Bincike Kan Bacci Da Mafarki A Mahangar Kimiyya (2)

Binciken Kimiyya a Karni na 20 (20th Century)

 

Har zuwa karshen karni na 19 malaman kimiyya sun hadu kan cewa a lokacin da dan adam ke bacci, da gangar jikinsa da kwakwalwarsa duk ba su aiki; a sake suke.  Wannan tunani da fahimta ta shahara sosai.  Abin da ya bambanta tsakanin masu bincike dai shi ne, me ke haddasa bacci?  Ko wani bangaren jikin dan adam ne ke da alhakin sa shi bacci?  Wanda kuma har aka shigo karni na 20 babu wani sakamako mai gamsarwa.

A farkon karni na 20 ne aka samu karuwar sanayya da budi wajen bincike, sanadiyyar bunkasar ci gaba a fannin kere-kere, inda aka samu na’urorin gudanar da binciken kimiyya da kiwon lafiya a duniya. A cikin kasidarsa na musamman cikin shekarar 1922, Curt Richter ya bayyana sakamakon binciken da ya gudanar kan wasu dabbobi da kuma shuke-shuke, inda ya kara tabbatar da cewa lallai muhalli na da tasiri na musamman wajen sabbaba bacci ga dabbobi da shuke-shuke.

 

A shekarar 1929 kuma bincike ya tabbatar da cewa lallai kwakwalwar dan adam a farke take a sadda yake bacci, sabanin yadda bincikensu ya nuna musu a karnin baya.  Wannan na daga cikin sakamakon binciken da suka shahara matuka, musamman ganin yadda a karnin baya dukkan masana suka hadu kan cewa a sadda dan adam yake bacci, kwakwalwarsa a tsaye take cak; ba ta aiki.  Wannan na cikin sakamakon binciken masanin kimiyya Johannes Berger, inda yake bincike kan bambancin da ke tsakanin yanayin bacci da yanayin farke a rayuwar dan adam.  Sanadiyyar wannan bincike ne aka kirkiri na’urar nazarin kwakwalwa mai suna Electroencephalograph (EEG) a shekarar 1929 din dai.  Daga nan kuma wasu masana suka yi amfani da wannan na’ura wajen gudanar da bincike kan dan adam mai bacci, na tsawon wasu lokuta.  Wadannan masana dai su ne: Alfred Loomis, da Newton Harvey, da kuma Garret Hobart, wanda sanadiyyar binciken ne aka gano matakan bacci da dan adam ke bin cikinsu, a sadda yake bacci.  Sun gano matakai guda biyar ko nau’ukan bacci guda biyar, kamar yadda bayanai za su biyo baya nan ba da dadewa ba.

 

Bayan wannan hobbasa da aka yi, inda masana kimiyya da binciken dabi’ar dan adam suka fara ganin haske cikin sakamakon bincikensu, a shekarar 1936, masani Erwing Bunning ya sake gudanar da bincike kan dalilan da ke jefa dan adam wannan yanayi dai.  A sakamakon bincikensa ne ya gano cewa akwai wani agogo na dabi’a, wato Biological Clock ko kuma Internal Clock, da jikin dan adam ke amfani da shi wajen gano lokutan da suka kamace shi zuwa bacci.  Bayan wannan bincike sai ga wani masani mai suna Parlor.  Shi kuma ya gudanar da nashi bincike ne kan wasu karnuka, inda ya gano cewa lallai har yanzu dai kwakwalwa kan daina aiki a sadda dan adam ke bacci, sanadiyyar wasu sinadaran lantarki dake shigowa daga babbar kafar sadarwar jikin dan adam, wato Central Nervous System.  To amma da tafiya tayi nisa sakamakon wannan bincike nashi bai samu karbuwa ba, domin babu bayanai na sheda dake nuna haka a rubuce, ko a kimiyyance.

 

Ana cikin haka kuma sai ga wani sabon yanayi, wanda a cikinsa masana kimiyya suka mayar da hankulansu gaba daya kan kwakwalwa, wajen neman dalilin da ke jefa dan adam shiga bacci.  Basu daddara ba dai.  Wadannan masana dai sun hada da: Von Economo, da Nathaniel Kleitman, da Horace Mogoon, da kuma Ruth Rhines, inda suka gano cewa akwai alaka ta kut-da-kut tsakanin bacci a bangare daya, da kuma gajiya da fahimta (raguwa ko kari ko kyautatuwarsa) a daya bangaren.  Bayan su, a cikin binciken su Gustav Kramer, da Klans Hoffman, da kuma Colin Pittendrigh, sun tabbatar da cewa lallai akwai wata cibiya ta musamman da ke lura da halin da dan adam ke shiga a lokacin bacci.  A shekarar 1960 ne dai masana kimiyya gaba dayansu suka amince da wannan fahimta da bincike ya tabbatar da ita, cewa lallai akwai wata cibiya ta musamman da ke jefa dan adam cikin halin bacci, da zarar lokaci ko abin da ke haddasa shi ya yi.  Wannan cibiya kuwa, kamar yadda bayanai suka zo a baya, suna kiranta da suna: Biological Clock, ko Internal Clock ko kuma Circadian Rhythm.  Da wadannan ci gaba aka fita daga karni na 20 zuwa karni na 21.  Amma duk da haka, bayani kan hakikanin bacci da yadda yake samuwa dai, ba a kai gare su ba.

 

Binciken Kimiyya a Karni na 21 (21st Century)

 

Kafin karni na 21, masana sun mayar da hankulansu ne wajen yanayin mai bacci, da tsarin mafarki, da karin bincike kan nau’ukan bacci da dai sauransu.  Daga cikin sakamakon da suka samo, akwai bayanai kan: matakan bacci (Sleep Stages), da agogon dabi’a (Biological clock), da amfanin bacci, da cutarwar rashin bacci, da tasirin cin bashin bacci (Sleep Debt), da tasirin mahalli kan bacci, da kuma bayanai kan me ke haddasa bacci?  Bayan dukkan wadannan bayanai, za mu dubi mahangar addinin Musulunci kan bacci, da dukkan abubuwan da suka dandgance shi, a takaice.

 

Matakan Bacci

 

Sabanin yadda tunaninmu yake, ba da zarar mutum ya kwanta yake shiga bacci mai nauyi ba, sannan idan lokacin farkawa yayi, ba wai a hankali kawai baccin zai fara saukaka, sannan ya farka ba.  Wannan tunaninmu kenan na al’ada. Abin da ya tabbatar da kuskuren wannan fahimta tamu kuwa shi ne binciken malaman kimiyya kan yadda dan adam ke bacci.  Duk da cewa bacci wani yanayi ne, wanda ba wanda ya isa ya sanar da duniya halin da mai bacci yake ciki face shi.  In kuwa haka ne, to ta yaya masana kimiyya suka gano irin matakan da mai bacci ke bi ta cikinsu a sadda yake bacci?

 

Sun gano hakan ne ta hanyar bincike ta amfani da na’urorin kimiyya irin na zamani, kamar Electroencephalograph (EEG) da bayaninsa ya gabata.  Wannan ne kashin bayan sakamakon galibin binciken da ake ta yi kan bacci, musamman dangane da alakar dabi’a da gangar jikin dan adam a sadda yake bacci.  Abin da wannan na’ura take yi shi ne yin gejin jujjuyawa da kai-komon abubuwan da ke cikin kwakwalwa wajen karuwa ko raguwa, a sadda mai bacci yake bacci.  Malaman kimiyya sun zana alamomi nau’uka daban-daban, da irin abin da wadannan alamomi ke ishara zuwa gare su, wanda na’urar ke nunawa a sadda take daukan hoton kwakwalwar mai bacci.  Ta sanadiyyar gudanar da bincike da wannan na’ura ne aka gano nau’uka ko yanayin bacci guda biyu da kowane dan adam ke shiga cikinsu.

 

Bacci Mai Nauyi

 

Nau’in farko shi ne bacci mai nauyi, wanda malaman kimiyya suka kira da suna: Deep Sleep, ko kuma Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep.  Sun kira wannan nau’in bacci da Non-Rapid Eye Movement ne saboda idanun mai bacci, bayan kasancewarsu a rufe sadda yake bacci, kwayar idanunsa a tsaye suke cik, ba su motsi.  Wannan shi ne nau’in bacci na farko, wanda ke dauke da yanayin bacci mai nauyi, wato Deep Sleep.  Wannan nau’in bacci yana da matakai guda hudu.

 

Matakan Bacci Mai Nauyi

 

Matakin bacci mai nauyi na farko shi ne gyangyadi.  Shi gyangyadi wani yanayin bacci ne da ke tsakanin hakikanin bacci da farkawa. A halin gyangyadi, mai bacci na iya fahimtar mahallin da yake, tare da jin sautin da mutane ke fada, amma sama-sama.  Idan mutum na halin gyangyadi, jijiyoyin gabobin jikinsa kan fara sakewa, don karbar sabuwar yanayin da ke tafe.  Wannan shi ne matakin da masana kimiyya ke kira Light Sleep.  Da zarar an farkar da mutum daga wannan yanayi, yana ma iya cewa ba bacci yake yi ba.  Domin shi ne matakin da yafi kusa da yanayin farke.  Mai bacci kan kashe kamar minti 10 a wannan yanayi, daga nan kuma sai ya shiga mataki na biyu.

 

Mataki na biyu shi ne matakin baccin da numfashin mai bacci ke fara yin kasa, haka ma bugawar zuciyarsa.  Duk a wannan mataki suke fara yin kasa, suna lafawa.  Daga nan kuma sai yanayin zafi ko dumin jikinsa shi ma ya fara sauka.  Wannan shi ne matakin baccin da masana ke kira da suna True Sleep.  Wato bacci na hakika kenan.  Duk wanda ke yanayi irin wannan, da zarar ka ganshi ka san hakika bacci yake yi.  Idan ya kashe kamar minti 20 a wannan yanayi yana bacci, sai ya shiga mataki na uku.

 

Wannan mataki shi ne matakin da yanayin aikin kwakwalwarsa ke fara sauyawa.  Yanayin bugun kwakwalwarsa kan yi sama, sannan ya riga gangara kasa, a hankali.  Wannan tsarin bugawa shi ake kira Delta Waves, kuma shi yasa ma wasu masana kan kira wannan mataki da suna Delta Sleep.  A wannan yanayi ne bugun zuciyarsa da yanayin numfashinsa gaba daya suke yin kasa sosai.  Idan ba a kusa da shi kake ba, ba ka jin komai.  Wannan, kamar yadda malamai suka ce, shi ne zangon da ke tsakanin bacci na hakika da bacci mai zurfi ko nauyi.  Kuma shi ne galibin nau’in baccin mutane.  Mai bacci kan kashe minti 30 a wannan mataki kafin zuwa matakin gaba.

 

Mataki na karshe, wanda shi ne mataki na hudu, shi ne bacci mai nauyi; ma’ana hakikanin zangonsa kenan.  Wannan shi ne yanayin da tsarin numfashin mai bacci ke yin sama da kasa, kuma jijiyoyin gabobin jikinsa kan kara sakewa.  A wannan yanayi ne galibin kananan yara ke yin fitsarin kwance.  Idan aka farkar da mutum a wannan yanayi, yakan dauki ‘yan mintuna yana cikin magagi bai wartsake ba.  Wadannan su ne matakan bacci mai nauyi guda hudu, wadanda a cikinsu ne kwakwalwar mai bacci kan shiga halin natsuwa, da kintsi, sannan bugun zuciyarsa yayi kasa da yadda ya saba bugawa a lokacin farke.  Da zarar mai bacci ya zarce na tsawon mintuna 25 zuwa 30, sai ya shiga nau’in bacci na biyu, wanda malaman kimiyyar dabi’ar dan adam ke kira Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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