Kwarewa a Fannin Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta (Programming)

Matashiya

A yau cikin yardan Allah, mun zo karshen wannan silsila da muka faro makonni goma da suka gabata.  Duk da yake a mukaddimar wannan silsila mun ce za mu kawo kasidu goma sha biyu ne, amma za mu takaitu a goma, saboda dalilai biyu; na farko dai, kasidar da ta kamata ta zama ta goma, wato Computer Programming, za mu hade ta ne da Software Engineering, domin duk sana’a ce guda, suna ne ya bambanta su.  Kuma kasidar wannan mako ta ta’allaka ne a kan wadannan fannoni guda biyu masu alaka da juna.  Dalili na biyu kuma, za mu ajiye fannin E-commerce, wato fannin saye-da-sayarwa ta hanyar fasahar Intanet, sai zuwa wani lokaci. Za mu yi haka ne don kara lokaci, ba wai don babu abin fada ba.  Domin wannan fanni a halin yanzu bai yadu ba a wannan kasa tamu.  Shi yasa za mu ajiye shi.

 

To a wannan mako mun zo da bayani ne kan fannin Software Engineering, kuma da shi za mu karkare wannan silsila kamar dai yadda bayani ya gabata a sama.  Mai karatu zai san ma’anar wannan fanni; me ya kumsa; yaya yake; kuma meye alakarsa da Computer Programming?  A karshe za a samu bayani kan yadda ake kwarewa a wannan fanni, me ake yi kuma ta yaya ake samun taro da kwabo don kashewa.  A kasance tare da mu.

 

Fannin “Software Engineering”

Fannin Software Engineering shi ne fannin da ya shafi tsarawa da ginawa da gwadawa da kuma lura da manhaja ko masarrafan kwamfuta, ko Software, a turance.  A fannin Software Engineering, masana dabarun gina manhaja ko massarafan kwamfuta ne ke yin wannan aiki; su ne masu tsarawa; su ne masu ginawa; su ne masu gwadawa bayan ginawa; kuma su ne masu lura da rayuwar kowane manhaja na kwamfuta da suka gina.  Wadannan mutane masu wannan aiki a wannan fanni mai matukar muhimmanci ga rayuwar kwamfuta da sauran kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani, su ake kira Computer Programmers, a turance.  Su ne masu gina duk wani manhaja da ake mu’amala da shi a kwamfuta ko wayar salula irin ta da, da ma ta zamani.

 

Wadannan mutane masu wannan aiki sun kasu kashi biyu, a takaice ; akwai System Programmers, masu tsarawa da ginawa da kuma  lura da babban manhajan kwamfuta ko wayar salula (wato Operating System). Sai kuma Application Programmers, wadanda ke lura da gina kananan manhajoji ko masarrafan kwamfuta ko wayar salula.  Duk da yake aiki iri daya suke yi, banbancin na zuwa ne a tsarin kwarewan da kowanne ya dauka. Misali, duk wani System Programmer na iya aikin Application Programmer, haka in muka dauki akasin bayanin.  Duk da haka, idan aka tara su wuri guda, duk sunan su daya ne.

 

Fannin da ya shafi gina manhajan kwamfuta shi ne fanni mafi wahala a cikin ilmummukan kwamfuta.  Domin yana bukatar matukar hakuri da juriya, wajen gwaji da gyara da  kuma lura da abin da ake aiki a kai, na tsawon lokaci.  Su wadannan mutane suna amfani ne da wasu haruffa ko kuramen baki da ake kira Codes a turance, wajen umartan kwamfuta ta rubuta ko zana ko narka ko kuma kimtsa duk abin da suke so.  Idan suka rubuta wadannan haruffa, sai su sarrafa su zuwa harshen da kwamfuta za ta iya fahimta, wato Byte Codes, ta amfani da masarrafan narka bayanai, wato Interpreter, Translator, Assembler, ko Compiler. Sannan sai su umarci kwamfuta da ta bayyana musu wadannan haruffa zuwa abin da suke so. Wannan tsari na kira, shi ake kira Running, a turanci ko dabaran tsara manhajan kwamfuta.

 

Idan kwamfuta ta bayyana shi, suka samu kurakurai a ciki, wato Bugs, sai su yi amfani da masarrafan gyara kurakurai, wato Debugger, don gyara wadannan kurakurai.  Wannan aiki ne mai wahala, domin bai sai wuri ba ka samu masarrafa guda, mai dauke da haruffa miliyan biyu.  Kuma a cunkushe suke cikin layuka.  Dole ka bi su layi-layi, don nemo layi ko harafin da ke da matsala.  Duk da yake a halin yanzu an bullo da hanyoyin gina manhajan kwamfuta cikin sauki, tare da masarrafan gyara kurakuran su, wato Debugging Tools.

