Jirage Masu Sarrafa Kansu: Wani Sabon Salon Yaki a Duniya (2)

Ana shiga karni na 20 (20th Century) sai fannin fasahar kere-kere ya kara ci gaba wajen samar da nau’ukan bincike don samar da ire-iren wadannan jirage da Nikolas Tesla ke  hasashensu a bincikensa na shekarun baya.  Babban abin da ya bayyana hakan kuwa shi ne jiregen ruwan kasar Jamus masu suna U-Boats suka addabi kasar Amurka a lokacin Yakin Duniya na daya, wanda nan take hukumar Amurka ta tara masana don gudanar da bincike da zai kai ga samar da ire-iren wadannan jirage masu sarrafa kansu, wato Drone.  Hakan ya faru ne a shekarar 1917, kafin kare yakin.  A lokacin yakin duniya na biyun ne har wa yau, Hukumar Nazi ta kasar Jamus a karkashin Hitla ta yi wa kasar Burtaniya ruwan wasu irin bamabamai masu dauke da na’urar da ke sarrafa su.  Harba su kawai ake yi zuwa kasar, su kuma suna sarrafa kansu.  Wadannan na’ukan bamabamai su ake kira Pulse-Jet-Powered Bombs. Bayan yakin duniya na biyu har wa yau, kasar Isra’ila ta mallaki irin wadannan jirage masu sarrafa kansu – ta rigi kasar Amurka mallakarsu – inda ta yi amfani da su a kan sojojin yakin kasar Siriya da ke Lebanon a shekarar 1982. Daga shekarar 1990 zuwa yanzu kuma an samu sauyin tsari da kintsin wadannan jirage, sanadiyyar ci gaba da aka samu a fannin kimiyyar sadarwa da kwamfuta da kere-kere.  Wasu dalilan kuma su ne tunanin inganta tsaro, da yunkurin mamaya da kuma cika fuska a siyasar duniya.

 

Tabbas kasar Amurka ta mallaki jiragen kafin shekarar 1990, domin ta yi amfani da su a kasar yugosilabiya, lokacin da kungiyar NATO (wadda kasar Amurka mamba ce) ta darkake kasar, a yunkurinta na hambarar da gwamnatinsa.  Lokacin da ake ta gwambza wannan yaki dai kasar Amurka ta kawo agajin, inda tad a jiragen yaki masu dauke da direbobin da ke tuka su, da kuma nau’in jirgin da ke sarrafa kansa mai suna Predator, wanda aikinsa a lokacin shi ne nuna inda sojojin Slobadan Mulosovich suke, sannan ya sanar da matuka jiragen yakin Amurka a duk inda suke a kasar, ta hanyar siginar rediyo, nan take su kuma sai su kai hari.  Ana cikin haka ne sai aka fara samun matsala wajen siginar da jirgin ke bayarwa, inda har ya kusan gwara jiragen yakin kasar Amurka da juna, sanadiyyar rashin ingancin tsarin sadarwar.  Bayan wannan yaki ne Janaral Jumper, wanda shi ne ya shugaban rundunar Amurka da wannan yaki, yace basu ga ta zama ba. Nan take aka sake inganta jirgin Predator, inda a karshe shi ma aka sa masa inda zai rika daukan bamabamai don aiwayar da aikinsa.

 

Nau’ukan Jirage Masu Sarrafa Kansu

Akwai su kala-kala, kuma nau’i-nau’i.  Da farko dai sun sha bambann wajen girman jiki. Akwai kanana ainun, wadanda ake iya harba su da hannu, su tashi sama su je su aiwatar da aikin da aka tura su.  Akwai matsakaita, wanda ake dora su a saman na’urar cilla jirage don harba su.  Sannan akwai manyan wanda girmansu ya kai kananan jiragen yakin zamani.  Bayan haka kuma, akwai masu saukar ungulu, su ma masu sarrafa kansu.  A daya bangaren kuma, akwai wadanda ake aika su musamman don jefa bamabamai a inda abokan gaba suke.  Akwai wadanda kuma su aikinsu tattaro bayanai ne kadai, ba su kashe kowa.  Sannan akwai wadanda ke zuwa leken asiri a inda abokan gaba suke.  Ire-iren wadannan ba a cika ganinsu ta dadi ba a inda suke  a sararin samaniya.  Bayan haka, akwai wadanda ke aikin gano inda abokan gaba suka zuba makamai don kai hari, musamman inda aka zuba nakiya da wasu kananan bamabamai da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta haramta amfani dasu.  A kasa ake watsa su, kanana ne, kuma suna iya tsawon shekaru basu tashi ba sai an taka su tukun.  Duk akwai jiragen da ke aikin gano inda aka watsa ire-iren wadannan bamabamai.  Ta bangaren nisan tafiya da juriyar aiki a sama kuma, akwai masu cin gajeren zango wajen tafiya; wadanda ba su iya wuce minti talatin a sararin samaniya suna shawagi. Akwai masu cin matsakaicin zango, wadanda ke iya cin awa guda ko awanni ashirin da hudu a sararin samaniya suna shawagi. Sannan akwai masu iya kwanaki suna shawagi a sararin samaniya don tattaro bayanan sirri ko kuma lura da abokan gaba da inda suka sa gaba.  Nan gaba ana sa ran kera masu cin dogon zango a sararin samaniya.

 

Tsari da Kintsin Jirage Masu Sarrafa Kansu

Wadannan jirage sun sha bamban da sauran jiragen da ke amfani da direba ko matuki.  Da farko dai, akwai babbar cibiyar sadarwa a kasa (Ground Station) inda “matukin jirgin” ke zaune, a gaban kwamfuta da sauran na’urorin sadarwa da bidiyo.  Daga nan ne yake baiwa jirgin umarnin tashi, da nisan tafiyar da zai yi, da nisan bigirensa a sama, da nahiyar da zai dosa, da kuma aikin da zai je ya aiwatar.  Idan zai kai hari ne kan abokan gaba, akwai lokacin da matukin zai bashi umarni, sai ya saki ko ya harba bam din da yake dauke dashi, zuwa jiha ko nahiya ko bangaren da ake son ya jefa.  Duk wannan aiki jirgin na yinsa ne a kan idon matukin da ke wannan cibiyar sadarwa, yana kallon tafiya da jujjuyawarsa a sama ta kwamfuta.

 

A yadda aka kera shi, ba holoko bane cikinsa; duk da cewa babu matuki a ciki.  Yana dauke ne da inji, wanda ke taimaka masa mikewa zuwa sama.  Wannan inji dai an tsara gudanuwarsa ne musamman kan abin da ya shafi shan mansa, ta amfani da wata ka’ida ta binciken kimiyya da Brequet ya samar, daya daga cikin malaman kimiyyar kere-kere. Wannan ka’ida ita ce ake kira The Brequet Endurance Equation.  Ka’ida ce ta lissafi da ke tantance iya adadin yawan mai da ke cikin jirgin, don tsara iya nisan tafiya da jirgin zai yi. Bayan inji, wannan jirgi yana dauke ne da tangaran din da ke taskance masa makamashin hasken rana (Solar Panel), wanda da shi ne yake aiwatar da ayyukan da suka shafi sinadaran lantarki; irinsu sadarwa, da haska kasa don hango bigiren da yake nema, da dai sauransu.

 

Bayan wannan, jirgin na dauke da batir mai tara makamashi wanda ke amfani da sinadaran Lithium-ion wajen taskance makamashin lantarki, kuma a duk sadda yayi kasa, wannan tangaran da ke taskance makamashi daga hasken rana na kara masa tagomashi, wato Rechargin kenan.  An tsara tsarin gudanarwar wannan batir ne ta amfani da ka’idar lissafin makamashi ta Helios, wato Helios Prototype kenan.  Sannan akwai na’urorin haskakawa masu amfani da sinadaran haske nau’in Laser da na hasken Infra-red.  Wannan ne ke taimaka wa jirgin haska duk inda ya dosa, musamman wurin da yake son samun bayanai.

 

Daga cikin abubuwan al’ajabin da wannan jirgi ke dauke da su shi ne, yana iya gani ko hasko duk abin da yake son gani ta amfani da wannan na’ura na hasken leza da infrared; ko da a cikin duhu ne mafi tsanani ko a karkashin ruwa, duk inda ya haska zai gani.  Ta amfani da wannan haske ne yake tara bayanai, sannan ya taskance su.  Akwai na’urar sadarwa mai nagarta da aka kera masa, wanda ke dauke da masarrafan kwamfutar da ke hada alaka tsakaninsa da matukinsa da ke kasa, a can cibiyar sadarwa da bayaninsa ya gabata.  Wannan cibiyar sadarwa an tsara ko gina masarrafan da ke cikinta ne ta amfani da ka’idojin tsarin bayanai masu inganci, wanda sai kwararre na hakika a harkar masarrafan kwamfuta zai iya barkawa cikinsu, sannan hakan na iya daukan shekaru bai gama ba.  Bayan wadannan abubuwa, akwai kuma ma’adanar makamai ko marikin bamabamai da jirgin ke da shi.  Duk da cewa ya danganci yanayin nau’in jirgin ne.  Idan na yaki ne, dole akwai marikin bamabamai a tsakanin kafafunsa da fuka-fukansa, wanda bayan ya gama nazari da saitin abin da zai harba, sai kawai ya sake su.

 

Wadannan, a takaice, su ne muhimman bangarorin da wannan jirgi mai sarrafa kansa ke dauke dasu.  Kamar yadda bayanai suka nuna a baya, a halin yanzu ire-iren wadannan jirage an fara amfani da su wajen yaki a tsakanin kasashe. Misali, kasar Amurka ta yi amfani da su a kasar Iraki, lokacin da ta mamaye kasar a karo na farko.  Ta yi amfani da su a mamayarta na biyu, bayan tumbuke marigayi Saddam Hussein.  Sannan ta yi amfani da su a kasar Afghanistan, ko ince tana ma amfani da su har yanzu, musamman a bakin iyakar kasar Pakistan da Afghanista.  Har wa yau, ta girke ire-iren wadannan jirage a kasar Djibouti, suna nazarin tsaro, kamar yadda kasar ta riya.  Daga cikin wadanda ke kasar Djibouti ne aka samu daya ya wuce gona da iri har ya shiga kasar Iran, inda ta kado shi.

 

A halin yanzu dai, kamar yadda wani jami’in sojin kasar Amurka ya sanar a cikin wani shiri na musamman da kamfanin yada labarun kasar Kanada (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation – CBC) ya shirya kan ire-iren wadannan jirage mai take: Remote Control Wars, kasar Amurka ta mallaki jirage masu sarrafa kansu sama da 6,000.  Sannan tana da na’urorin yaki masu sarrafa kansu a sifar dan adam, da tsuntsaye, da kunamu, da kwari, wadanda duk inda aka watsa su, suna iya tafiya, su nemo bayanai, su sanar da cibiyarsu halin da ake ciki, ko ma, idan da hali, su kai hari.  Akwai wadanda musamman an yi su ne a sifar mutane, don daukan kaya a lokutan yaki, ko ka ture su ka ture banza, ba su faduwa.  Ire-iren wadannan sun kai guda 14,000.  Manufar kasar Amurka na amfani da wadannan jirage maimakon sojoji, a cewar Janaral Jumper a cikin wancan shiri na musamman, shi ne rage hasarar rayukan sojojin kasar a filayen daga.  To amma da yawa daga cikin masana ‘yan kasar na ganin wannan ba dalili bane, saboda wasu matsaloli da amfani da wannan jirage lokacin yaki ke haddasawa masu girma.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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