Manhajar Lilo (Web Browser) (1)

Mabudin Kunnuwa

Ga duk wadanda suka saurari shirin Amsoshin Tambayoyinku na sashen Hausa na Muryar Jamus, cikin karshen makon da ya gabata, na tabbata sun ji yadda Malam Mohammad Hashim Gumel ya kwararo ingantattu, saukaka kuma kayatattun bayanai kan yadde ake sanya ma na’urar kwamfuta babbar manhajanta (Operating System) ko kara inganta mata shi (Upgrading), musamman ma kan abin da ya shafi yin “hijira” daga tsohuwar manhajar Windows XP, zuwa sabuwar manhajar Windows Vista na kamfanin Microsoft Corp.  Idan masu karatu basu mance ba, Malam Hashim Gumel dai shi ne mai gidan yanar sadarwan Gumel.com, wato gidan yanar sadarwan da muka kawo bayanai a kanta cikin makon da ya gabata.  Kwararre ne kan harkan kwamfuta da manhajojinta.  Ganin cewa dukkan abin da mai lilo da tsallake-tsallake ke yi a kan kwanfuta, na ta’allaka ne da ruhi ko wannann babbar manhaja na ta, na ga ya dace mu ajiye masarrafar da muke amfani da ita wajen shiga yanar gizo ko Intanet, a gabanmu, don karantar tsarinta, da kuma yadda take sadar da mu gidajen yanar sadarwan da muke ziyarta a kullum.  Wannan masarrafa kuwa ita ce Rariyar Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake, ko kuma ka ce: Web Browser, ko Browser, a turance.

 

Ma’ana da Asali

Kalmar “browse” dai a turance na nufin budowa, ba tare da bin ka’idan “daya-bayan-daya” ko “gaba-da-baya” ba.  Ma’ana, daga wannan bigire, ka cilla can, ka dawo nan, ka tsallaka can; kamar dai yadda Malam Biri ke yi a saman bishiyoyin kurmi.  Idan kuma aka ce “browser, ana nufin abin da ke budowa ko binciko wani abu a wannan tsarin.  Wannan a turancin yau da kullum kenan, na gama-gari.  A bangaren ilimin kwamfuta kuwa, idan aka ce “Browser”, ba komai ake nufi ba illa wata masarrafa ko manhaja (Software/Program) da ake amfani da ita wajen budo shafukan yanar sadarwa ta Intanet.  Duk wanda ke shiga giza-gizan sadarwa ta Intanet a yanzu,yana yi ne ta amfani da wannan fasaha ko manhaja.  Amma kafin wannan lokaci ko zamani, ana amfani ne da masarrafar Gopher, wacce ke taimaka ma masu shiga gidan yanar sadarwa ta hanyar rariyar  likau kadai, wato Hypertext Links ko Menu Links.  A wannan tsari, tsagwaron bayanai kadai ake iya shiga da kuma yawo a ciki; babu hotuna  balle sauti.  Har wa yau, dukkan shafukan da masarrafar Gopher ke iya budowa, babu launi; daga farin shafi sai bakin rubutu.  Kuma wadanda su ka fi kowa amfani da Intanet a wancan lokaci su ne Jami’o’i da kuma cibiyoyin binciken kimiyya da fasaha.

 

Haka abin ya kasance har zuwa wajen shekarar 1993, lokacin da Baban Intanet, wato Farfesa Tim Barnes-Lee, ya kirkiro ka’idar World Wide Web (www), wato ka’idar giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya, wacce ta bayar da daman shiga wani shafin daga wani, a ko ina uwar garken take a duniya.  Bayyanar wannan ka’ida ke da wuya sai masarrafar Gopher ta zama tsohuwar yayi, domin a yanzu an samu shafuka masu launi, da hotuna masu motsi da marasa motsi da kuma sauti, wanda ke bukatar wasu manhajoji masu kwazo wajen budowa ko sarrafa su.  Don haka aka samu wasu kwararrun masana kimiyyar kwamfuta da lissafi suka kirkiro abin da a yanzu muke kira Masarrafar Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake, ko Web Browser, a turance.  A lokacin aka samu kwararan rariyar lilo da tsallake-tsallake guda biyu.  Wacce ta fara bayyana ita ce Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0, wacce Bill Gates, tsohon shugaban Microsoft ya kirkira.  Daga nan aka samu Netscape Navigator, wacce Mc Andreessen, shugaban kamfanin Netscape shi ma ya kirkiro.  Wadannan rariyoyin lilo da tsallake-tsallake guda biyu ne suka kara ma fasahar Intanet shahara a duniya gaba daya.  Sanadiyyar su ne aka samu bunkasar harkar kasuwanci ta Intanet a manyan kasashen turai.  Gidajen yanar sadarwa na tallace-tallace suka yawaita, suka bunkasa kamar wutar daji.  Wannan ya faru ne saboda irin tsarin da suke dashi mai kayatarwa wajen iya budo shafukan yanar gizo masu launi da sauti da kuma hotuna masu motsi da ma marasa motsi.

 

Wannan yanayi shi ake kira The Dot Com Boom, a turance.  Daga nan kuma masana fasahar kimiyya suka kara zage damtse wajen kirkiro wasu rariyoyin lilon, irinsu Mozilla, Opera, Kameleon, Surfit, ACE, da dai sauransu.  A kalla daga lokacin da aka fara kirkiran wadannan hanyoyin lilo da tsallake-tsallake zuwa yau, an samu rariyoyin lilo sama da dari uku da aka kirkiro.  Wasu an daina amfani dasu, saboda rashin shahara ko kuma sauyin yanayi.  Misali, an daina amfani da Mozilla a yanzu.  A madadinta ne aka kirkiro Firefox (http://www.mozilla.com).  An kuma daina amfani da Opera gaba daya.

 

A halin yanzu wadanda suka fi shahara su ne: Internet Explorer na kamfanin Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com). Da Netscape Navigator na kamfanin Netscape (http://www.netscape.com). Sai kuma Firefox na kamfanin Mozilla (http://www.mozilla.com).  Ita Internet Explorer nau’i-nau’i ce; akwai ta farko, wato Internet Explorer 3.0, daga nan aka samu Internet Explorer 4.0, sai 5.0, sai 6.0, wacce ke kan gama yayinta a halin yanzu, saboda kirkiran Internet Explorer 7.0 da kamfanin yayi, kuma aka fara amfani da ita yanzu.  Wannan sauye-sauye na faruwa ne saboda canjin yanayi da ake samu wajen bunkasar hanyoyin sadarwa da kuma tsaron da ake son masu amfani su samu wajen amfani da wannan rariya, idan sun tashi aiwatar da saye da sayarwan da suke yi a gidajen yanar sadarwa.  Ita Netscape ta shahara kamar dai Internet Explorer, amma a yanzu kwarjinita ya fara kasa, saboda kalubale da tsoffin kamfanonin fasahar Intanet ke samu a yanzu.  Har yanzu ana amfani da ita kam, amma masu amfani da Firefox, ta biyu a shahara bayan Internet Explorer, sun haura masu amfani da Netscape yanzu.

 

Galibin wadannan masarrafa ana samunsu ne ta hanyoyin gidajen yanar sadarwansu, kyuata.  Sai dai idan ka je neman Internet Explorer da ke gidan yanar sadarwan Microsoft, za a bukaci ka yi “gwaji”, don a gane ko babbar manhajan kwamfutarka ingantacciya ce, ko a a.  Idan ka haye wannan gwaji, sai ka diro (download) da masarrafa, ka mika (run) ma kwamfutarka don ka fara amfani da shi.  Idan kuma sabuwar kwamfuta ce ka saya, to daman ta kan zo dashi, ba sai ka saya ba kenan.  Dukkan wadannan rariyoyin tsallake-tsallake amfaninsu daya ne, sai dai ‘yan kananan siffofin da suka banbanta su wajen tafiyar da ayyukansu na budo shafukan yanar sadarwa.  Idan Allah Ya kai mu mako mai zuwa, za mu kawo kashi na biyu, inda za mu dubi siffofin rariyar lilo da tsallake-tsallake na kamfanin Microsoft, wato Internet Explorer 6.0, wacce galibin mutane ke amfani da ita, da kuma wasu siffofin da suka kebance ta, da rariyar lilon kamfanin Mozilla, wato Firefox. 

 

A dakace mu!

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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