 

Dabarun da ake amfani dasu wajen ginawa da kuma tsara manhajan kwamfuta, su ake kira Programming Languages, kuma suna nan tinjim, wajen sama da dari biyar.  Kai a takaice ma dai, basu da iyaka, ko ba mai iya ce maka ga yawan su, domin kowa na iya kirkiran tasa, idan ya kware a harkar.  Wadannan dabaru sun fara bayyana ne shekaru kusan saba’in da suka wuce, kuma duk da cewa wasun su na nan har yanzu, da dama cikin su duk sun bace, sai wadanda aka bullo dasu a yanzu.  Shahararru cikin su su ne ; C, C++, COBOL, PASCAL, C#, Symbian, Python, Java, SmallTalk, Spring, BASIC, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual C#, J#, F#, Lisp, ActionScript, Atlas, Ruby, da dai sauran su.  Kowanne yana dauke ne da dabaru na musamman da suke taimaka ma mai koyo wajen tsara manhajan kwamfuta, kuma ya sha banban da sauran.

 

Don haka za ka samu kwararru kan wadannan dabaru daban-daban.  Wasu kuma sun iya sama da daya.  Wannan tasa za ka samu manyan manhajan kwanfuta an gina su ne da dabaru daban-daban, aka kuma hada alaka tsakanin su, ta yadda manhajar ke sarrafuwa sanadiyyar alakar da ke tsakanin wadannan hikimomin gini.  Har wa yau, wani abin da masu gina manhajan kwamfuta ke amfanuwa dashi shi ne tsarin ginawa.  Akwai tsare-tsare kala wajen uku, amma wanda ya fi shahara a halin yanzu shi ne Object-Oriented Programming.  Sauran sun hada da Structured Programming, da kuma Functional Programming.  Kowanne cikin wadannan dabarun gina manhajan kwamfuta na da nashi tsari da yafi amfani dashi. Misali, Java da C++ na amfani ne da tsarin Object-Oriented Programming.  Shi kuma C na amfani ne da Structured Programming.

 

Bayan haka, kowane dabara na gina manhajan kwamfuta na da bangaren da yafi shahara a kai wajen inganci da tsari da kyau.  Dabaran Java tafi shahara a wannan zamani, don akan yi amfani da ita wajen gina manhajan kwamfuta da ake mu’amala da su a gidajen yanar sadarwa.  Su kuma manyan manhajojin kwamfuta, wato Computer Operating Systems, irin su Windows Operating System da muke amfani dasu a kwamfutocin mu, da Linux (da dukkan nau’ukan ta, irin su: Fedora, Debian, suSe, Ubuntu da sauran su), da Mac OS X, da kuma Unix Operating System, duk da dabaran C ake ginawa da kuma tsara su.

 

Idan muka koma bangaren sauti da sanya kwamfuta ta kirkiri wake, sai su Ruby. Haka idan ana magana kan dabaran tsara hotuna da kirkiran su da wanke su da gasa su da kyafe su, sai mu  koma wajen ActionScript, wanda da dabarun ta ne ake gina Flash da muke amfani da su a galibin gidajen yanar sadarwa ko kuma cikin wayoyin salulan mu.

 

Kai a takaice dai, duk abin da kake son yi, idan ka iya wani daga cikin wadannan dabarun gina manhajan kwamfuta, kana iya umartan ta da yi kai tsaye, ba tare da bata lokaci.  Domin ta wannan hanya ne aka kirkiri duk wani abin da kwamfuta ke yi, a takaice, da wadannan dabaru ake kirkiran ruhin kwamfuta, babba ne ko karami.

Kwarewa kan Computer Programming

Kwarewa kan wannan ilimi na bukatar halartar makaranta don karantar fannin Computer Science, domin shi ne asali wajen duk wani ilimin kwamfuta da ke zaune da gindinsa.  Idan Allah bai kaddare ka da yin haka ba saboda rashin lokaci ko kudi ko daman samun shiga makaranta, to duk kada ranka ya baci, kana iya koyo ta amfani da fasahar Intanet.  Kamar yadda muka fada ne a baya, cewa duk irin ilimin da kake bukata musamman kan wannan hanya ta sadarwa na zamani, kana iya samun sa kyauta a Intanet.  Akwai gidajen yanar sadarwa (Websites) da dama da za ka iya zaiyarta, ka koyi kowanne kake son kwarewa a kai, cikin wadannan dabaru.

