Kayan Aikin Magina Manhajar Kwamfuta (2)

Manhanjar Rubuta UmarniKo kace allon shigar da bayanai, duk daya ne.  Su ake kira: “Text Editors”. Wadannan nau’ukan manhaja kayan aiki ne ga masu gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Idan babu su, to, ba abin da za a zartarwa.  Kamar mutum ne yake son gini, amma babu fuloti.  Ka ga sai dai yayi a kan iska kenan.

 

A baya na nuna mana cewa kafin kwamfuta ta aiwatar maka da wani aiki na musamman ta hanyar gina manhaja, sai ka bata umarni cikin yaren da take ji da fahimta.  Wannan umarnin kuma ana bata shi ne a rubuce, ta hanyar rubuta su a cikin allon shigar da bayanai.  Wannan shi ake kira: “Text Editor.”  Sun kasu kashi biyu ne; akwai tsurar manhaja wacce ake amfani da ita wajen wannan aiki.  Shafi ne da zai budo, ka shigar da bayanai, ta amfani da yaren gina manhaja (“Java” ko “C” ko “C++” ko “C#”), sannan ka zartar da umarnin ga kwamfuta, don ita kuma ta aiwatar da abin da ake bukata tayi.

 

Shahararru daga cikin wadannan sun hada da: “Notepad” wanda ke kan babbar manhajar Windows da muke amfani da ita.  Wannan ita ce mafi karancin manhajar da za ka iya amfani da ita.  Tana tattare da nakasu da yawa, domin tsurar rubutu ne, babu wani kyale-kyale ko tsarin gyatta bayanai cikin launi (Syntax Highlighting) da dai sauransu.  Sannan akwai “Notepad ++” (Notepad Plus Plus), wacce a halin ta shahara matuka a tsakanin magina manhajar kwamfuta a duniya.  Sannan akwai irin su: “jEdit,” da “EditPlus” da dai sauransu.  Wadannan an fi amfani dasu a kan babbar manhajar Windows.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, manhajoji irin su: “Vim,” da “Vi,” da “EMACS” da “Atom,” da “Sublime Text,” wadanda aka fi amfani dasu akan babbar manhajar “Linux” da “MAC” na kamfanin Apple.

 

Manhajar allon shigar da umarni na biyu kuma su ne wadanda suke dauke da tsare-tsare masu dimbin yawa, bayan allon shigar da umarni, wadanda suke taimaka wa magina manhajar kwamfuta aiwatar da ayyuka mahimmai a wannan fage, ciki har da manhajar tantance kura-kurai da bayaninta ya gabata a baya.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Integrated Development Environment,” ko “IDE” a gajarce.  Suna dauke ne da hanyoyin gina manhaja masu dimbin yawa, tare da kayayyakin aikin gina manhaja.  Shahararru daga cikinsu sun hada da: “Microsoft Visual Studio,” da “PyCharm,” da “Eclipse,” da “Spyder,” da “CodeBlocks” wanda galibi ake amfani da ita wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta ta amfani da yaren “C” da “C++”.

 

Fasahar IntanetA zamani irin na yau, wannan kusan shi ne kayan aiki mafi mahimmanci da duk wani maginin manhajar kwamfuta ke dogaro gareshi wajen aiwatar da aikace-aikacensa.  Tabbas, za ka iya gina manhajar kwamfuta kana zaune a dakinka ba tare da ka yi mu’amala da fasahar Intanet ba sadda kake yi, musamman a shekaru kusan 20 da suka gabata.  Amma a zamanin yau, fasahar Intanet mahadi ne mai mahimmanci.

 

Kasancewar gina manhajar kwamfuta wani aiki ne mai girman gaske, mai cin lokaci, mai wahalar gaske, akwai lokuta da dama da za ka kafe a waje daya; ka kasa gaba ka kasa baya.  Kwakwalwarka ta kulle kan wani abu.  Dole ne ka hanzarta zuwa duniyar yanar gizo don nemo waraka.  Akwai wurare da dama a Intanet inda magina manhajar kwamfuta ke haduwa da junansu, suna tattaunawa da juna don warware ire-iren sarkakiyar da suke cin karo dasu yayin aiwatar da ayyukansu.

