Masu Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta (Programmers)

Masu Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta (Programmers)

Bayan bayani kan Salon Gina Manhaja, abin da a harshen Turanci ake kira: “Programming Paradigms,” wannan sashe zai yi bayani ne kan Magina Manhajar kwamfuta.  Duk da cewa ina alakantawa ko danganta su ga gina manhajar kwamfuta, aikinsu bai takaitu ga manhajar kwamfuta ba kadai, hatta wayoyin salula da dukkan wata na’ura ta zamani mai iya sarrafa bayanai tare da mika su ga wasu, ta shiga ciki.  Amma ina alakanta su ga bangaren kwamfuta ne kawai ta la’akari da asali da kuma gamewa.  Domin duk wata manhaja da za a gina a duniyar dole dai asalinta daga kwamfuta ne.

 

Magina Manhajar Kwamfuta dai su ne masu gina masarrafar kwamfuta, wato: “Programmers” kenan. Su ne ke gina masarrafa (Application) ko manhajar (Programme) da muke amfani dasu a kwamfuta ko wayar salula ko kuma shafukan Intanet.  Wadannan mutane dai kwararru ne a fannin kwamfuta da rayuwarta gaba daya.  Sannan sun kasu kashi-kashi.

 

Akwai masu gina Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta (Operating System) da bangarorinta. La’alla babbar manhajar Windows ce, ko Linux, ko MAC.  Wadannan su ne asalin magina manhaja kenan, tun fil azal.  Su ake kira: “System Programmers.”  An kira su da wannan suna ne saboda gamewar aikinsu.  Domin sai sun gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta tukun kafin a iya loda wa kwamfutar kowace irin masarrafa.  Galibinsu suna amfani ne da dabarun gina manhaja mai suna: “C”, da “C++” (C plus plus), da “C #” (C Sharp), da “Objective-C”  da dai sauransu.  Da wadannan dabarun gina manhaja suke amfani wajen gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta.   Galibin masanan dake wannan dabaka suna iya gina duk irin manhaja ko masarrafar da suka so ginawa.  Ma’ana iliminsu da kwarewarsu suna da gamewa sosai a fannin.

 

Sai kashi na biyu da ake kira: “Application Programmers”, wato masu gina sauran manhajojin da ake amfani dasu a kan babbar manhaja kenan.  Su suke gina masarrafai da manhajoji irin su: “Microsoft Office Word” da “Excel” da “Power Point” da dai sauransu.  Masarrafai da ake amfani dasu don aiwatar da wasu abubuwa masu mahimmanci a kan kwamfuta. Irin su lissafi, da rubutu, da karatu, da gyara hotuna, da zane-zane, da sauraron sauti, da kallon bidiyo da dai sauran ayyuka.  Ba dukkan kwararrun dake wannan dabaka bane ke iya gina Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta, kamar wadanda ke dabakar farko.

 

Wadannan dabaka biyu da sun karkasu zuwa dabakoki daban-daban, ta la’akari da dandano da mahangar kowannensu.  Yadda ake da magina babbar manhajar kwamfuta, haka ake da magina babbar manhajar wayar salula.  Sannan yadda ake da magina masarrafan kwamfuta, wato: “Application Programmers,” haka ake da magina masarrafan wayar salula da ake kira: “Mobile Apps Programmers,” ko “Mobile Apps Developers.”  Su kansu sun kasu kashi-kashi, dangane da nau’in wayar ko kamfanin wayar da suke gina manhaja ko masarrafanta.  Misali, akwai wadanda sun killace kansu ne don gina manhajar wayar salula ta Android.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Android Developers.”  Sannan akwai wadanda suka killace kansu don gina masarrafan wayar salula nau’in iOS na kamfanin Apple kenan, masu kera wayoyin salula nau’in iPhone.   Wadannan su ake kira: “iOS Developers.”  Sai masu gina manhajojin wayar salula na kamfanin Microsoft, wadanda ake kira: “Windows Phone Developers.”

