Fasahar “Fiber Optics”: Daga Kunun Gilasai Zuwa Silin Gashin Haske (3)

Tsarin Kera Wayoyin Fiber Optics

A makonnin baya idan masu karatu basu mance ba, mun kawo bayanai ne kan tsari da bangarorin wayar Fiber Optics, da kuma tarihi da samuwarsa.  Daga nan kuma sai muka shiga bayani kan Dandalin Facebook.  Amma a wannan mako cikin yardar Allah, mun dawo don kammala wancan silsila da muka faro a baya.  A yau masu karatu za su samu bayanai ne kan yadda ake kera wannan nau’in wayar sadarwa mai matukar tasiri, da kuma fannonin ilmi da kere-kere da suka shahara wajen amfani da wannan nau’in waya.  A kasance tare da mu.

 

“Optical Fiber Cables”

A turancin Kimiyyar Sadarwa da Kere-kere na zamani, idan aka ce: “Optical Fiber Cables”, ana nufin kerarrun wayoyi nau’in Fiber Optics kenan, wadanda ana iya amfani da su ba tare da bata lokaci ba.  Wadannan kerarrun wayoyin Fiber Optics kuwa, kowanne cikinsu na dauke ne da bangarori guda uku, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a kasidar farko.  A can kurya cikin tsakiyar wayar, akwai banganren da ake kira “Core”; wanda shi ne gundarin wayar, wanda yake a sifar silin gashin gilasai, kamar tsintsiya suke, a daure, ko a cure wuri guda.  Kowane silin gashin gilashi (wato Fiber), kaurinsa bai wuce 8, a mizanin ma’aunin kauri na “Micro” – wato “8µm diameter” kenan.  Bayan haka, a cikin kowane curin waya guda daya, akan samu curin silin gashi sama da guda daya a wannan bangare na Core da ke can kuryar wayar.  Kowane curi ana suturce shi ne da wani nau’in gilashi mai zuke haske (Light Absorbing Glass), don hana cakuduwar hasken wani curi daga wani.  Tunda kowane curi na dauke ne da bayanai a tashar sadarwarsa, kamar yadda za a gani nan dgaba.

 

Bangare na biyu kuma, wanda ake kira da suna “Cladding”, shi ne bangaren da ke saman wancan na farkon, kuma shi ma wani nau’i ne na gilashi da ke cilla hasken da yake darsanowa daga jikin wadannan curin silin gilasai da ke can kurya.  Aikinsa shi ne karfafa aikinsu, amma hasken da yake cillawa zuwa garesu ba haskensa ba ne; daga jikin silin gilasan hasken ke fetsowa.  Don haka shi kamar madubi yake; mai nuna wa mai kallonsa irin yanayinsa na hakika. Wannan bangare mai suna “Cladding” dai kaurinsa ya kai 125 a mizanin ma’aunin nauyi na “Micro”  – wato “125µm diameter” kenan.

 

Sai bangaren karshe mai suna “Buffer”, wanda mayafi ne da kaurinsa ya kai 250 a mizanin ma’aunin nauyi na “ Micro” – wato “250µm diameter” kenan.  Shi wannan mayafi shi ne mayafin farko mai lullube wancan gilashi da ke darsano haske yana mayar da shi jikin silin gashin da ke can kuryar wayar.  Kuma an kera shi ne daga wani nau’in sinadari da ake samowa daga wata itaciya.  Ba roba bane, ba gilashi bane, kuma ba karfe bane. Sinadarin itaciya ne, mai kauri, wanda kuma ke taimakawa wajen hana ruwa da danshi shiga jikin wadancan bangarori biyu na farko da ke can ciki.  Har wa yau, samuwar wannan mayafin farko ne ke kara taimakawa wajen hana su rubewa saboda tsawon zamani.  Mu lura, ba ayi amfani da karfe ba, don yana iya rubewa sanadiyyar tsatsa, ba a kuma yi amfani da gilashi ba, don akwai wani gilashin a can kasa, kada maimaicin yayi yawa.  Sai kawai aka nemo abin da ke dauke da sinadarin da zai iya zama kariya, daga jikin wata itaciya, aka lullube su da shi.

