Ma’anar “Programming” Da Nau’ukansa

Ma’anar “Programming”

Kalmar “Programming” kalma ce ta harshen Turanci da ta samo asali daga kalmar “Programme” (a harshen Turancin Ingila) ko “Program” (a harshen Turancin Amurka), wacce a halin yanzu take da karin ma’ana a fannin kimiyyar sadarwa da kwamfuta. Abin da kalmar ke nufi shi ne: “Tsarin ginawa da lura da manhaja ko masarrafa.” A wani kaulin kuma, “Programming” na nufin: “Tsarin baiwa kwamfuta ko na’urorin sadarwa na zamani, umarni don aiwatar da wani aiki na musamman; lissafi, ko rubutu, ko sarrafa wasu bayanai don nuna su a shafi ko kuma adana su a ma’adanar na’urar.” “Programming” fanni ne daga cikin fannonin ilimi dake karkashin ilimin kimiyyar sadarwa da kwamfuta (Computer Science).

 

Wannan umarni da ake baiwa kwamfuta ko na’urar sadarwa don aiwatar da wani aiki, jerin rubutattun bayanai ne da kwararru masana (Programmers) ke rubutawa, ta amfani da nau’ukan dabarun gina manhaja ko masarrafa (Programming Languages). Kuma a karshe suna dunkule wadannan umarni ne cikin abin da nake kira: “Manhaja” ko “Masarrafa.”

 

Abubuwan da mai karatu ke mu’amala dasu a shafin kwamfuta, da wayar salula, da na’urorin sarrafa bayanai na hannu (iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab dsr), da na’urar lissafi, da talabijin na zamani, da na’urar ATM, da nau’ukan agogo na zamani, da duk wata na’urar sadarwa mai dauke da kwanrangwal (Hardware) da ruhi (Software), ko na’urar sarrafa bayanai (“Micro-controllers” ko “Processor”) duk rubutattun umarni ne da aka gina su cikin manhajoji, don baiwa na’urar damar aiwatar da wasu ayyuka na musamman.

 

Masana suka ce fannin “Programming” ya kasu kashi biyu, a dunkule:

 

Fannin “System Programming,” wanda ya kunshi gina manhajar da na’urar ke amfani da ita, kai tsaye – irin su Babban Manhaja (Operating System), da tabbataccen ruhi (Firmware). Daga sadda ka kunna kwamfuta ko wayar salula, bayanan da za ka ta cin karo dasu suna bayyana a sadda take tashi, har zuwa sadda ta gama kintsawa, wannan fanni ne ke da alhakin gina su. Fannin ne ke gina manhajar da wasu manhajoji ke rayuwa a kansu. Misali, idan kana da kwamfuta mai dauke da “Microsoft Windows 7”, sauran manhajojin da ka dora mata da kanka, ko tazo dasu wadanda ke baka damar yin wasu ayyuka (irin su “Microsoft Office Word,” ko “Excel”), suna rayuwa ne a kan babbar manhajar, wato “Windows 7.” Idan babu babbar manhajar, ba a iya dora wa kwamfuta su; sai kuma;

 

Fannin “Application Programming,” wanda ya kunshi gina manhajoji don sawwake wa masu amfani da kwamfuta ko wayar salula aiwatar da wasu ayyuka na musamman. Manhajar “MS Word” ko “Excel” ko manhajar “Contacts” da “Message” da “Facebook” dake wayar salaularka, duk karkashin wannan fanni ake gina su.

 

A takaicen takaitawa, kowace na’urar sadarwa (kwamfuta ce ko wayar salula) na dauke da bangarori biyu ne muhimmai; bangaren gangar-jiki da ake kira “Hardware,” da kuma bangaren ruhi da ake kira “Software.” Fannin “Programming” ne ke da alhakin ginawa da kuma lura da bangaren ruhi, a yayin da fannin kimiyyar lantarki (Electrical Engineering) ke lura da bangaren gangar-jikin.

 

Dalilan Gina Manhaja

Wani na iya tambayar cewa, “Ba ance kwamfuta ta iya lissafi ba, kuma tana iya yin komai?  Me yasa kuma sai an sake rubuta wasu umarni an bata?”  Amsar wannan tambaya ba nesa take ba.  Dalilan da suka sa dole a baiwa kwamfuta umarni kuwa su ne kamar haka:

 

Kwamfuta Ba Ta Jin Turanci: Eh, ba ta jin turanci.  In za ka shekara kana mata turanci bata san me kake cewa ba.  Duk wani yaren duniya ba ta jin shi, in dai dan adam ne ke amfani dashi.  Tana da nata harshen da dashi kadai take iya karba da sarrafa umarni.  Don haka, dole a fuskance da nata harshen;

 

Ba Ta Iya Maka Komai: Tabbas, duk da cewa kwamfuta tana da hazaka, amma kuma doluwa ce na karshe.  Duk da cewa kwamfuta ta iya lissafi, amma dakikiya ce na karshe.  Me yasa?  Ba za ta iya zana maka hoto ba, idan kace: “Za na mini hoto.”  Ba za ta iya maka komai ba, dole ka bata umarni dalla-dalla, gwari-gwari;

 

Harshenta Daban: Wannan haka yake.  Umarnin da ake baiwa kwamfuta, wanda muke magana a kanshi, ba wai umarni ne irin wanda mai amfani da ita ke bata ba, wajen kunnawa ko kashewa ko taskance bayanai ba.  A a, umarni ne dake ingiza ta wajen aiwatar da aiki ta hanyar zance da ita da harshenta, wanda ake kira: “Machine Language.”  Wannan harshe nata kuwa jerin lambobin “1” ne da “0.”   Duk abin da ka rubuta na umarni ga kwamfuta, a wannan yanayin take ganinshi. In kuwa haka ne, ashe dole ne ka gaya mata hakikanin abin da kake son ta maka; babu gwaranci, babu zaurance.

 

A fannin “Programming,” bayan an rubuta umarnin da ake son baiwa kwamfuta don aiwatarwa, wanda maginin umarnin ke iya fahimta, dole ne kuma ya juya bayanan daga harshen da yake fahimta (Human Readable Code), zuwa wanda kwamfutar ke iya fahimta (Machine Language).

 

Ana yin haka ne ta amfani da wasu masarrafai na musamman (dangane da irin nau’in yaren da mai rubuta umarnin yayi amfani dashi a farko).  Akwai masarrafar “Compiler,” da “Assembler,” da kuma “Interpreter.”  Wadannan masarrafai na musamman, dasu ake amfani wajen juya bayanan umarnin da ake son baiwa kwamfuta, daga wanda dan adam ke iya karantawa da fahimta, zuwa wanda kwamfutar ce kadai ke iya fahimta da sarrafawa.  Bayani kansu na nan tafe, daya-bayan-daya.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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