Dabarun ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) da Hanyoyin Dakile Su (2)

Darussan “Ethical Hacking”

Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, fannin “Ethical Hacking” dai fanni ne na kwarewa daga cikin ilimin kariyar bayanai.  Kuma cibiyar EC-Council dake kasar Amurka ne ke karantarwa da kuma bayar da shedar karatun.  Fannin na dauke ne da darussa 18, har da “Gabatarwa.”  Za mu bi su daya bayan daya in Allah Yaso.  Amma a takaice, darussan dai su ne: “Introduction to Ethical Hacking,” wanda ke dauke da gabatarwa kan fannin, da dokokin dake lura da fannin, da dai sauransu.  Darasi na farko shi ne: “Footprinting and Reconnaissance,” wanda ya kunshi yadda ake aiwatar da cikakken bincike kan bayanan da suka shafi kwamfutocin da ake  son darkakewa ko sato bayanai daga cikinta.

Darasi na uku shi ne: “Scanning Networks”, wanda ke bayani kan yadda ake tace kwamfutocin dake zangon sadarwa na musamman.  Sai mataki na hudu, wato: “Enumeration,” wanda bayan an gama tace bayanai kan kwamfutocin dake wani gajeren zangon sadarwa, zai tantance maka kwamfutocin dake kunne, da wadanda suke kashe, da yawan adireshin Imel din dake zangon da dai sauransu.  Sai mataki na biyar: “System Hacking,” wanda ke bayani kan hanyar da ake iya shiga cikin wata kwamfuta, bayan an gama tara bayanan da aka kalato a matakin “Enumeration.”

Sai mataki na shida, wato: “Malware Threats,” bangaren da mai karatu zai koyi yadda ake amfani da kwayoyin cutar kwamfuta masu iya sace bayanai daga kwamfutocin dake wata uwa duniya.  Sai mataki na bakwai, wato: “Sniffing.”  Wannan bangare na bayani ne kan amfani da manhajar sadarwa wajen “sinsino” bayanan sirri da ke gudana ta wani titin sadarwa na musamman.  A darasi na takwas mai take: “Social Engineering,” dalibi zai koyi yadda ake amfani da dabarun magana ne, don kalato bayanan sirri daga abokin magana.  Ko kuma amfani da manhajar sadarwa wajen kalato bayanan sirri daga mutumin da kake magana ko mu’amala dashi a fagen sadarwa, ba tare da ya san kana yin hakan ba.

A mataki na tara mai suna; “Denial-of-Service,” za ka koyi tsarin yadda ake darkake kwamfuta ne a hana ta sakat, a ko ina take a duniya.  Mun yi bayani mai zurfi kan wannan al’ada ta ‘yan Dandatsa a kasida mai take: “BotNet” ko”Robot Network.”  A darasi na goma ana koya wa dalibi yadda ake yin katsalandan ne a tsakanin kwamfutoci biyu masu aiwatar da sadarwa, ta hanyar karkatar da bayanai daga mai aikawa zuwa dan dandatsa, maimakon zuwa wanda yake jiran bayanan.  Wannan darasi shi ake kira: “Session Hijacking.”  A darasi na goma shadaya, dalibi zai koyi tsarin yadda zai iya barkowa cikin uwar garken gidan yanar sadarwa (Server) ne. Wannan tsari shi ake kira: “Hacking Web Servers.”  Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, kowane gidan yanar sadarwa na kunshe ne cikin manhajar uwar garke, wato: “Web Server,” wadda ke dauke cikin kwamfuta.

Sai mataki na goma shabiyu mai take: “Hacking Web Applications,” darasi ne dake karantar da yadda ake iya hawa kowane irin manhaja dake wani gidan yanar sadarwa a kwamfuta.  Misali, dandalin Facebook na dauke ne da manhajojin sadarwa (wato Web Applications) masu dimbin yawa.  Kusan kowane shafi za ka hau a Facebook, wata manhaja ce ta musamman mai zaman kanta.  Wannan darasi zai koya maka yadda ake barkowa cikin kowace irin manhaja ce dake Intanet.

A darasi na goma sha-uku, wanda ake kira: “SQL Injection,” dalibi zai koyi yadda ake isa ga rumbun adana bayanai ne dake gidajen yanar sadarwa mai dauke da zubin “SQL.”  SQL yare ne na adana bayanai a rumbun adana babayai na kwamfuta, wato: “Database.” Akwai dabaru da ‘yan dandatsa ke amfani dasu wajen gano bayanan sirri dake cikin rumbun adana bayanai, cikin sauki.  Sai darasi na goma sha hudu, wato: “Hacking Wireless Networks.”  Abin da wannan darasi ke karantarwa a fili yake; wato yadda ake iya shiga kowane irin zangon sadarwa na wayar-iska (Wireless Network), irin su “Wi-Fi” kenan.  A matakin gaba dake darasi na goma sha biyar kuma, za a koya maka yadda ake isa ga wayoyin salula ne masu jone da tsarin sadarwar wayar iska.  Taken darasin shi ne: “Hacking Mobile Platforms.”  Idan mai wayar salula na wani bigire mai dauke da tsarin sadarwar wayar-iska, sai mai wayar ya jona kwamfutarsa, ta amfani da dabarun dake cikin wannan darasi, kana iya shiga wayarsa ka debi bayanai kai tsaye.

Sai darasi na goma sha-shida, wanda ya kunshi yadda ake iya waske ganuwar tsaro da kampanoni ke sanyawa a zangon sadarwarsu.  Ma’ana, duk inda kwamfutoci suke ajiye ake amfani dasu wajen aiwatar da sadarwa a cikin gida ko ta Intanet, ana sanya hanyoyin kariya don hana ‘yan ta’adda haurowa.  Wannan darasi mai take: “Evading IDS, Firewalls and Honeypots” zai koya maka yadda za ka iya waske wadannan na’urori ne, kai tsaye.  Abin da “IDS” ke nufi shi ne: “Intrusion Detection System.”  Na’ura ce mai iya ganewa da iya toshe masu kokarin shigowa cikin zangon sadarwar da aka bata kariya.  “Firewalls” kuma manhaja ce da kowace kwamfuta ke dauke da ita, ita ma tana bayar da kariya ne wajen hana kowace irin manhaja ko kwamfuta aiwatar da sadarwa da kwamfutar da take bata kariya.  “Honeypots” kuma tarko ne da ake sanyawa a Intanet, mai dauke da zahirin bayanan sirri a fili, amma ba don Allah aka bayyana su ba.  Da zarar ka rudu da su, kana afkawa shafin don debo su, sai a cafke ka.

Sai darasi na goma sha-bakwai, wato: “Cloud Computing”, wanda ke koya maka yadda za ka iya mu’amala da bayanan dake wata ma’adana ta tafi-da-gidanka a Intanet.  Wannan tsari dai sabon tsari ne, kuma da shi ne manyan kampanonin kwamfuta a duniya ke amfani, irin su Facebook, da Google, da Yahoo, da Microsoft.  A darasin karshe, wato darasi na goma sha-takwas kenan, dalibi zai koyi yadda ake layance bayanan sirri ne, da yadda idan ya same su a layance, zai iya kwance su cikin sauki.  Ire-iren wadannan bayanai sun hada da sunaye (usernames) da kalmomin sirri (password) da dai sauransu.  Taken wannan darasi shi ne: “Encryption.”  Yana dauke ne da manyan bangarori biyu: “Encoding” da kuma “Decoding.”

A mako mai zuwa in Allah ya so, za mu fara kawo bayani a fasalce, dalla-dalla, kan kowanne daga cikinsu.  A ci gaba da kasancewa tare damu.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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