Kwamfuta da Bangarorinta (2)

Ruhin Kmwafuta

Ruhin kwamfuta, a takaice, shi ne manhaja ko masarrafar da ke sarrafa gangar-jikin da bayanansu ya gabata, Software.  Kamar dai dan Adam ne; yana da kai, da kafa da baki da hanci da hannaye, amma idan babu rai a jikinsa, bai da banbanci da sharan da ke kan bola, wajen rashin motsi da tasiri.  Manhajan kwamfuta ya kasu kashi biyu, muhimmai, shima.  Akwai tabbataccen ruhi, wanda ya kasu kashi biyu shima; na farko shi ne wanda dashi ake kera ganganjikin; tun ran gini ran zane.  Duk kwamfuta sabuwa, da shi take zuwa. Tun wajen kera ta ake tsofa shi a ciki.  Sai dai wannan rai, sumammen rai ne, maras tasiri.   Idan yana ciki za a iya kunna kwamfuta, amma babu abin da za a gani.  Ba za ta iya yin komai ba, sai an sanya mata kashi na biyun, wato Operating System, ko OS, a takaice.  Shi Operating System shi ake sanya ma kwamfuta, da zarar an sayo ta, ko harhada ta.  Akwai su iri-iri; wanda muka yawaita amfani dashi a nan shi ne na Microsoft, wato Microsoft Windows.  Akwai kuma UNIX da kuma MAC ko Macintosh.  Wannan bangaren rai shi ake kira System Software, wato Babbar manhajar Kwamfuta, a takaice. 

 

Aikinsu shi ne tafiyar da kwamfutar gaba daya, wajen karba da sarrafawa da adanawa da bayar da bayanai a sigogi daban-daban.  Idan babu wannan bangare na rai, to babu abin da kwamfuta za ta iya yi, gaba daya.  Don haka, dukkan bangarorin kwamfuta na dogaro ne da juna, kamar jiki.  Shi yasa a turance ake kiran kwamfuta kacokan da suna Computer System.    Cikin wannan babbar manhaja ake da dukkan manhajojin da ke taimaka ma kwamfuta yin mu’amala da mai mu’amala da ita wajen shigar da bayanai, ko nemo inda suke, da kuma tsarin sarrafa su, cikin hanyoyin mu’amala masu sauki.  Wannan tsarin ake kira Graphical User Interface (GUI).  Wannan na daga cikin abin da ya kara ma kwamfuta shahara wajen masu koyo da koyar da ita, kuma wacce ta fara bullo da wannan tsari ita ce kamfanin Microsoft na Bill Gates.

 

Daga cikin ababen da ke dauke cikin babbar manhaja har wa yau, akwai Device Drivers, wato “jami’an” da ke taimaka ma wasu makalen-makalen da ake ma kwamfuta don gabatar da wasu ayyukan, irin su Diskett, CD Player, Speaker da Video.  Daga karshe har wa yau, a babbar manhaja ne ake samun manhajojin da ke taimaka ma kwamfuta mu’amala ko Magana da wata kwamfuta ‘yar uwanta – abin da ya shafi Intanet da karikitansa kenan – wato Networking Devices, ta hanyar wayoyin kebul da sauransu.  Wannan shi ne takaitaccen bayani kan babbar manhajan kwamfuta, wato System Software, wanda kwamfuta ke matukar bukatarsa, kafin tafiyar da kowane irin aiki a cikinta.

 

Sai kuma karamin manhajan kwamfuta, wato Application Software.  Wadannan su ne masarrafar da ake sanya ma kwamfuta don gabatar da wasu ayyuka, irin su rubuta kasidu da yin lissafi da shirya mujallu ko jarida da dai sauransu.  Su musamman ake sayo su, duk lokacin da aka tashi bukata, a sanya su cikin kwamfuta don yin aikin da ake so.  Akwai irinsu tunjin cikin Windows.  Tana da masarrafar allon rubutu, wato Word, sai allon lissafi wato Excel.  Har wa yau, akwai agogo da abin lissafi (Raskwana – Calculator), da abin wasan kwamfuta (Computer Games).  Duk wadannan masarrafa ne masu zaman kansu da ke zuwa cikin babbar manhajan kwamfuta na Windows Operating System.  Da masarrafar Microsoft Word ne nake rubuta wadannan kasidu kafin aika ma Jaridar AMINIYA.  Har wa yau, idan kaje banki, da zarar ka mika cakinka (cheque leaf), za ka ga kashiya ya karba, ya fara wasa da kwamfuta don tabbatar da cewa kana da kudi a taskanka.  Masarrafar da ke taimaka masa wajen yin wannan aiki duk Application Software ne.

