Fasahar Intanet: Daga Shekarar 1989 – 2009

Makonni biyu da suka gabata ne aka gabatar da bukuwa da tarurrukan bita da nazari da kuma tsokaci kan cikar fasahar Intanet shekaru ashirin (1989 – 2009) da bazuwa a duniya. Kamar yadda labaru suka gabata a wannan shafi kan tarurrukan da aka gabatar da tsokacin da aka yi, mu ma a namu bangaren za mu yi gajeren tsokaci kan ci gaban da wannan fasaha ta samu tsawon wannan lokaci. Dangane da ci gaba kan tsari da kimtsi da tasiri, fasahar Intanet ta wuce manyan marhaloli ne guda uku, tsawon wannan lokaci. Wadannan marhaloli na kumshe ne da irin kirkire-kirkiren da aka yi wajen habaka wannan fasaha, tare da renonta da kuma kayatar da ita don bayar da tasirin da take kan bayarwa a wannan zamani da muke ciki. Wannan tasa kusan duk cikin nau’ukan kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa, babu wanda tasirinsa ya kamo na fasahar Intanet ko kadan. A halin yanzu ga takaitacciyar tsokaci nan kan wadannan marhaloli.

 

Marhalar Haihuwa da Shayarwa da Yaye (1964 – 1989)

Duk da yake wasu bayanan tarihi na nuna cewa tunani kan kirkirar fasahar Intanet ya samo asali ne shekaru kusan dari da suka gabata, sai dai abin da ya fi shahara kuma yafi zama shaida shi ne cewa wannan fasaha ta samo asali ne cikin shekarar 1964, bayan yakin duniya na biyu, wato lokacin da Hukumar Tsaron Kasa ta Amurka ta samar da tsarin sadarwa mai suna ARPANET, don taimaka wa hukumar aikin sadarwa tsakaninta da sauran ma’aikatanta da ke sauran jihohin kasar. Zuwa shekarar 1984 aka raba wannan hukuma zuwa gida biyu, inda aka fitar da wani bangare na musamman don hukumar tsaro, wanda aka sanya wa suna MILNET. Daya bangaren kuma aka bar shi sake, malaman jami’o’i da sauran jama’an gari suka fara jona kwamfutocinsu don aikawa da kuma karban bayanai. Har zuwa shekarar 1989, babu wani tsayayyen gidan yanar sadarwa da kowa ke iya shiga daga kowace kasa a duniya. Illa dai galibin mutane suna mu’amala ne da bayanan da ke cikin kwamfutocin da ke kasashensu; ko dai a ma’aikata ko hukumar da suke aiki. Duk da yake akwai manhajojin kwamfuta (computer software) da masana kwamfuta suka ta ginawa don aiwatar da sadarwa a tsakaninsu, a kuma kasashensu, musamman masarrafar hira da kuma manhajar tattaunawa a majalisu, wato Internet Relay Chat da kuma Listserver Softwares. Da haka mutane suke aiwatar da sadarwa a tsakaninsu. Kuma galibin masu wannan ma malaman makaranta ne ko masana kan ilimin kwamfuta da fasahar bayanai da ke cibiyoyin bincike a Amurka da sauran kasashen Turai.

 
Duk tsawon wannan lokaci, babu shafuka masu launi, ba a iya mu’amala da sauti ko kuma hotuna masu motsi da daskararru. Abin da kawai mutane ke mu’amala da shi shi ne tarin bayanai tsagwaronsa, wato Plain Text. Har wa yau, babu wani tsari da ke sawwake wa mutane samun bayanai a tare wuri daya, daga wata kasa zuwa wata kasa, kai tsaye. Kowa na mu’amala ne da bayanan da ya tara a kwamfutarsa, ko na ma’aikatar da yake aiki, ko na hukumar gwamnatin kasarsa, idan a nan yake aiki. Wannan na cikin abin da ya tayar wa Farfesa Tim Berners-Lee, wani masanin kwamfuta da ke aiki a Cibiyar Binciken Nukiliyan Nahiyar Turai (wato CERN) da ke kasar Suwizaland hankali. Yai ta tunanin yadda za a samu wata hanya da za ta sawwake hanyoyin neman bayanai daga wani shafin zuwa wani; a ko ina ne kuwa. A matsayinsa na kwararre kan harkar kwamfuta, bai tsaya bata lokaci wajen tunani ba kadai, sai ya tsara kasida mai dauke da hanyoyin da za a bi wajen kirkirar masarrafar da zata sawwake wannan aiki, nan take. Ya sanya wa kasidar take: Information Management: A Proposal (Shawarwari kan yadda za a magance matsalalin ta’ammali da bayanai). Da ya gama sai ya mika wa maigidansa don yayi nazari. Bayan ya duba, sai ya umarce shi da ya tsara manhajar da yayi hasashen zata iya kawo sauki wajen wannan aiki. Nan take sai Farfesa Tim ya samu abokanan aikinsa: Vinton Cerf, da kuma Robert Cailliau, wanda su ma masana ne, kwararru wajen harkar, don su taimaka masa.

 

Marhalar Balaga da Kuruciya (1989 – 1999)

Bayan shekaru biyu da fara aiki, sai wannan gungu na masana (wato Farfesa Tim da abokanan aikinsa) suka kirkiro wasu ka’idojin fasahar nemo bayanai da kuma fasahar inganta shafukan yanar sadarwa. Wannan fasaha ta neman bayanai da kuma samunsu cikin sauki ta hanyar shiga wani shafin daga wani shafin, ita ake kira Hypertext Transfer Protocol, wato HTTP kenan, wacce ke damfare da fasahar hada alaka tsakanin bayanan da ke wannan shafi na Intanet zuwa wani shafin dabam, wato Hypertext Markup Language, ko HTML a dunkule. Robert Cailliau ne ya jibinci hada kwamfuta ta farko da aka fara sanya mata shafukan yanar sadarwa ta Intanet (tare da sauran kwamfutocin da wannan Cibiyan Bincike), wacce kwamfutar Farfesa Tim ce, kuma a halin yanzu an ajiye ta ne a wani dakin tarihi dake kasar Ingila. A ciki aka yi gwajin wadannan manhajoji da ka’idar fasaha da suka kirkira, don tabbatar da cewa lallai komai yayi.

 
Samuwar wadannan fasaha ya haddasa bunkasar fasahar Intanet daga shekarar 1991 zuwa shekarar 1999. Daga lokacin aka fara gina gidajen yanar sadarwa kamar yadda muke dasu a yanzu. Dabarun gina shafukan yana mai suna HTML da su Farfesa Tim suka kirkira ne aka ta amfani dasu wajen wannan aiki. Wannan ya bayar da damar mu’amala da shafuka masu launi, da hotuna masu launi da taswirori da bidiyo da sauran kyale-kyalen da muke gani a yau a shafukan yanar sadarwa. Fasahar HTTP kuma ta sawwake nemo shafukan yanar sadarwa a duk inda suke a duniya, sabanin yadda tsarin yake a baya. An kuma samu yaduwar manhajoji masu amfani da wannan ka’ida ta nemo bayanai a gidajen yanar sadarwa, irin su Manhajar lilo da tsallake-tsallake, wato Web browser, irin su Internet Explorer, Nescape Navigator, Mozilla, da dai sauransu. Har wa yau, harkokin kasuwanci sun yadu fiye da yadda ake tunani, har ta kai galibin kamfanoni a kasashen yamma sun koma kasuwanci ta hanyar Intanet, saboda tasirin da ke tattare da wannan sabuwar fasaha.

 
A wannan marhala ko zamani ne aka samu shahararrun gidajen yanar sadarwa na Matambayi Ba Ya Bata, wato Search Engine Sites, irin su Yahoo!, da Google, da kuma MSN a misali. Hakan ya dada samar da hanyoyin taskancewa da koyon ilimi sosai. A takaice dai masana tarihin Intanet sun sanya wa wannan marhala suna The Internet Boom Period, ma’ana marhalar bunkasa da kuma ci gaban fasahar Intanet. Saboda inganci da kuma habaka tsarin gina gidan yanar sadarwa da aka ci gaba da samu a wannan marhala, an wayi gari gidajen yanar sadarwa na wakiltar mai gidan yanar wajen karba da kuma amsa tambayoyi ko neman karin bayani da masu ziyara ke aikowa a kowane lokaci ne. Nau’ukan gidajen yanar sadarwar da aka yi ta amfani da su a wannan marhala su ake kira Dynamic Web, saboda tasirinsu wajen yin mu’amala da mai ziyara ba tare da uban gidan ya sa baki ba. Nau’in fasahar Intanet din wannan marhala kuma aka rika yi mata lakabi da Web 2.0. Wannan tasiri da fasahar Intanet tayi a wannan zamani ya jawo hankulan gwamnatocin kasashen duniya musamman a turai da gabas ta tsakiya, wajen lekawa da kuma lura da abin da mutane ke yi. Wannan, a cewar Farfesa Tim Berners-Lee, wuce gona da iri ne.