 

Akwai zauruka na tattaunawa, wato: Cyber Groups, irin su: “Yahoo Groups” da “Google Groups,” da “MSN Groups” inda ake taruwa don tattaunawa matsaloli na hakika, da musayar ra’ayi wajen warware matsaloli a yayin gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Ire-iren wadannan zaurukan tattaunawa sun kebanta ne ga nau’ukan yare ko dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Misali, akwai zauruka musamman na yaren “C”, da “C++”, da na “Java”, da na “C#” da “Python” da dai sauransu.  Kusan duk wani yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta mai tashe a yau za ka samu yana da zaure na musamman inda ake tattauna matsaloli ko al’amuran da suka shafe shi.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, akwai matattara ta musamman, wadanda gidajen yanar sadarwa ne da aka killace don tattauna ire-iren wadannan abubuwa tsakanin masana kuma magina manhajar kwamfuta.  Shahararriya daga cikinsu it ace shafin: “Stackoverflow” wacce ke www.stackoverflow.com.  Duk da cewa shafuka ne daban-daban (akwai ‘Stackexchange’ da ke www.stackexchange.com), wannan ita ce ta killace magina manhajar kwamfuta, ta la’akari da kowane irin yaren gina ne kuwa.  Shafin na amfani da tsarin ‘Tambaya’ da ‘Amsa’ ne, wato: Question and Answer.  Idan kayi rajista, sai ka rubuta tambaya, duk wanda Allah yasa ya sani, sai ya baka amsa, tare da misalai.  Wadannan matattaran da suka shafi rubutattun bayanai kenan.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, akwai matattara inda ake mu’amala ne da sakonnin bidiyo a Intanet.  Wannan kuwa ba wani wuri bane face Dandalin “Youtube” da mai karatu ya riga ya sani.  A wannan dandali akwai tashoshi (Channels) dam asana kuma magina manhajar kwamfuta suka bude don karantar da jama’a yadda ake gina manhaja, tare da bayanin sarkakiyan da maginin manhaja ka iya samun kansa a ciki.  Wadannan bidiyo kusan duk kyauta ake samunsu.

 

A takaice dai, fasahar Intanet lalura ce ga duk wani maginin manhajar kwamfuta a yau, domin ko banza dai dole ne ya aiwatar da bincike kan manhajar da zai gina, da tsarinta, da yaren da yafi dacewa a gina manhajar dashi, da kayan aikin da zai bukata, da samfurin manhajar, in har wani ya taba gina irinta (don bashi damar gane nakasa ko tagomashin da take dashi), da dabaru ko hikimomin da suka dace yayi amfani dasu wajen inganta manhajar, duk wadannan bayanai ta hanyar Intanet zai iya samunsu.

 

Ma’adanar Bayanan ManhajaDaga cikin kayan aikin maginin manhaja mahimmai akwai ma’adanar bayanan manhajar da yake ginawa ko zai gina ko ya gina a baya.  Galibin kwararru basu cika amintuwa da ma’adanar kwamfutarsu ba, dole sai sun tanadi wata ma’adana inda tafi aminci, don adana bayanan da suke rubutawa ko suka rubuta, yayin gina manhaja.  Wurin da kuwa yafi musu aminci shi ne ma’adanar tafi-da-gidanka na zamani da ake dasu a Intanet a yau.

 

Wadannan nau’uakan ma’adana dai runbunan adana bayanai ne da aka tanada a wani tsari mai kayatarwa, wanda ke baiwa masu gina manhajar kwamfuta damar tsarawa da kintsawa da kuma adana bayanansu cikin sauki.  Kana iya yin rajista, ka dora dukkan bayanan da kake dasu, har ma tsara yadda kake so wasu su isa gare su.  Idan ma ba ka son kowa ya kai gare su, kana iya kulle su ta amfani da hanyoyin da aka tanada.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira: ‘Cloud Computing’ a zamanin yau.

 

Shahararru daga cikin ire-iren wadannan ma’adanai dai kyauta ne, kuma sun hada da: “BitBucket,” da “GitHub”, da “Trello”, da “CyberDuck, da “Google Drive,” da “Drop Box,” da “Google Code”, dai sauran irinsu.  Ma’adanai ne masu inganci da za ka iya taskance bayananka don cetar dasu daga salwanta, ko sata, ko kuma gurbacewa.

 

Ma’adanar Kura-kuran ManhajaWannan shi ake kira “Bug Database.”  A baya idan mai karatu bai mance ban a sanar da cewa akwai manhajar gano kura-kurai da maginin manhaja ya tafka.  Wadannan kura-kurai, duk da cewa kuskure ne, ma’ana ba abin so bane, a zahiri, amma a tsarin gina manhajar kwamfuta ana sonsu.  Adana su yana da matukar mahimmanci domin za su shiryar da maginin manhaja nan gaba.  A duk sadda ya sake cin karo da wata matsala makamanciyar wacce ya gani a baya, zai koma ga wadancan bayanai masu dauke da kura-kurai don tantance kamaiceceniya ko bambancin dake tsakaninsu.  Rumbun adana kura-kurai irin wadannan shi ake kira: “Bug Database.”

 

LittattafaiDuk da cewa galibin ilimin gina manhajar kwamfuta ana mallakarsa ne ta hanyar aikata abin da aka koya a aikace, da yawa cikin ilimin na samuwa ne ta hanyar shahararrun littattafai da kwararru masana a fannin suka rubuta kuma ake karantar dasu a jami’o’in duniya.  A galibin lokuta musamman a baya, magina manhajar kwamfuta kan dogara matuka kan littattafai don warware matsalolin da suke cin karo dasu.

 

Wadannan littattafai dai sun kasu kasha-kashi ne.  Akwai wadanda suka kebance yarukan gina manhaja na musamman.  Akwai wadanda kuma aka rubuta don karantar usulubin gina manhaja ko salon gina manhaja (Programming Paradigms).  Akwai wadanda aka rubuta don koyar da aikin gina manhaja, wanda galibi suke kira: “Project Management,” ko “AGILE” da dai sauran ire-irensu.  Wadannan littattafai dai kayan aiki ne masu inganci, domin kamar yadda mai karatu ya sani ne, shi littafi shi ne mafifin aboki, wanda ba ya kosawa da abokinsa, ba ya dora maka abin da yafi karfinka, ba ya guje maka sai in kai ne kayi nesa dashi, sannan a duk sadda ka kira shi, zai amsa maka.

 

Littattafai da aka rubuta don karantar da wannan sana’a ta gina manhaja ba za su kirgu ba, ko kadan.  Domin yawansu ya wuce hankali da tunanin dan adam.  A halin yanzu, ta la’akari da yanayin zamani, za ka samu an dora a kan Intanet.  Kana iya mallakarsu kyauta, ko ka saya a shagunan sayar da littattafai a Intanet, ko kuma ka je shagon sayar da littattafai a inda kake zaune ka saya.

 

Matsalarsu daya ce, idan ba dalibin fannin bane kai, za ka ga sun maka tsada, musamman a kasa irin tamu.  Da wahala ka samu littafi guda daya na kasa da naira dubu biyar, musamman yanzu da dala tayi tashin gwauron zabi.  Ba wannan kadai ba ma, samunsu na da wahala idan ba a wurare irin su Legas kake ba ko cikin manyan jami’o’i.  Wannan ya faru ne saboda ba kowa ke iya sayansu ba.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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