Marhalar Tsarin Sadarwar Wayar Salula (Mobile Phone Generations)

Matashiya

Yanayin sadarwar wayar salula ya dauki zamunna kashi-kashi har hudu; tun daga farkon samuwar wayar salula zuwa yanzu.  Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a sashin  “Asali da Samuwar Wayar Salula” a duniya, tsarin sadarwar wayar salula a farko ya takaita ne da siginar rediyo da ke samuwa a tsakanin wayoyin biyu; da mai kira da mai karba kira.  Kamar yadda masu karatu suka karanta a makon jiya, wannan tsari ya samu inganci daga baya, lokacin da wasu Injiniyoyi biyu ‘yan kasar Rasha (D.G. Shapiro da Zaharchenko) suka zo da bincikensu kan tsarin sadarwar wayar salula ta hanyar jonuwa da tashar sadarwa ta kasa, a shekarar 1946.  Wannan shi ne asalin tsarin sadarwar da wayoyin salula ke amfani dashi a wannan zamani, duk kuwa da cewa ba a dabbaka sakamakon wannan bincike nasu a wancan lokaci ba nan take.

 

Kasancewar wannan tsari ya takaita ne da iya inda tsarin sadarwar da mai amfani da wayar yake, hakan ya haifar da matsala, inda daga baya aka samu wani bincike da ya samar da tsarin sadarwa gamamme; daga wannan kadadar sadarwa zuwa wancan.  Wannan tsari, wanda Mr. Amos Joel Jnr ya kirkira, shi ne ake kira “Call Handoff”, kuma da wannan tsari ne muke iya amsa kira daga wannan gari zuwa wancan; daga wannan tashar sadarwa zuwa wancan; ba tare da kiran ya yanke ba. A takaice dai, wannan tsari ne aka ta ingantawa har zuwa yau.  Kuma wannan tsawon lokaci da aka dauka ana amfani da wadancan tsare-tsare na sadarwa, shi ake kira Cellular Network Generation; wato “Marhalar Tsarin Sadarwar Wayar Salula.”  A kan haka za mu yi Magana yau. Sai a kasance tare damu.

 

Marhalar Asali da Samuwa (Zero Generation ko “0G”)

Wannan ita ce “marhala” ko “zamanin” da aka samar da wayar salula da kuma yanayin sadarwan da take amfani dashi don hada kira a tsakanin mutane ko al’umma.  A wannan zamani ne har wa yau, aka samu kamfanoni irinsu Motorola da Ericsson suka kirkiri nau’ukan wayoyin salula masu amfani da siginar rediyo don hada sadarwa a lokuta dabam-daban.  Bayan samuwar wadannan wayoyin salula, wani abin da ya dada inganta tsarin sadarwa a zamanin ko marhalar, shi ne binciken ilimi da aka samu daga masana ko injiniyoyin kasashen Amurka da Rasha da sauran kasashe.

 

A wannan zamani, tsarin sadarwa a tsakanin wayoyin salula ya ta’allaka ne da irin tsarin da kowace kasa ko kamfanin sadarwa ya zaba; babu wani tsari gamamme. Sanannen tsarin da yafi shahara shi ne tsarin sadarwar da kamfanin AT&T da ke kasar Amurka yayi amfani dashi daga shekarar 1971 har zuwa shekarar 1989, mai suna “Advanced Mobile Phone Service” (AMPS).  Sai kuma wanda kasar Finland ta samar mai suna “ARP”, cikin shekarar 1971.  Kowanne daga cikin wadannan tsarin sadarwa na wayar salula na amfani ne da tsarin Analog don tantance bayanan da ake aika su daga waya zuwa waya.

 

Har wa yau, wannan tsari ya kumshi aikawa da karban sakonnnin murya ne kadai; babu rubutacciyar sakon tes.  Dukkan wannan kuma ya faru ne daga shekarar 1911, zuwa 1946, inda zamanin ya tike a shekarar 1982.  Wannan, a taiakce, ita ce marhalar gimshiki da shimfida a tarihin rayuwar wayar salula da tsarin sadarwa ta wayar iska.  Wannan tsarin sadarwa, fannin sadarwa ta zamani ana kiran ta: Zero Generation Cellular Network.

 

Zamanin Farko (1st Generation ko “1G”)

Bayan zamanin asali da samuwa, wanda ya tike a shekarar 1982 ko sama da haka kadan, sai tsarin sadarwa ta wayar salula ta shiga wani sabon zamani da a yanzu ake kira First Generation (ko “1G”), a fannin sadarwa ta wayar salula.  Wannan zamani ya faro ne daga shekarar 1982 zuwa shekarar 1990, lokacin da aka samu canjin tsari.  A cikin wannan zamani ko marhala, an yi amfani ne da tsarin tantance bayanai da ake kira “Analog”.  Wannan shi ne tsarin da na’urorin tashar sadarwa ke sarrafa sauti ko muryar mai buga waya zuwa hasken lantarki, daga inda ya buga, ta kuma sadar da wannan haske zuwa tashar da mai amsa kiran yake, don saduwa da wanda ya bugo. 

 

Wannan tsari na amfani ne da tashar rediyo (Radio Tower) da ke kadadar sadarwa don sauraron wayar da ke bugo wata lamba, da sadar wa mai kiran ta hanyar tashar sadarwa (Base Station) kai tsaye.  Da zarar an sadar da mai kira da wanda yake nema, na’urorin da ke tashar sadarwa zasu rika taskance muryoyinsu ne a yanayin hasken lantarki, suna aika wa juna, kai tsaye.

 

Wannan tsarin tantance muryar masu kira a yanayin hasken lantarki da ake kira Analog, ya bazu zuwa kasashen duniya da dama, a tsawon wannan zamani.  Don haka aka samu tsare-tsaren yanayin sadarwa wajen guda bakwai da wasu kasashe suka yi amfani dasu.  Wadannan tsare-tsare dai su ne: tsarin Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), wanda ya yadu a kasashen Suwizalan, da Holand, da Kasashen Gabashin Turai, da kuma kasar Rasha.  Sai tsarin Automatic Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) wanda kasashen Amurka da Ostiraliya suka dabbaka.  Haka ma an samu tsarin Total Access Communication System (TACS), wanda kasar Burtaniya tayi amfani dashi.  An samu tsarin C-450 a kasashen tsohuwar Jamus ta Yamma, da Potugal, da kuma kasar Afirka ta Kudu.

 

Akwai kuma tsarin Radiocom 2000 da kasar Faransa tayi amfani dashi.  Sai kuma kasar Italiya da tayi amfani da tsarin RTMI.  Kasar karshe da ta shiga sahun kasahen da suka ci moriyar tsarin sadarwa ta Analog ita ce kasar Jafan, inda aka samu tsare-tsare uku masu asali asali daya.  Su ne: TZ-801, da TZ-802, da kuma TZ-803.

 

Bayan haka, wannan zamani bai ba damar samar da yanayin aikawa da karbar sakonnin tes ba, sai murya kadai.  Sannan kuma tsarin na tattare ne da saibi, da kuma mummunar yanayin sadarwa, sanadiyyar rashin iya tace hayaniya da kwaramniyar da ke samuwa a wurin da mai kira ke yin kira ko amsa kira.  Wannan tasa masana suka fara neman mafita daga wadannan matsaloli, kuma abin da ya haifar da samuwar Zamani na Biyu kenan, a rayuwar wayar salula.

 

Zamani na Biyu (2nd Generation, ko “2G”)

Zamani na Farko, ko 1st Generation, ya tike ne a shekarar 1990.  Da shekara ta zagayo (1991) sai aka samu sauyin tsarin sadarwa; daga tsarin Analog, wanda ke juya murya ko sautin mai kira ko amsa waya zuwa yanayin haske kafin ya isar, zuwa tsarin Digital – wato tsarin sadar da kira na zamani – wanda ke sarrafa murya ko sautin mai kira zuwa lambobin sifiri (“0”) da daya (“1”).  Wannan tsari ya sha bamban da wanda ya gabace shi, domin yana dauke ne da ma’adanar taskance bayanai (Memory), wacce ke taskance wadannan lambobi da na’urorin ke sarrafa su daga muryar mutane, kafin aikawa dasu zuwa tashar da mai karban kiran yake, don sadarwa. Da zarar ka kira abokinka kun fara Magana, sai na’urorin da ke tashar sadarwar kamfanin da kake amfani da layinsu su fara aikinsu; ta hanyar sarrafa muryoyinku daga murya ko sauti, zuwa lambar “sifiri” da “daya”, a tsakaninsu.

 

Da haka wannan tsari ke sadar da murya a tsakanin masu kira, kuma ya samo asali ne daga shekarar 1991.  Bayan ingancin sarrafawa da sadar da sauti da yake dauke dashi, wannan tsari ya bayar da damar aikawa da kuma karbar sakonnin tes a tsakanin mutane.

 

Tsarin sarrafa murya zuwa lambobi ko Digital, yana dauke ne shi ma da nasa tsare-tsaren da aka dabbaka su a duniya, fiye da tsarin baya.  Kuma ma, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani nan gaba, da su ake ta amfani har zuwa yau.  Tsarin farko dai shi ne tsarin TDMA, wanda aka fi sani da “Global System of Mobile Communications”, ko GSM, a gajarce.  Wannan tsari na GSM ya fara aiki ne a kasar Finland cikin shekarar 1991, inda ya samar da damar aikawa da kuma karbar sakonnin tes. Kuma har zuwa karshen wannan zamani, shi ne sauran kasashen duniya suka yi amfani dashi, in ka kebe kasar Amurka.

 

Bayan shi kuma sai tsarin CDMA, wanda kasar Amurka ce kadai ta kebanta dashi.  Wannan tsari na CDMA asalinsa daga tsarin Advanced Mobile Phone Service ne wanda kamfanin AT&T ya fara amfani dashi a tsarin Analog, amma da aka shiga shekarar 1990, sai ya sauya zuwa tsarin Digital, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.  A takaice dai, wadannan su ne manyan tsare-tsaren da ke karkashin wannan sabon tsarin sadarwa na Digital a wannan zamani. Kafin zamanin ya kare, an dada samun tagomashi wajen yanayin sadarwa gaba daya.  Wannan zamani ya tike ne a shekarar 1999. Da shekara ta zagayo kuma, sai aka shiga sabon zamani.

 

Zamani na Uku (3rd Generation, ko “3G”)

Bayan gushewar zamani na biyu, wanda ya fara gabatar da sabuwar hanyar sadarwa nau’in Digital mai inganci da kamala, da aka shiga shekarar 2000, sai Hukumar Habaka Harkar Sadarwa ta Duniya, wato International Telecommunication Union (ITU), ta fitar da wasu sababbin hanyoyin sadarwa na wayar salula da ta sanya wa suna “International Mobile Telecommunications-2000”, ko kuma “IMT-2000” a gajarce.  Wannan sabuwar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar salula da ITU ta bullo dasu a shekarar 2000, ayarin ka’idojin sadarwa ne da ke sawwake yanayin kira da sadar dashi, da aikawa da sakonnin tes (SMS), tsarin kira ta hanyar bidiyo (Video Call), da kuma tsarin GPRS da dai sauransu.  Bayan haka, karkashin wannan tsari, na’urorin sadarwa na iya aikawa da sakonni nau’uka dabam-daban a lokaci daya.

 

Misali, wayar salularka na iya karbar sakon tes, a lokacin da kake amsa kira ko Magana da wani a wayar.  A takaice dai an samu nau’ukan hanyoyin sadarwa da dama, da kuma ingancin kayayyakin sadarwar; inda kamfanonin kera wayoyin salula da harkar sadarwa suka yawaita, aka kuma samu na’ukansu da yawa.

 

Kamar sauran zamunnan baya, wannan zamani shi ma yazo da nashi tsare-tsaren sadarwa, duk da cewa a baya an samu wasu daga ciki.  Misali, an samu ingantacciyar tsarin GSM mai suna “GSM EDGE”, da ingantacciyar tsarin CDMA da kasar Amurka ke amfani dashi, mai suna “CDMS 2000”.  Sai kuma tsarin DECT, da kuma WiMAX.  Dukkan wadannan tsare-tsare ne na hanyar sadarwa a tsarin hanyar sadarwa ta zamani nau’in Digital.  Wadannan su ne nau’ukan tsarin sadarwar da ake kira “3rd Generation Cellular Network”, masu wanzuwa a wannan zamani da ake kira “3rd Generation”, ko “3G”, a takaice.  Ana sa ran tsarin ya canza, ta hanyar inganta shi da ake yi a halin yanzu, don samar da zamani na gaba mai suna: “4th Generation Cellular Network”, ko “4G” a takaice.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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