Ka’idojin Mu’amala da “Password” (1)

Mabudin Kunnuwa

Ranar talatar da ta gabata ne aka bayar da sanarwa a ma’aikatarmu cewa akwai bikin cin abinci (walima) da wasu daga cikin ma’aikata suka shirya sanadiyyar samun karin girma (Promotion) da Allah ya albarkacesu dashi.  Bayan sanarwar, nan take aka rika bi ofishi ofishi ana raba katin gayyata (lunch ticket) don tantance wadanda aka gayyata wajen wannan biki.    Da lokacin zuwa yayi, na fito daga ofishina sai ga wani aminina ya leko, yace: “Baban Sadik har an fara raba abincin ne?”  Nace: “A a, amma ni dai tuni na fito da “Password” di na.”  Cikin mamaki sai yace mini, “Password kuma?  Me ya kawo batun Password cikin walima?”  Sai nan take na zaro katin gayyatar da aka raba mana, na nuna masa.  Sai ya fashe da dariya, yace: “Lallai Password din ne kuwa.”

 

Daga cikin kalmomin da suka fi shahara a bakunan masu mu’amala da kayayyaki da hanyoyin fasahar sadarwa na zamani a yau, akwai kalmar “Password,” wanda a harshen Hausa nake fassara ta da: “Kalmar izinin shiga.”  Babban dalilin shaharar wannan kalma shi ne girman mahimmancinta wajen shiga da fita da mu’amala da bayanai ta fuskoki daban-daban, a hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani.  Saboda matsaloli da kusan a kullum galibin masu mu’amala da shafukan Intanet masu alaka da “Password” ke fuskanta, babu maudu’in da na fi samun tambayoyi da korafi a kai irin bangaren “Password”.  Daga wadanda ke mance abin da suka, zuwa masu shigarwa a ce ba daidai bane, har a kai kan wadanda wasu ke sace musu “Password” din ta hanyoyin da nan gaba zan yi bayanai  akai.  Wannan yasa nayi alkawarin jero mana kasidu na musamman kan sha’anin “Password” da yadda yake.

 

Da farko za mu yi bayani kan ma’anar kalmar “Password”, da asalinsa;  me yasa nayi amfani da kalmar “Password” wajen nufin katin gayyatar cin abinci da aka raba mana?  Meye alakar dake tsakanin ma’anonin kalmomin biyu?  Shin, wai “Password” na da wasu siffofi ne na musamman?  In eh, guda nawa ne?  Sannan, a daya bangaren, yana da nau’uka ne?  In eh, guda nawa ne nau’ukansa?  Yaya ake wasu ke sace wa wasu “Password” dinsu alhali ba su suka gaya musu ba, ba kuma gani suka yi a wani wuri a rubuce ba?  Wasu hanyoyi ake bi a tsare “Password”?  Wai shin ma tukun, ana iya nemo samfurin “Password” din wasu a Intanet?  In eh, ta wasu hanyoyi ne?  Wasu hanyoyi ake bi wajen zaban “Password” mai inganci, wanda ba kowa zai iya hararo shi ba, kuma meye hadarin dake tattare da irin wannan tsari?  Jama’a, abin da yawa.  Amma wannan kadan ne cikin tambayoyin wannan kasida ta musamman za ta duba.  Sai a gyara zama don samun wadannan bayanai.

 

Ma’anar Kalmar “Password”

Sabanin yadda na saba a baya, ga duk wanda ya saba karanta rubuce-rubucena kan batun Intanet da hanyoyin mu’amala da wannan fasaha, ya san na saba amfani da: “Kalmar izinin shiga” ne, don nufin kalmar “Password”.  Sai dai a wannan karo zan yi amfani da kalmar turanci ne, saboda wasu dalilai na zahiri.  Kalmar “Password” wadda nake kira da suna: “Kalmar izinin shiga,” na nufin: “Wata kalma ce ko jerin haruffa da lambobi da alamomin rubutu da ake amfani dasu wajen tantancewa ko tsaro ga wasu bayanai kafin kaiwa gare su, ta hanyar na’urori da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani.”  Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne: ma’anar kalmar “Password” na nuna abubuwa ne kamar haka: (1) Akwai kalma (misali: abdullahi ko ibrahim) ko haruffa dake cakude da lambobi ko alamomin rubutu (misali: isa1980 ko ali4389 ko audu32&&).  (2) Amfanin kalmar shi ne tantancewa wasu bayanai dake tsare a wani mahalli. (3) Ana amfani da “Password” ne a kan na’urori da hanyoyin sadarwa dake da sila da wata kwamfuta mai dauke da bayanan da ake son kaiwa gare su, ko kuma kwamfutar dake dauke da bayanan kai tsaye.

 

Asali da Tarihin “Password”

Malaman tarihi a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa na zamani sun yi ta kokarin nemo hakikanin “Password” din farko da aka fara amfani da ita a duniya, amma abin ya ci tura.  A tare da haka, tarihi ya dai hakaito sadda ake zaton an fara amfani da wannan tsari ne don tantance tsarin isa ga bayanai dake cikin wata ma’adana ta na’urar sadarwa na zamani.  Bayanai sun nuna cewa wannan tsari ya samo asali ne tun farkon zamanin samuwar kwamfutoci shekaru sama da 60 da suka gabata.   Babbar cibiyar binciken kimiyya na kasar Amurka mai suna “Massachusetts Institute of Technology,” (MIT) ta samar da wata kwamfuta a shekarar 1961 mai suna: CTSS, wadda ke amfani da wata babbar manhajar kwamfuta mai suna: “Time Sharing System” (TSS).

 

Wannan nau’in kwamfuta ta zo ne da tsarin tantance mai mu’amala, wato: “User Authentication,” wanda sai ka shigar da suna da kalmar izinin shiga sannan take budewa.  Amma kafin wannan lokaci, masana suka ce asalin fahimtar da ta samar da wanann tsari na shigar da “Password” don tantancewa, ita ce tsarin gane juna ta amfani da kalmomi na musmaman.  Daga baya wannan fahimta ta samu cikin tsarin gayyata ko shiga wani wuri dake bukatar gayyata ta musamman, kamar misalin da na bayar a mabudin wannan kasida.  Daga nan aka sake samar da wannan ka’ida wajen tantance masu shiga gidan sinima, ta hanyar wasu lamnoni ko kalmomi da ake basu a rubuce, ga duk wanda ya biya kudi ko ya cika ka’idar da ake bukata.  Da zarar ya so kofar shiga, sai a bukaci ya nuna lamba ko kalmar da aka bashi, don samun damar shiga.

 

Haka lamarin yaci gaba da tafiya zuwa sadda aka samar da wancan kwamfuta nau’in CTSS, a cibiyar binciken ilimi na kasar Amurka mai suna MIT.  Wannan nau’in kwamfuta, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama, tana dauke ne da babbar manhaja mai suna: “Time Sharing System,” wadda ke iya bayar da damar sadarwa tsakanin mutane biyu a lokaci guda.  Wannan ita ce babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta farko da aka fara samar da tsarin hirar ga-ni-ga-ka, wato: “Realtime Chatting,” da tsarin Imel.  Domin da irin wannan babbar manhaja ce babban masani Raymond Tomlinson (Ray Tomlinson) ya fara aika sakon Imel na farko, ta amfani da alarm @, wanda shi ne ake danganta samuwar wannan fasaha ta Imel gare shi a duniya baki daya.

 

Daga nan aka ci gaba da tsarawa tare da inganta wannan tsari na tantance masu kokarin kaiwa ga bayanai ta hanyar na’ura da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani, har zuwa  wannan lokaci da muke ciki.

 

Rukunan “Password”

Abin da wannan ma’ana ta kalmar “Password” ke nuna mana shi ne: “Password” na dauke ne da rukunai guda uku.  Rukunin farko shi ne kalmar da za ayi amfani da ita don wakiltar mai kalmar.  Rukuni na biyu shi ne tantancewa.  Idan aka samu kalmar “Password” amma ya zama inda ake shigar da ita ba don tantancewa bane, ba za a kira wannan kalma da suna “Password” ba.  Abin da tantancewa ke nufi a turance shi ne: “Authentication.”  Sai rukuni na uku, wato mahallin da ake shigar da “Password” din; ko dai wata na’ura ce dake amfani da wata hanyar sadarwa na zamani wacce ke isar da mai kalmar zuwa kwamfutar dake dauke da bayanan da ake son isa gare su, ko ita kanta, idan kai tsaye yake shigar da “Password” din.  Fahimtar wadannan rukunai na “Password” guda uku yana da mahimmanci sosai.

 

Nau’ukan “Password”

Kamar sauran tsare-tsare, “Password” na da nau’uka daban-daban, dangane da yanayinsa.  Wasu nau’ukan suna shiga cikin siffofinsa.  Asali dai, duk wata kalma ko hadakar kalma da ake amfani da ita wajen tantance mai son isa ga wasu bayanai ta hanyoyi da na’urorin sadarwa na zamani ana kiranta “Password” ne.  A tare da haka, akwai wacce ke dauke da kalma sama da  daya, misali: “garin-garki” ko “kanondabo” ko “Abincindabba.”  Dukkan wadannan kalmomi “Password” ne.  Amma saboda sun kunshi kalmomi sama da daya, don wakiltar “Password” daya, a fannin kimiyya da fasahar kariyar bayanai na zamani ana kiransu: “Passphrase” ne.  Idan kalmar “Password” ta kunshi lambobi kadai, wadanda ke da iya adadi (kamar 4 ko 6 kadai), su kuma ana kiransu: “Passcord” ko “Passkey.”  Shahararren sunan da aka sansu dashi shi ne: “Personal Identification Number” ko “PIN” a gajarce.

 

Nau’ukan “Password” da suka kunshi lambobi kadai ana amfani dasu ne ta hanyar wayoyin salula.  Kuma lambobi ne; babu haruffa sannan babu wasu alamomin rubutu a cikinsu.  Kamar kalmomin tsare wayar salula, duk lambobi ne.  Kuma adadinsu ba ya wuce 4 zuwa 6.  Wannan ya faru ne sanadiyyar kuncin mahalli da allon shigar da bayanansu (Onscreen keyboard) ke fama dashi.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *