Lilo da Tsallake-Tsallake a Intanet (Web Browsing)

Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake

 

A ƙasidar da ta gabata, mun gabatar da taƙaitaccen bayani kan Gina Gidan Yanar Sadarwa (Web Design), da abubuwan da mai ginin ke buƙata kafin ya fara aikinsa.  A wannan makon kuma ga mu ɗauke da bayanai kan yadda mai ziyara zai yi Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake a irin waɗannan gidajen yanar sadarwa don neman bayanai ko ganin duk abin da yake son gani a cikinsu.

 

Ma’ana

 

Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake shi ne yin yawo a cikin gidan yanar sadarwa ta Intanet, ta hanyar Rariyar Liƙau (Web Links), daga wannan ɗaki zuwa wancan, ko daga wannan gidan yanar sadarwa zuwa wancan.  An kira wannan yawo ne da lilo da tsallake-tsallake, don ba lale bane wannan tafiya ta zama kai tsaye; zai iya yiwuwa mai ziyara ya shiga gidan yanar sadarwa ta zauren gidan, amma ya fice ta ƙofar baya, ko ta tagar gidan, ba tare da mai gadin gidan ya sani ba; ko kuma daga gidan da yake lilo, sai kawai ya hango wani gida ta tagar gidan da yake ciki, caraf, sai ya tsallake zuwa can, ta rariyar liƙau.  Ga duk mai son yin lilo da tsallake-tsallake a Giza-gizan Sadarwa ta Intanet, ga matakan nan; kai waye, wai bazawara da jaka:

 

Hanyoyi da Matakan Lilawa

Adireshi:  Ka kwatanta da rayuwar yau da kullum da kake yi a duniya; duk lokacin da ka fito daga gidanka ka san inda za ka.  To a Giza-gizan Sadarwa ta Duniya ma fa haka abin yake.  Sai dai a nan, abin da kake buƙata shi ne Adireshin Gidan Yanar Sadarwa (Web Address ko Uniform Resource Locator – URL), bayan ka samu kwamfuta mai jone da Intanet.  Kowane adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa na da ɓangare uku ne.  Misali:

 

http://www.dailytrust.com

 

Bangaren farko shi ne: http:// wanda cikakken lafazinsa ke nufin Hypertext Transfer Protocol.  Wannan ita ce ƙa’idar da ke lura da karɓo shafukan yanar gizo masu Rariyar Liƙau daga wannan gidan yanar sadarwa zuwa wani.  Samuwarsa a adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa na nufin “wannan gidan yanar sadarwa na dauke ne da shafukan yanar gizo masu rariyar liƙau (kada ka damu da alamar ruwa-biyu da karan tsaye da ke gaban http, tunda aka ce maka “ƙa’ida” ce, ba sai ka tambaya ba).  Kowace kwamfuta ta san wannan ƙa’idar.  Shi yasa idan kazo shigar da adireshin yanar gizo a rariyar tsallake-tsallake, ko da baka sa wannan ɓangare ba, kwamfutar zata bayyanashi, kafin nemo maka shafin da ka umarceta da nemowa.  Don haka, shigar da wannan ɓangaren ba dole bane, zai bayyana da kansa da zarar kwamfuta ta fara nemo gidan yanar sadarwan.

 

Ɓangare na biyu kuma shi ne: www. (a lura da digon aya da ke gaban harafin w ta karshe) cikakken lafazinsu shi ne World Wide Web.  Ma’ana, “wannan gidan yanar sadarwa mai dauke da shafuka masu rariyar liƙau, na ɗore ne a saman Giza-gizan Sadarwa ta Duniya”.  Wannan ya fitar da nau’in Intranet wanda muka yi maganarsa a ƙasidar farko, daga cikin jerin shafukan yanar gizo da ke giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya.  Domin shi a gajeren zangon sadarwar ma’aikata ko gida ake iya samunsa, watau Local Area Network (LAN).  Duk wanda kwamfutarsa ba a jone take da sauran kwamfutocin da ke gida ko ma’aikatar ba, baya iya shiga ko ganin shafin.

 

Ɓangaren ƙarshe kuma shi ne: dailytrust.com Wannan shi ne adireshin kwamfuta/Uwar garken da ke ɗauke da gidan yanar sadarwan kamfanin Daily Trust, a misali.  In bamu manta ba, a ƙasidarmu ta Gina Gidan Yanar Sadarwa, munce da zarar an gama gina gidan yanar sadarwa, ana zuba shafukan ne cikin Uwar Garke (Web Server), wanda Kamfanonin SadarwaInternet Service Providers (ISPs) ke dasu.  Wannan na nufin duk wanda ke son shiga gidan yanar, sai ya bi ta adireshin wannan kwamfuta dake ɗauke da shafukan.  Kowace kwamfuta na da adireshin da ‘yar uwarta ke iya gane ta, duk inda take a duniya.  Adireshin nan kuwa a rukunin lambobi suke, ba haruffa ba.  To in haka ne, ta yaya aka yi muka samu dailytrust.com, ba lambobin ba?  Nan gaba zamu san dalili.  Yanzu dai mu yarda cewa wadannan nambobi ne aka juya su zuwa haruffa ko sunan ma’aikata ko mutum ko kamfani, don samun sauƙin shiga.  To a yanzu kana da adireshin gidan yanar sadarwan Daily Trust, yaya zaka shiga?

 

Sai ka matsa (Click) Rariyar lilonka (Browser) sau biyu, wanda galibi tambarinta ke fuskan kwamfutarka (Monitor).  Idan Internet Explorer ne, ka dubi jerin tambarorin da ke fuskar kwamfuta zaka ga babban harafin “e” shuɗi, kamar haka: e.  Sai ka matsa shi sau biyu, lokaci ɗaya, Rariyar Tsallake-tsallaken zata budo.  Shafi ne babba, mai dauke da tambarori (Icons) a samansa, da wani farin layi, inda ake shigar da adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa (Address Bar).  A wannan farin siririn layi zaka shigar da dukkan adireshin gidan yanar sadarwan da da kake son ziyarta.

 

Da ka gama shigarwa, sai ka matsa “Go” da ke gaban farin layin, za ta riskar da kai mataki na gaba.

 

Zauren Gidan Yanar Sadarwa:  Wannan shi ne shafin farko da za ka fara cin karo dashi, da zarar ka shigo gidan yanar sadarwa ta adireshinsa.  Wasu kan kira shi “Babban Shafi”, amma ina ganin “Zaure” ita ce kalmar da tafi dacewa.  Domin “mashigi” ce, ba wurin zama ba.  Ga Zauren Gidan Yanar Sadarwan Daily Trust nan kasa:

 

Don haka sai ka natsu.  Kayi nazarin abubuwan da ke wannan shafi, domin wuri ne da aka tanadi bayanai a taƙaice ƙwarai.  A wannan shafi ne har wa yau, zaka samu hanya zuwa wasu shafuka dake wasu gidajen yanar sadarwan, ko kuma zuwa dakunan da ke asalin gidan yanar (Web Pages); ya danganci irin bayanin da kake so.  Zaka samu bayanai da hotuna masu motsi da marasa motsi, da dukkan wani ƙyale-ƙyale da Uban Gidan Yanar ya tanada, don ɗaukan hankalin mai ziyara.  Duk bayanai, ko hotunan da ka bi ta kansu, kibiyar manunin kwamfutarka (Mouse Pointer) ta canza zuwa ɗan ƙaramin hannu, to mashigi ne, kana matsawa zaka shiga wata duniyar.

 

Rariyar ƙikau:  Kowane Gidan Yanar Sadarwa na da tsararrun hanyoyin zirga-zirga daga ciki zuwa wajensa, watau Navigational Tools.  Galibinsu bayanai (Texts) ne ko tambari (Icon/Symbol) ko kuma hotuna (Images), waɗanda suke juyawa zuwa ɗan ƙaramin hannu da zarar ka bi ta kansu, kamar yadda bayani dai ya gabata.  Don haka, kana matsa su, zasu riskar da kai wani shafi.  Waɗannan su ake kira Rariyar Liƙau, watau Web Links, ko Hypertext Links ko kuma Links, a takaice.  Su ne hanyoyi, ko rassan da mai lilo zai riƙa bi zuwa wasu gidajen yanar ko cikin dakunan gidan yanar sadarwan da ya shigo.  Don haka ba abin mamaki bane ka shiga gidan yanar sadarwan da ke Nijeriya, ka bulla wanda ke kasar Sin, zuwa wani gidan da ke ƙasar Burazil, cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci ka nausa zuwa Landan ko Amurka.  Wannan na daga cikin siffofin da Fasahar Intanet ce kaɗai ke dashi; ma’ana, duk lokacin da ka shiga cikinsa, to zaki ji ka tsundum ne cikin duniya.  Kuma babban jagorarka cikin wannan yawo itace Rariyar lilo, watau Browser, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata.

 

Ladubba:  Idan ka samu kanka a matsayin mai lilo da tsallake-tsallake a giza-gizan sadarwa na duniya, dole ne kabi hanyoyin da zasu kai ka ga nasara.  Daga ciki shi ne, ka bar yawan leke-leke, musamman wajen matsa Rariyar Liƙau din da baka san daga ina take ba balle ina za ta.  Idan baka da masaniyar inda zaka je lilo, kayi tambaya, musamman wajen waɗanda ka san suna da sannaya kan lamarin, idan ba haka ba kuwa, sai ka kashe kuɗi da lokacinka a banza baka amfana da komai ba; kwamfutar taka ce ko kuwa a Mashaƙatar Tsallake-tsallake kake, watau Cyber Café.  Idan kuwa ka yawaita yawace-yawace ba tare da sanin inda ka dosa ba, to zaka maƙale a wani kududdufin da ba ruwa, balle masu ceto.

 

A ƙasida ta gaba, zan kawo bayanai kan Wasiƙar Hanyar Sadarwa, watau E-mail; ɗaya daga cikin dirkokin da suka ƙara haɓɓaka yaɗuwan  Fasahar Intanet a duniya.

 

Daga ƙarshe, ina miƙa godiyata ga masu bugo waya ko aiko mini da sakonnin gaisuwa ta wayar salula (text messages), ko ta Wasiƙar Hanyar Sadarwa (Imel).  Allah Ya saka da alheri, Ya kuma bar zumunci.  Duk kuma wanda ke da wata tambaya, ya iya rubuto ma Edita, ko ya aiko mani kai tsaye ta Imel.  Zamu tara ire-iren wadannan tambayoyi ko neman ƙarin bayani kan Fasahar Intanet gaba ɗayansu, don keɓe wani lokaci da zan rubuto gamsassun jawabai kansu, in Allah Ya yarda.

 

Ayi hutun ƙarshen mako lafiya.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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