 

A bangaren fasahar Intanet kuma, akwai kwararru wajen gina gidan yanar sadarwa, wato: “Web Developers.”  A nasu bangaren su ma, sun kasu kashi biyu.  Akwai wadanda ke gina shafukan gidajen yanar sadarwa da muke amfani dasu kai tsaye a kowane gidan yanar sadarwa.  Wato shafuka masu dauke da rubutu da hotuna da bidiyo da muke gani kenan a duk gidan yanar sadarwar da muka ziyarta.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Front-End Web Developers.”  Ana kiransu da wannan suna ne domin sune masu kawata “idon garin” kowane gidan yanar sadarwa.  Me ke faruwa a karkashin kasa kuma, wannan sai kwararru da ake kira: “Back-End Web Developers.”

 

Kamar yadda sunansu ke nunawa, aikinsu shi ne shiryawa da tsara hanyoyin karba da sarrafa bayanan dake kowane gidan yanar sadarwa.  Misali, kowane gindan yanar sadarwa a Intanet yana dauke ne da bangarori biyu mahimmai.  Akwai bangaren dake dauke da zalla da tsagwaron bayanai da aka tanada ga masu ziyara. Da kuma hanyoyin karba da shigar da bayanai tsakanin mai ziyara a gidan yanar da masu gidan yanar.  Wannan shi ake kira: “Front-End,” ko kace: “Idon Gari” a harshen Hausa.  Bangare na biyu kuma shi ne inda bayanan ke zuwa, a sarrafa su, har a maido maka jawabi in ta kama.

 

Wannan bangare yana dauke ne da runbun adana bayanai irin su: “MySQL,” da “Microsoft SQL Server,” da “Oracle” da dai sauransu.  Sannan akwai “dan aike” da ke tsakaninsu shafin da muke gani, da wancan rumbun adana bayanai dake bayan fage.  Aikin wannan “dan aike” dai shi ne karban bayanai daga mai ziyara da mika su ga wadancan rumbunan adana bayanai.  A galibin lokuta akan yi amfani da tsarin “PHP” ne, wanda shi ne shahararre a fannin.  Wadanda suka kware a dukkan bangarorin nan biyu kuma su ake kira: “Full Stack Web Developers.”

 

Wadannan rabe-rabe da bayani ya gabata a kansu na kawo mana ne don karin haske, amma a zahiri, gane bambancin dake tsakanin wadannan masana yana da wahala matuka.  Sai in mutum ne ya sanar da kai.  Dalili kuwa shi ne, da zarar ka koyi yadda ake baiwa kwamfuta umarni ta hanyar koyon daya daga cikin dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta, tsallakawa zuwa sauran bangarorin bai da wahala.  Domin cikin mako guda mutum na iya koyon wani harshe har ya fara aiki dashi ba tare da wani fargaba ba.  Misali, harshen da na fara koyo shi ne “Python,” wanda nafi sha’awa fiye da kowane harshe.  Amma a halin yanzu na kutsa harsuna irin su: “JavaScript,” da “PHP” da “MySQL” da “C”, da “HTML” da “CSS” da dai sauran tarkace ga su nan birjik.

 

Bambanci mafi sauki wajen ganewa shi ne tsakanin “System Programmers” da “Application Programmers”; a zahiri, duk wani kwararre wajen gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta (wato: “System Programmer”) zai iya gina kowace irin manhaja ce.  Amma ba dukkan wani maginin zallar manhajar amfani ko masarrafa (wato: “Application Programmer”) zai iya gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta ba.  Sai dai kuma koyon hakan ba abu bane da zai masa wahala.  Shi yasa ya zama gane bambancin ko kokarin tabbatar da bambancin ma, ba shi da mahimmanci.  Na kawo mana ne kawai a babin karatu da karin haske.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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