Fasahar Sadarwa ta Bluetooth (1)

Gabatarwa

A wannan mako mun dawo da wani sabon fanni, wanda ya kunshi tsarin sadarwa a tsakanin kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa ta amfani da wayar iska, wato abin da a Turance ake kira Wireless Communication.  In Allah Ya yarda, za mu yi bayani ne kan tsarin sadarwa ta amfani da fasahar sadarwa ta Bluetooth, na’urar sadarwar da galibi muke dauke da ita a wayar salularmu.  Sau tari galibin mu mun dauki cewa wannan fasaha ta sadarwa na dauke ne kawai a wayar salula, don ta hanyar kadai muka san ta. A yau za mu karanta bayanai kan asalin wannan fasaha, yaushe ta bayyana, wa da wa suka kirkiro ta, ina ta samo wannan suna, yaya tsarin sadarwan yake, wasu kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani ne ke dauke da wannan na’ura ko fasaha bayan wayoyin tafi-da-gidanka da muka sani?  Duk za mu samu bayanai kan haka a wannan makala.  A yanzu ba tare da bata lokaci ba sai a biyo mu.


Ma’ana, Asali da kuma Tarihin “Bluetooth”

A fannin fasahar sadarwa, idan aka ce “Bluetooth”, musamman ma a wannan zamani namu, ana nufin wani tsari ne ko fasahar sadarwa da ke kumshe cikin kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani irin su wayar salula, wanda ake iya aikawa ko karban jakunkunan bayanai da suka shafi haruffa da sauti ko murya (irin na wakoki da karatuttuka da laccoci) ko hotuna; masu motsi (Video) ko marasa motsi, a tsakanin wadannan kayayyakin sadarwa.  Wannan ita ce ma’anar “Bluetooth” a takaice.  Sadarwa a tsarin Bluetooth na yiwuwa ne ta hanyar neman wayar salular wanda kake son aika masa, a iya tazaran da bai wuce taku talatin ba (30ft), ko kuma nisan mita goma (10 meters).  A iya wannan tazara, idan ka kunna na’urar Bluetooth din ka, to duk wanda tasa ke kunne a iya kadadar wannan tazara ko zango, za ka same shi da zaran ka nemo, har kuma ka iya aika masa da sako.

 

Wannan fasahar sadarwa ta samo asali ne shekaru kusan goma da suka gabata, lokacin da wasu kamfanonin kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa guda biyar suka kafa wata kungiya ta masu sha’awan ci gaban yadawa da kuma sawwake hanyar sadarwa a tsakanin kayayyakin sadarwa, wato Special Interest Group, ko SIG a takaice.  Sun yi haka ne cikin shekarar 1998, kuma a karshen shekarar 1999 ne suka cin ma matsaya kan wannan fasahar sadarwa, inda suka zabi sunan wani sarki da yayi zamani a karni na goma a turai mai suna Harold Bluetooth, suka ba wannan sabuwar hanyar sadarwa da suka kirkira.  To me ye dalilin zaban sunan wannan sarki?

 

Shi dai King Harold Bluetooth, wani sarki ne da yayi rawan gani a tsakanin kasashen Turai wajen iya sasanta kasashe lokacin yaki.  Rawan ganinsa ta karshe ita ce wacce yayi wajen sasanta kasar Norway da Sweden bayan sun dauki tsawon shekaru suna gwabza yaki a tsakanin su.  Ta la’akari da tsarin hada alaka wajen karba da mika bayanai a tsakanin kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa, wanda kuma shi ne aikin wannan sabuwar fasaha da kungiyar ta kirkira, sai SIG ta zabi kiran wannan sabon fasaha nata da sunan wannan sarki.

 

Babbar ka’idar da ke lura da wannan sadarwa, a fasaharce, ita ce ka’ida ta 802.15.1, wacce Cibiyar Injiniyoyin Lantarki, wato IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) ta kirkira cikin shekarar 1994.  Wannan Cibiya ita ke da alhakin tsarawa da kuma kirkiran ka’idojin sadarwa a tsakanin kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa na tafi-da-gidan ka, ta amfani da wayar iska, wato Wireless Communication, a duk duniya. Bayan sanin asali da ma’anar wannan kalma ta Bluetooth, zai dace mu dubi yadda wannan fasahar sadarwa ta habbaka a duniyar yau.

 

Habbaka da Bunkasar “Bluetooth”

Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama, wannan fasahar sadarwa an kirkiro ta ne cikin shekarar 1998, aka kuma lakkaba mata sunan wannan sarki a karshen shekarar 1999. Daga nan aka fara kiran wannan kungiya ta kamfanonin sadarwa da sunan Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG), wato kungiyar masu kebantacciyar sha’awar bunkasa fasahar Bluetooth.  Mambobin ta na asali guda biyar ne, amma kafin karshen 1999, sun kai dari hudu.  A farkon shekarar 2000 sai aka fitar da nau’in farko na wannan fasahar sadarwa, wato Bluetooth v1.0, wanda aka fara shigarwa cikin wayoyin salula a shekarar 2001.  Cikin wannan shekara ne kuma aka shigar da fasahar cikin beran kwamfuta, wato Computer Mouse, da kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, wato Laptop, da hanyar shigar da bayanai na tsarin Universal Serial Bus (ko USB Port)

 

Wannan shekara ta 2001 ba ta karkare ba sai da aka kirkiri rediyon kunne, wato Headset, mai dauke da wannan fasaha ta BluetoothAna shiga shekarar 2002, sai ga na’urar buga bayanai ta kwamfuta, wato Computer Printer, mai dauke da fasahar Bluetooth, da kuma na’urar daukan hoto ta zamani, wato Digital Camera, ita ma dauke da wannan na’ura.  A wannan shekara ne har wa yau, aka kaddamar da wannan kungiya ta Bluetooth SIG, a matsayin kungiya mai zaman kanta, mai kuma cikakken rajista, ba a kuma karkare shekaran ba, sai da aka kirkiri lasifikar mota irin ta zamani, wato Handsfree Car Kit, mai dauke da wannan fasaha ita ma. Dankari!

 

Da aka shiga shekarar 2003, ai sai zamani ya ci gaba da bin fasahar Bluetooth, sau-da-kafa. Sai ga na’urar sauraran wake ta zamani, wato MP3 Player, ita ma dauke da wannan fasaha ta BluetoothA wannan shekarar ne aka fitar da wani sabon nau’in wannan fasaha, wato Bluetooth v1.2.  A karshen shekara, sai aka lura cewa a duk mako, akan fitar da kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa masu dauke da wannan fasaha a kalla miliyan daya.  Wannan ya nuna tsananin tasirin wannan fasaha da karbuwan da ta samu.

 

Da aka shigo sabuwar shekarar 2004, sai Bluetooth SIG ta fitar da sabon nau’i, mai taken Bluetooth v2.0, wanda ingancin sa wajen sadarwa ya dara nau’ukan baya.  A wannan shekara ne aka tabbatar da cewa akwai a kalla kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa masu dauke da wannan fasaha, sama da miliyan dari biyu da hamsin, kuma a duk mako, a kalla akan fitar da sabbin kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa dauke da Bluetooth, sama da miliyan uku.  Kafin shekarar ta kare kuma, aka kirkiri rediyon kunne irin na zamani, wato Stereo Headphones, su ma dauke da wannan fasaha ta sadarwa.

 

Da shekarar 2005 ta kunno kai kuma, sai aka samu kari wajen yawan kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa da ake kerawa da fitarwa a duk mako, daga miliyan uku a shekarar 2004, zuwa miliyan biyar.  A wannan shekara ne yawan kamfanonin sadarwa da ke kungiyar Bluetooth SIG ya cika dubu hudu, daga dari hudu da ake dasu a karshen shekarar 1999.  Har wa yau, cikin wannan shekara ne aka kaddamar da manyan cibiyoyin wannan kungiya ta Bluetooth SIG a manyan birane/kasashe hudu; Washington, Malmo, Sweden, da kuma Hong KongKafin shekarar ta yi wafati, sai ga kirkirarren gilashin ido, wato Sunglass, shi ma dauke da wannan fasaha ta BluetoothBabban Magana, wai dan sanda ya ga gawar soja!

 

Da aka shigo shekarar 2006, ai sai ga agogon hannu, shima dauke da wannan fasahar sadarwa.  A shekar ne har way au, aka tabbatar da cewa akwai kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa a kalla biliyan daya da  ke dauke da wannan fasaha ta Bluetooth, kuma a kalla duk mako ana kerawa da kuma fitar da kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa miliyan goma, masu dauke da wannan fasaha.  Wannan ke dada nuna mana irin karbuwa da kuma habbaka da wannan fasahar sadarwa ke samu kuma take yi a duniya.  A karshe dai, ana shiga shekarar 2007, sai aka kirkiro akwatin talabijin mai dauke da wannan fasaha.  A shekaran ne mambobin wannan kungiya ta Bluetooth SIG suka cika dubu tara, daga dubu hudu da aka samu a shekarar 2005.

 

An kuma tabbatar da cewa a duk mako akan samu a kalla kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa miliyan dari takwas da ake kerawa ko fitarwa kasuwa, masu dauke da wannan fasaha ta BluetoothKusan kashi saba’in na wadannan kayayyakin sadarwa, wayoyin salula (Cell phones) ne da kuma na’urar sauraron wakoki irin na kunne, wato Headset. Cikin wannan shekara ne dai har wa yau, aka fitar da wani sabon nau’i, wanda ya kere nau’ukan baya wajen ingancin sadar da bayanai. Wannan nau’i shi ne Bluetooth V2.1, kuma tsari da kuma kimtsin da akai masa na dauke ne cikin wani kundi mai shafi dubu daya da dari hudu da ‘yan kai.  Kuma zuwa karshen shekarar 2007 ne kungiyar ta kaddamar da mujallar ta mai suna SIGnature Magazine, wanda za ta rinka bayyana a duk bayan watanni uku.  Ta kuma yi wannan sanarwa ne a babban taron ta na shekara-shekara da take yi, wanda aka yi a birnin Vienna, wato babban birnin kasar Austria.

 

Kammalawa

Daga bayanan da suka gabata, a tabbace yake cewa wannan sabuwar fasahar sadarwa ta zamani wato Bluetooth, na samun karbuwa saboda saukin mu’amala da take tattare dashi.  Wannan kuwa a tabbace yake, musamman ganin yawan kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa da ke dauke da ita, wanda kuma hakan ke kara habbaka a duk mako ko wata ko kuma shekara.  A cewar wannan kungiya ta Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG), babban manufar da tasa suka kirkira kuma suke ci gaba da habbaka ingancin wannan fasaha kuwa ita ce, don sawwake hanyoyi da kuma yanayin sadarwa a duniya gaba daya.  Har wa yau, wadanda suka fi so wannan fasaha ta fi yaduwa da saukin farashi a garesu kuwa, su ne kasashe masu tasowa da ke nahiyar Afirka da Asiya da kuma Kudancin Amurka.

 

A halin yanzu akwai ayyuka da dama da suke kan yi wajen kara bullo da wasu dabaru da wannan fasaha ta Bluetooth za ta ci gaba da yaduwa sanadiyyar su.  Kamfanonin da ke wannan aiki ko hidima a halin yanzu sun kai dubu tara, kuma galibin su kamfanonin wayan salula ne da kayayyakin fasahar sadarwa, irin su Nokia Corporation, SonyEricsson, Motorola, Intel, Lenovo, Toshiba, Microsoft Corporation da dai sauran su.  Hedikwatar wannan kungiya na birnin Washington ne, kuma za a iya samun Karin bayani a gidan yanar sadarwan ta da ke http://www.bluetooth.com.

 

Za mu dakata a nan, sai zuwa mako mai zuwa in da za mu ji bayani kan tsarin sadarwa a tsakanin kayayyakin sadarwa ta amfani da wannan fasaha. Har wa yau, in mai karatu bazai gaji ba, za mu dan zurfafa bayani don bayyana ka’idojin sadarwa, wato Communication Protocols, wadandan wannan fasaha ke amfani da su wajen neman “abokin hulda”, da tabbatar da shi, da kuma aika masa sako  a iya kadadan da yake.  In shafuka basu mana lalata ba, a karshe za mu ji bayani kan nau’ukan kayayyakin fasahar sadarwan da ke dauke da wannan fasaha ta Bluetooth; shin, wayar salula ce kadai, kamar yadda muka sani a yanzu, ko kuwa akwai wasu kayayyakin?  Duk abin da ba a fahimta ba a rubuto  ko bugo waya, za mu yi bayani iya gwargwado.

 

A iya aiko sako ta lambobin AMINIYA, ko kuma a aiko kai tsaye ga wannan shafi, a 08034592444.  Idan kana da adireshin Imel, ka iya aikowa ta fasaha2007@yahoo.comA ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mu.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *