Kayan Aikin Magina Manhajar Kwamfuta (1)

Kayan Aikin Magina Manhajar Kwamfuta

Kafin aiwatar da kowane irin aiki, Magina manhajar kwamfuta na bukatar kayan aiki.  Wadannan kayayyakin aiki suna da yawa, dangane da girma ko mahimmancin manhajar da ake son ginawa.  A tare da haka, akwai wadanda suke wajibi ne, akwai kuma wadanda samuwarsu abin so ne, ba wajibi ba.  Ga wasu daga cikin kayayyakin aikinsu nan:

 

Ilimi da KwarewaWannan shi ne abu na farko.  Magina manhajar kwamfuta kwararru ne, wadanda suka san kan kwamfuta da rayuwarta, da lafiyarta, da makisanta.  Sanayya a wannan mahanga abin so ne wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Wannan ilimi kuwa ya hada da kwarewa a fagen dabarun gina manhajar da ake son amfani da shi.  Ba dole bane sai ka san dukkan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta (Programming Languages), a a.  Misali, kana iya gina manhajar kwamfuta da na wayar salula ta amfani da yaren “Java” kadai (duk da cewa abin so ne ka san “HTML” da “CSS” da kuma “XML” idan manhajar Android kake son ginawa don wayar salula).  Haka ma kana iya gina wani bangaren babbar manhajar kwamfuta idan ka san yaren “C” ko “C++” kadai.   Kamar yadda kuma kana iya gina gidan yanar sadarwa kayatacce idan ka san yaruka irin su: “HTML” da “CSS” da “JavaScript”.  A takaice dai, ba dole bane sai ka san dukkan yaren gina manhaja.  Sai dai dole ne ka samu kwarewa a wani yare.  Ya danganci me kake son ginawa.

 

Kwamfuta MadaidaiciyaDaga farko zuwa karshen gina kowace irin manhajar kwamfuta ce, dole ne sai da kwamfuta.  Kwamfuta ce mahallin, kamar yadda filin gona shi ne mahalli ga wanda ke son yin noma.  Idan babu kwamfuta, to, kamar baka fara komai bane.  Magina manhajar kwamfuta na amfani da kwamfuta ne wajen gina DUKKAN MANHAJOJIN KWAMFUTA, DA NA WAYAR SALULA, DA MANHAJOJIN GIDAJEN YANAR SADARWA (Web Applications).   Mallaka da iya sarrafa kwamfuta dole ne ga duk wanda ke son gina manhajar kwamfuta ko na wayar salula ko na gidan yanar sadarwa.  Kwarewa kadai ba ta isarwa.

 

Madogarar Gina Manhaja: Bayan bayani kan kwarewa da ya gabata, magina manhajar kwamfuta suna amfani da madogarar gina manhaja.  Kwarewa shi ne mallakar ilimin ginawa, da tsare-tsaren da ake bi a ilimance, amma madogarar gina manhaja shi nebayanin da ka tsara, ko kwarangwal din da ka tsara don gina manhajar kwamfuta, ta amfani da wani yare na musamman ko dabarar gina manhaja ta musamman daga cikin dabarun gina manhaja da bayanansu suka gabata a baya.  Su ne kayayyakin da za ka tanada wadanda suka danganci wannan aiki na musamman da za ka yi ta amfani da wani yare na musamman.

 

Misali, idan kana son gina manhajar kwamfuta ta amfani da yaren “Java”, dole ne ka tanadi manhajar ‘Java’ da ake kira “Java Virtual Machine”, da “Java Runtime Environment” ko “jre”, da dukkan abin da ya danganci “Java” wanda su ne “madaukai”  (Platform) da za ka dora aikinka a kai.

 

Manhajar Tace UmarniWannan ita ce manhajar da ake amfani da ita wajen baiwa kwamfuta umarni na abin da ake so ta zartar, na zane ne, ko rubutu ne, ko taswira ne, ko shafi ne da dai sauransu.  Idan ka rubuta umarni don neman kwamfuta ta aiwatar da wani aiki, ba hakikanin abin da ka rubuta na zahiri take gani ba.  Ita tana ganinsu a matsayin sifili ne da daya, wato: “0” da “1”.  Duk abin da ka shigar mata a haka take gani kuma a haka take taskance su a ma’adanarta.  Don haka, magina manhajar kwamfuta na amfani ne da wata manhaja ta musamman mai suna: ‘Compiler’ ko ‘Interpreter’ don mayar da wannan umarni da ka rubuta zuwa yaren da kwamfuta za ta iya fahimta, don zartar da umarnin.

 

Wannan manhaja ta kasu kashi biyu ne: akwai ‘Compiler’, wanda ita ce wacce dabarun gina manhaja irin su: “C” da “C++” da “Java” suke amfani da ita wajen juyar da umarni zuwa yaren kwamfuta.  A daya bangaren kuma akwai ‘Interpreter’, wanda yaruka irin su: “Python” da “JavaScript” da “PHP” suke amfani da ita wajen aiwatar da wannan aiki.  Dukkan wadannan manhajoji guda biyu suna aiwatar da aiki ne iri daya, amma manhajar farko, wato: “Compiler” ta fi sauri wajen aikinta, sama da manhajar “Interpreter.”

 

Umarnin da kake baiwa kwamfuta a rubuce, don aiwatar da wani abu na musamman, shi ake kira: “Human Readable Language,”  wanda manhajar “Compiler” ko “Interpreter” ke markada wa kwamfuta kuma shi ake kira: “Marchine Language.”  A wasu lokuta akan samu bangare na uku da ake kira: “Byte Code”, wanda bayanai ne da “Compiler” ke samar a yayin da take markada wancan bayanai da ka shigar mata, kafin ta samar wa kwamfuta da asalin abin da take bukata.

 

Manhajar Kwance ManhajaMai karatu zai yi mamakin jin wannan kalma.  Wace manhaja ce kuma ta kwance manhaja?  Lallai akwai, kuma madogara ce sosai ga galibin magina manhajar kwamfuta a lokuta daban-daban.  Wannan manhaja ita ake kira: “Disassembler.”  Da farko dai, da zarar ka gama gina manhaja, dole ne ka hade bayanan wuri daga, ka dinke su.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira: “Software Packaging.”  Wato tsarin hadewa da dinke bayanan manhajar kwamfuta wuri daya, cikin jakar bayani (“Zip Folder” ko “Executable File”) daya, don samun saukin loda wa kwamfuta.  To, a wasu lokuta bukata na iya sa a warware wancan jakar bayani don gyara – kari ko ragin abin da ke ciki.  A wannan yanayi, akwai manhajar da ake amfani da ita wacce za ta wargaje dukkan bayanan, cikin wani yanayi da zai baiwa maginin manhaja damar aiwatar da sauye-sauyen da yake bukata.  Manhajar da ke taimakawa wajen yin hakan ita ake kira: “Disassembler.”  Amfani da ita kuma wajen aiwatar da wannan aiki shi ake kira: “Reverse Engineering.”

 

Bayan gyare-gyare da ake iya yi da wannan manhaja, har wa yau wasu na amfani da ita wajen cire kaidi ko “makullin” da aka sanya wa wata manhaja saboda tsaro.  Misali, akwai manhajoji na kyauta da ake bayarwa na wasu ‘yan kwanaki (Trial Version) a Intanet, wanda bayan ka yi amfani dasu na wata guda ko mako daya, idan baka saya ba, sai su kulle; ka kasa amfani dasu ma gaba daya.  Wasu kuma za a baka ne kyauta, amma fa’idar da za ka samu a na kyuatar bazai kai fa’idar na wanda ya saya ba.  Saboda ana toshe wasu daga cikin tsare-tsaren sai ga wanda ya sanya.  Ire-iren wadannan manhajoji ana amfani da “Disassemblers” wajen budo bayanansu gaba daya, a cire “kaidi” ko “makullin” da mai manhajar yasa, don amfanuwa da ita gaba daya.

 

Wannan aiki ne mai tsauri, sai kwararru suke iya yinsa.  Na dai kawo mana misali ne na wasu daga cikin abubuwan da ake iya yi da wannan manhaja da ake amfani da ita wajen kwance wata manhajar.

 

Manhajar Tace Kura-kurai: Daga cikin kayayyakin aikin magina manhajar kwamfuta akwai manhajar tace kura-kurai.  Wannan manhaja aikinta shi ne, da zarar an rubuta umarnin da ake bukata don gina wata manhaja, sai a dora su a kan manhajar.  Ita kuma sai ta bibiye su, daya-bayan-daya, don tantance su, da fitar da kura-kuran dake tare dasu.   Wannan manhaja ita ake kira: “Debugger”, amfanin da ita wajen aiwatar da wannan aiki kuma shi ake kira: “Debugging.”  Akwai nau’ukan kura-kurai da dama da take tacewa.

 

Akwai kura-kurai na hakika, wadanda suka shafi karawa ko ragewa cikin abin da bai kamaci kari ko ragi ba.  Akwai kuma wadanda suka shafi usulubin shigar da umarni.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Syntax Errors.”  Sannan akwai wadanda suka shafi tsarin gyatta bayanai ne a al’adance.  Duk ire-iren wadannan kura-kurai tana tantance su, sannan ta nuna layi da lambar layi ko sadaran da suke, don maginin manhajar ya gyara.

 

Wannan manhaja ta tantance kura-kurai tana da matukar mahimmanci sosai, domin babu wani maginin manhajar kwamfuta da ya amsa sunansa wanda bai amfani da ita.  Ita ce rariya ta hakika da ake amfani da ita wajen tsaftace bayanan umarnin da ake baiwa kwamfuta yayin gina manhaja.

 

Manhajar Gina ShafukaDaga cikin kayan aikin magina manhaja akwai wasu manhajoji da ake amfani dasu wajen sawwake aikin gina manhaja, musamman manhajoji masu dauke da shafuka da alamomin da ake latsawa don aiwatar da ayyuka na musamman.  Ire-iren wadannan manhajoji su ake kira: “Graphical User Interface Designer,” ko kace: “GUI Designer” a gajarce.  Kuma su ne galibi aka fi amfani dasu wajen koya wa dalibai ilimin gina manhajar kwamfuta a jami’o’i da cibiyoyin sadarwa.

 

Shahararru daga cikinsu sun hada da “Microsoft Visual Basic,” da “Microsoft Visual Studio,” wadda ake amfani da ita wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta ta amfani da yaren “C #” (C sharp) na kamfanin Microsoft.  A bangaren wasu yarukan gina manhaja kuma akwai irin su: “Qt Designer,” wanda ake amfani da ita wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta da yaren “C++” da “Python” (ta hanyar “PyQt”).

 

Aiki da wadannan manhajoji yana da kayatarwa matuka saboda saukinsu.  Kamfanin Microsoft ne ya fara wannan aiki ta amfani da yaren “BASIC” da “VISUAL BASIC,” don sawwake hanyar gina manhaja ga masu koyo, musamman a makarantu.  Wadannan manhajoji dai suna da bangarori biyu ne; akwai bangaren fuska ko idon gari, inda nan ne zaka zana yadda kake son manhajar ta kasance, da dukkan hanyoyin da mai amfani da ita zai bi wajen sarrafa ta.  Wannan a bangaren zahiri kenan.  A daya bangaren kuma, bayan an tsara siffa da kintsin yadda ake son wanzar da manhajar, sai a koma bayan fage don rubuta dukkan umarnin da za a baiwa kwamfuta don aiwatar da tsare-tsaren da aka yi a shafin farko ko idon-gari.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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