscle Paralysis. 

 

Har zuwa karshen karni na 19, malaman kimiyya da ilmin dabi’a sun kasa fahimtar tsarin da mai bacci yake ciki, da abin da ke haddasa shi bacci, a hakika.  A yayin da kowannensu ya saba wa dan uwansa wajen sakamakon bincikensa, a daya bangaren kuma, duk sun dace a kan cewa a yayin da mutum ke bacci, kwakwalwarsa tana daina aiki ne gaba daba daya.  Kuskuren da ke cikin wannan zance da fahimta nasu bai bayyana a fili ba sai da duniya ta shiga karni na 20.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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