 

Wadannan su ne muhimman bangarorin wannan fasaha mai tasiri wajen sadarwa.  Bayan su kuma akwai wata mayafi guda, babba, kuma mai kauri fiye da sauran.  Wannan mayafi kuwa ita ce ake kira “Jacket”, wanda na san duk mun santa.  Ita ce rigar roba dafaffe (wato “Plastic Coat”) da ake sanya wa kowane irin nau’in waya da ake kerawa a duniya.  To ita ma waya nau’in Fiber Optics tana dauke da wannan riga a samanta.  Sai dai kaurinta ya sha bamban da kaurin sauran mayafi da ake sanya wa sauran wayoyi.  Kaurinta a mizanin mau’aunin nauyi na “Micro” shi ne 400 – wato “400µm diameter” kenan.  Amfanin wannan riga ko mayafi dai a fili yake, musamman ma ganin cewa nau’ukan wayoyin Fiber Optics a karkashin kasa ake binne su, na tsawon shekaru.  Wasu kuma a karkashin manyan tekunan duniya (irinsu tekun Atilantika, da Pacific da tekun Indiya) ake binne su, wasu kuma a saman dirkokin wayar sadarwa ake sanya su, musamman wadanda ake amfani da su wajen janyo siginar rediyo da talabijin, wato Aerial Poles. 

 

Sannan bayan haka, akwai wadanda ake binnesu a karkashin titunan kafa da mutane ke bi, wato Paved Streets.  Idan aka gama shimfida su suka iso inda ake son amfani da su, akwai “kawuna” ko “kai” na musamman da aka kera kuma ake amfani da su wajen makala su a jikin gini ko na’urar da ake son mu’amala da ita.  Wadannan “kawuna” ko “kai”, su/shi ake kira “Optical Fiber Connectors”.  Wannan, a takaicen takaitawa, shi ne bayani kan yadda tsarin kera waya nau’in Fiber Optics yake.

 

Amfani da Wayoyin Fiber Optics

A zamanin yau, kusan babu wani fanni na rayuwa – kasuwanci ne ko karantarwa, sadarwa ne ko kanikanci, Likitanci ne ko tukin jirgin sama, da ba ya amfani da wannan sabuwar fasaha mai matukar tasiri wajen sadarwa.  Amma duk da haka, akwai wasu fannonin rayuwa na musamman, wadanda su ne suka fi shahara wajen amfani da wannan nau’in waya ta Fiber Optics.  Ga kadan nan daga cikinsu.

 

Harkar Sadarwa

Duk da cewa fannin sadarwa wani fanni ne da a halin yanzu ya zama gamamme, ko kuma ya game kowane fannin harkar rayuwa, amma ya fi shahara da tafarkin ilmin sadar da bayanai na  murya, ko haruffa, ko hotuna – masu motsi da daskararru.  Wannan fanni ya hada da fannin kwamfuta (Intanet, da tsarin hada alaka tsakanin kayayyakin sadarwa – Networking), da tarho, da talabijin, da rediyo da dai sauransu.  Tsarin sadarwar bayanai, ta amfani da fasahar Fiber Optics, shi ake kira Optical Fiber Communication a turancin Kimiyyar Sadarwa ta Zamani.

 

Tasirin wayar sadarwa ta Fiber Optics a harkar kwamfuta a fili yake, kuma kusan shi ne ya dauki kaso sama da sittin da biyar cikin dari (65%) wajen haddasa saurin yaduwa da bunkasar wannan fanni a duniya a yau. An yarda cewa kasashe biyu da suka fi kowace kasa yawan amfani da wannan nau’in wayar sadarwa su ne kasashen Jafan da Koriya ta Kudu.  Wayar na taimakawa matuka wajen sawwake sadarwar bayanai na haruffa da hotuna da murya da sauran makamantansu, kuma cikin inganci da tarin yawa.    Bayan haka, wannan waya kan taimaka wajen aikawa da sakonnin bayanai masu dimbin yawa a tazara mai tsawo, kuma cikin kankanin lokaci da aminci.  Tana rage yawan cunkoson wayoyi a ma’aikatu ko duk inda ake amfani da ita, saboda baka bukatarta da yawa don sadarwa.  Babu tangardar sadarwa tare da ita, kuma tartsatsin wutar lantarki ba ya tasiri a kanta ko kadan.  Bayan haka, duk bayanan da ke dauke a jikin wayar a yanayin haske, suna da kariyar da babu wanda zai iya kwafansu ta hanyar dandatsanci ko wata na’ura da ke iya taskance haske har ta bayyana abin da ke dauke cikinsa.

 

A karshe kuma, wannan waya na dauke ne da wata kariya a tsakanin silin gashin da ke can cikin bangaren farko, wanda ke hana hasken wani curin gashi shiga hasken wani – don kauce wa cakudurwar bayanai marasa nasaba da juna.  Wannan tsari na cakuduwar bayanai ta hanyar haske shi ake kira “Signals Cross-Talk”.  A  tsarin kera wayar Fiber Optics, babu wannan matsala.

 

Wayoyin Fiber Optics na aikawa da bayanai ne ta hanyar ballin haske (Light Pulses), a tsarin gaba-gaba, ko kuma tasha-tasha, wato “Channles”.  Kowane curin silin gashi da ke tattare wuri daya, yana aikawa da sakonni ne a wannan sifa da tsari, kuma a nashi tafarkin kadai.  Misali, idan akwai curin silin gashi kamar guda uku a bangaren “Core” da ke can kuryar wayar, to kowane curi yana daukan bayanai ne a nashi tashar, ya cilla su a yanayin haske, ba tare da ya dogara da curin da ke makwabtaka da shi ba.  Kuma an kiyasta cewa a kalla kowace tasha ko gabar da ke dauke da haske a tafarkinta, tana iya aikawa da bayanai masu tarin yawan da mizaninsu ya kai biliyan 111 – wato 111Gigabyte, cikin dakika guda (wato Per Second).  Wannan mafi karancin mizani kenan.

 

A wani bincike na musamman da Cibiyar Bincike ta Bell Labs da ke birnin Villarceaux na kasar Faransa tayi shekarun baya kan wasu wayoyin Fiber Optics da ta kera, tare da kara musu inganci, sakamakon bincikenta ya samar da tashoshi 155 a kowane curin silin gashi daya, wanda kowanne daga cikinsu na iya daukan bayanai da mizaninsu ya kai biliyan 100 (100GB) a duk dakika, a tazarar kilomita 7,000 (7,000km).  A nashi bangaren kuma, Kamfanin Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation da ke kasar Jafan, ya fitar da sakamakon bincikensa da yayi kan wayoyin Fiber Optics da ya inganta wajen kerawa, inda kuma duk tasha ta dauki bayani mai mizanin biliyan 171 (171GB), kuma ta aika da bayanai a tazarar kilomita 240 (240km) da mizaninsu ya kai  tiriliyon 69.1 (69.1TB)

 

Wasu Fannonin Rayuwa

Bayan fannin sadarwar kwamfuta da wayar tarho da talabijin, daga cikin dadaddun fannonin da wannan fasaha ta shahara akwai fannin Likitanci. Wannan fanni ya tasirantu matuka da wannan fasaha, musamman wajen binciken gano cututtuka, ta yadda ake amfani da wadannan wayoyi wajen cilla haske a lungu-lungu da sako-sakon jikin dan Adam.  Wasu daga cikin sasannin jikin mutum da aka kera na’urori na musamman don hasko su ko binciko matsalolin da ke tattare da su, akwai fannin gano cututtukan hakora, da fannin gano cututtukan idanu, da na kunnuwa, da abin da ya shafi tiyatar kayan ciki, musamman wajen gano cuta ko gyambon ciki da ake kira Ulcer a Turance.  Dangane da abin da ya shafi gyambon ciki, akwai na’ura da aka kera kuma ake amfani da ita wajen hasko tumbi da hanjin marasa lafiya, ko don gasa gyambon da ke cikin tumbi ko hanjin. Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Endoscopy”, na’urar da ake amfani da ita kuma ana kiranta “Endoscope”. 

 

Bayan haka, kwararru wajen gine-gine ma na amfani da wannan fasaha wajen darsano hasken rana, tare da cilla hasken cikin gine-gine, inda za a iya samun matsala idan aka sanya wayoyin lantarki na karfe ko dalma.  Sukan yi amfani da wannan fasaha wajen darsano hasken rana, da cilla hasken zuwa cikin ginin ko wasu dakuna na musamman ko wasu bangarorin ginin, da dai sauransu.  Haka ma kwararru a fannin zane-zane, sukan yi amfani da wannan fasaha wajen janyo haske, tare da darsana shi a jikin hotuna, ko mutum-mutumi da suka sassaka, ko kuma bishiyoyin roba da suka kera da ake amfani da su wajen bukukuwa da dai sauransu.  A karshe, hatta kanikawan jirgin sama na amfani da wannan fasaha wajen hasko lungu-lungun injin jirage idan suka zo gyarawa, musamman ma injin Jet, saboda duhu da kuma tarin karikitan da ke jikin injin.  Domin idan basu yi amfani da wannan haske mai matukar kyalli da kaifi ba, to akwai da yawa cikin bangarorin injin da ba za su iya ganinsu ta dadi ba, balle har su kai garesu.

 

Kammalawa

Daga bayanan da suka gabata, a bayyane yake cewa lallai fasahar Fiber Optics tana matukar tasiri wajen ciyar da rayuwa gaba, ta hanyar sawwake tsarin yin abubuwa da kuma sadar da bayanai.  Akwai tabbacin cewa nan gaba wannan tasiri zai haura, saboda hanyoyi da manyan cibiyoyin binciken kimiyya a duniya ke bi wajen habakawa tare da inganta tsarin aika bayanai ta wannan hanya.  Idan haka kuwa ya samu, to a karshe za a samu ragowar farashin abubuwa da dama; musamman masu nasaba da kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa a duniya.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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