 

Marhalar Girma da Kasaita (2000 – 2009)

Wannan marhala shi ne zamani ko lokacin da muke ciki a yau, kuma banbancinsa da wanda ya gabace shi shi ne, a yanzu ana kara inganta hanyoyin sadarwa ne, da kayatar da gidajen yanar sadarwa, da kuma dada jawo hankulan gwamnatoci wajen tare jama’a ko kuma sanya musu takunkumi wajen abin da suke fada ko mu’amala da su a wannan sabuwar duniya. Sannan tsarin gina gidajen sadarwa ya tashi daga yin amfani da dabarun HTML tsuransa, zuwa amfani da dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta, wato Programming Languages, irin su C, da C++, da JavaScript, Java Applets da ASP.Net, da Python da dai sauransu. Wannan tasa aka dada samun hanyoyin mu’amala da juna, da hanyoyin neman bayanai da kuma tsarin tafiyar da kasuwa masu kayatarwa. Misali, a shekarun baya, galibin mutane suna haduwa da juna ne ta hanyar manhajar hira, wato Instant Chat Machine, irin su Yahoo Messenger da sauransu, sannan suna yawan mu’amala ta hanyar Majalisun Tattaunawa, wato Mailing Lists. Amma yanzu galibin hanyoyin shakatawa da yin abota masu bayar da damar zuba bayanai da hotuna, sun yawaita, kuma galibin mutane sun fi amfani dasu a yanzu. Misali, a yanzu mutane sun fi amfani da shafukan Facebook (www.facebook.com) ko MySpace (www.myspace.com), fiye da manhajojin Yahoo Messenger, sabanin yadda abin yake a baya.

 
Wani ci gaba da fasahar Intanet ta kara samarwa ko sawwakewa a wannan marhala shi ne tsarin mu’amala da fasahar ta hanyar sauran kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa irin su wayar salula da sauran danginsu. Wannan shi ake kira Network Convergence a Turancin Kimiyya da Fasahar Sadarwa ta Zamani. Hakan kuma ya dada samar damar mu’amala da fasahar Intanet a karon farko ga miliyoyin mutanen da ke kasashe masu tasowa. Har wa yau, a daidai wannan marhala ne aka ci gaba da samun yaduwar gidajen talabijin da na rediyo, masu watsa labarai kai tsaye ko kuma taskantattu a gidajen yanarsu. Abu na karshe da ya dada bunkasa wannan zamani shi ne yadda masu mu’amala da wannan fasaha ta Intanet a matsayinsu na masu ziyara, suka wayi gari sune masu samar da bayanai, maimakon zamanin baya da ake zuba bayanai don masu ziyara. A halin yanzu akwai gidajen yanar sadarwa da dama masu amfani da bayanan da masu ziyara ne ke samar dasu kai tsaye. Wannan tsari shi ake kira User Content Generation. Kafin mu karkare, zai dace mai karatu ya san cewa, daga marhalar da ta gabata zuwa yau, daya daga cikin manyan matsalolin da wannan bunkasa ta Intanet ya haifar, shi ne yawan sace-sace da kuma zamba cikin amince da ake yi a kasashen da musamman fasahar tafi yin tasiri a rayuwar al’umma. An samu yaduwar aikin dandatsa, wato Hacking ko Cracking, wanda ya samu shahara sosai, kamar dai yadda muka kawo kasidu kansa a baya.

 

Daga Nan Sai Ina?

Wannan ita ce tambayar da wasu suke yi kan wannan ci gaba da fasahar Intanet ke yi. Da dama cikin masana na shakkan yin hasashe kan makomar wannan fasaha. Ba don komai ba sai don ganin cewa zai yi wahala hasashenka yayi daidai a karshen al’amari, kamar yadda Bill Gates ya fada cikin littafinsa. Amma ga dukkan alamu, wannan fasaha za ta ci gaba ne da yaduwa, da kuma dada samar da sabbin hanyoyin yin abubuwa, wadanda ake zato da ma wadanda ba a taba tunaninsu ba. Wannan sai dai mu bar wa Allah masanin gaibu. A karshe, kafin a tashi taron murnar cikan Intanet shekara ashirin da aka yi a birnin Madrid, iyayen wannan fasaha sun nuna cewa muddin ana son masu mu’amala da wannan fasaha su samu cikakken ‘yanci, to sai hukumomin kasashe sun daina yin katsalandan wajen hana fadin albarkacin baki da wasu ke yi a Intanet, tare da shawo kan matsalar sace-sace da kuma cewa lallai ne masu gina gidajen yanar sadarwa ko masu sa a gina musu, su lura da cewa abu mafi muhimmanci da wannan fasaha yazo don samar dashi shi ne bayanai, kuma cikin sauki. Don haka su daina cika gidajen yanar sadarwarsu da kyale-kyale mai kawo cikas wajen isa ga bayanai da aka tanada a ciki.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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