 

Haka  kuma kana iya zuwa makarantar koyon ilimin kwanfuta irin su NIIT, da APTECH, ko duk wata makarantar koyon ilimin kwamfuta na zamani dake manyan biranen Nijeriya.  Suna karantar da JAVA, da XML da galibin dabarun da suka fiye tashe a yanzu.  A makaranta irin APTECH, suna da fannin Software Engineering, inda za ka kware kan fannin ma gaba daya.  Sai dai kudin ne, sai mai hali.  Hakan ya faru ne saboda rashin yaduwan ire-iren wadannan makarantu ko kwasakwasai. Da zaran sun fara yaduwa, farashin zai ragu kasa in Allah Ya yarda.

 

Aikin Yi

Kamar sauran fannonin da bayanin su ya gabata, kana iya zama mai zaman kansa ba sai lalai ka samu aiki na dindindin da wata ma’aikata ba.  Za ka iya gina manhajojin kwamfuta da dama, don sayarwa.  Ka ga dama ka rinka bayar da lasisi kadai, a rinnka biyanka duk shekara.  Haka kana iya gina manyan manhajojin rumbun kwamfuta (Database Management System) ka sayar ma ma’ikatu ko hukumomin gwamnati suna amfani dashi don ajiyewa da adanawa da kuma tsare tarin bayanan da suke amfani dasu a  kullum.

 

Har wa yau, kana iya zama marubuci kan wannan fanni, kamar yadda galibin masu wannan sana’a ke yi a wasu kasashe.  Za ka samu mutum daya ya rubuta littafai sama da ashirin kan fannoni da dama, ana biyan sa kudi kan duk littafi guda da aka sayar.  Idan ka ga dama, kana iya zama malami mai karantar da wannan nau’in ilimi mai muhimmanci. Ko kuma kaje makarantu su dauke ka, na gwamnati nake nufi, kanai ma dalibansu lacca kan fannonin ilimin kwamfuta daban-daban, ana biyan ka a duk wata ko yadda kuka tsara.

 

Kammalawa

Fannin Software Engineering ko Computer Programming, fanni ne mai matukar muhimmanci dangane da abin da ya shafi ilimin kwamfuta da wayoyin salula.  Don ya shafi duk wani motsi da kwamfuta take yi; shi ne ruhin ta, mai farkar da ita daga mutuwar wucin-gadi da ta shiga.  Da wannan ilimi ne kwamfutoci suka samu watsuwa a duniya; suka yi sauki wajen mu’amala.  Da shi ne wayoyin salula suka yadu, suka yi sauki kuma ake iya sarrafa su ta hanyoyi daban-daban.  Kwararre kan wannan fanni ba karamin mutum bane a wannan zamani namu da ke ta’allake da kayayyaki da hanyoyin sadarwa ta zamani.

 

Dukkan wani fanni da muka yi bayani a kan shi a baya, ya ta’allaka ne da wannan fanni; shi ne ya gina ma masu buga bayanai da hotuna da zane-zane manhajojin da suke amfani dasu; ya gina ma masu gyara kwamfuta ruhin da suke gyarawa ko gyattawa; ya gina ma masu gyara wayoyin salula ruhin wayar da suke farfado dashi; ya gina ma  masu hada alaka tsakanin kwamfutoci manhajoji ko masarrafan da suke amfani dasu wajen yin aikin su; ya gina ma masu adana bayanai da lura dashi, babban manhajan da ke sawwake musu yin wannan aiki.  Kai a takaice dai, kwararre kan fannin Programming, shi ne kakan duk wani mai mu’amala da wannan fasaha ta zamani, muddin ba a fagen sa yake ba.

 

A mako mai zuwa, za mu juya akala zuwa wani bangare kuma na ilimin fasahar sadarwa ta zamani.  Wannan kasida, kamar yadda na zayyana a sama, ita ce ta karshe cikin wannan silsila da muka faro makonni goma da suka gabata.  Ina kuma mika sakon gaisuwata ga dukkan masu karatu; masu bugo waya; masu aiko sakon tes; masu aiko sakon Imel da ma wadanda basu ce komai ba.  Duk Allah hada fuskokin mu da alheri, amin. A ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mu.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

One thought on “Kwarewa a Fannin Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta (Programming)

  • September 9, 2017 at 8:54 pm
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    Sallama a gareku dubban masoya wannan shafi na Sadarwa. Da fatan dukkanku kuna cikin koshin lafiya.

    Nayi farinciki da samun wannan shafi mai albarka abubuwa da dama wadanda muke ganin gaskiya ne yakamata mu jijinawa wannan shafi mai albarka Don a gudu tare a tsira tare. Nagoday nine Dalhatu Abdullah,

    Reply

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