 

Don haka, akwai su iri-iri; akwai na harkan kasuwanci, na koyon harsuna, da na gina gidan yanan sadarwa da koyon ilimin kwamfuta, da abin wasan kwamfuta, da likitanci da harkan lissafi da na runbun adana bayanai (Database), duk akwai su.  Har wa yau, ana samun na koyon karatun Kur’ani, da na koyon Hadisi da duk wani ilimi da kake tunani.  Wadannan masarrafa ko manhajoji, su ake kira Appalication Softwares, a turance.  Kuma, tare da babbar manhaja, su ne ruhi kuma abin dogaron kwamfuta, wajen tafiyar da rayuwa da kuma gudanar da aikinsa.  Kuma dukkansu, da zarar an shigar dasu cikin kwamfuta, suna zarcewa ne zuwa ma’adanarta, wato Memory Unit, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama.  Idan ka tashi aiki da su, kwamfuta za ta kirawo maka su, da zarar ka matsa alamar (icon) da ke dauke dasu a fuskar talabijin kwamfutar (Desktop). 

 

Masu Kerawa da Likitancin Kwamfuta

Kafin mu karkare, yana da kyau mu san su waye ke da hakkin kera kwamfuta, a tsarin da take kai yanzu?  Da farko dai, duk abin da ya shafi karikitan gangar-jikin kwamfuta, wato Hardware Devices, Injiniyoyi masana harkan lantarki da fasaha (Electrical Engineers) ne ke tsarawa da kerawa.  Su suka san mazaunin kowace waya mai wuta, da kuma alakar kowanne da kowanne, wajen sadarwa.  Sai kuma dangantakan da ke tsakanin Microchips, yan kananan na’urorin da ke cikin kwamfutar, da hanyoyin lantarki, wato Circuit.  Har wa yau, daga cikin aikinsu, shi ne hada alaka tsakanin wadannan hanyoyi na wutar lantarki, da kuma sinadarin Silicon, wanda shi ne asalin kwakwalwan kwamfuta, wajen iya tunani da bin umarni da kuma adana bayanai.  Allah Buwayi Gagara-Misali!  Wadannan Injiniyoyin lantarki (Electrical Engineers), su ne da hakkin kerawa da kuma gyaran kwamfuta.  duk da yake wasu na iya gyarawa, amma dole ne mutum ya koya, don kwamfuta ba kamar Talabijin ko Rediyo bane.  Yadda ka san jikin dan Adam, haka kwamfuta take.  Don haka take da ka’idoji wajen ajiyewa da kuma adana ta.

 

Daga nan, sai Injiniyoyin manhajan kwamfuta, wato Computer Programmers.  Su ma dai galibi za ka ga Injiniyoyin Lantarki ne, amma Masana Kimiyyar Kwamfuta sun fara yawaita a wannan fage yanzu, wato Computer Scientists.  Sun kasu kashi biyu; akwai Masana Babbar manhajar Kwamfuta, wato System Programmers, wadanda ke gina babbar manhaja kenan.  Sai kuma Masana Masarrafar Kwamfuta, wato Application Programmers.  Duk kusan ayyukansu iri daya ne, kwarewa ne kadai ya banbanta su.  System Programmers na iya zama Application Programmers kai tsaye, amma ba dukkan Application  Programmer bane zai amsa suna ko lakabin System Programmer.  Babban aikinsu shi ne gina manhajojin kwamfuta da kuma lura dasu, wajen daidaita su da kuma gyatta su ta yadda za su yi daidai da zamanin da ake ciki.  Ilimi ko fasahan yin dukkan wadannan aikace-aikace, shi ake kira Computer Programming, a jumlace.

 

Akwai ilmummuka daban-daban, wato Programming Languages; shahararru daga cikinsu su ne: C, da C++ da JAVA, da kuma Visual Basic.  Akwai fasahohi kusan dari uku.  Wadannan ilmummuka, kamar sauran ilmummukan kwamfuta, dole ne a gansu a aikace, mujarradin karatu kadai ba ya sa a fahimci yadda suke.  Don haka, duk mai son sanin yadda kwamfuta ke samuwa, daga gangar-jiki zuwa ruhi ko manhajarta, to ya samu littafin David Eck, mai suna: The Most Complex Machine – A History of Computer and Computing.

 

Daga karshe, duk abin da mai karatu bai fahimta ba, zai iya rubuto mani don neman Karin bayani. A mako mai zuwa, za mu kawo amsoshi kan tambayoyi biyu da wasu daga cikin masu karatu suka aiko mani.  A biyo mu!

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

One thought on “Kwamfuta da Bangarorinta (2)

  • October 14, 2017 at 3:52 pm
    Permalink

    Gaisuwa DA jinjina ga Babban Malami a faken ilimin na’ura (computer education) wato Babban Sadik a gaskiya INA samun karuwa sosai ta 6angaren ilimin na’ura a matsayina NA Malamin Na’ura (computer teacher) a makrantun firamare da sakandare (primary & secondary schools) ta dalilin karanta kasidun ka a shafinka NA yanar gizo da kuma jaridar Aminiya NA Sati sati. Babu abinda zance saidai in kara godiya a gareka idan ana samun irinku da mutanen birni da kauye zasu amfana sosai. Allah ya karama basira ya maka dogon zango a rayuwar ka ta yau da kullum. A karshe INA so ka Isar mun da gaisuwa ta ga babban magajinka was SADIK NA gode. daga, Saminu Musa Yelwa Shendam jihar Filato. saminuartillery1 @gmail.com

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *