Mazan Jiya: Muhammad Ibn Musa, Al-Khawaarizmi (6)

Mabudin Kunnuwa

Da yawa cikinmu kan yi mamakin yadda fasahar kere-keren kwamfuta musamman, da yadda fannin lissafi ya zama wani makami mai karfin gaske wajen kimiyyar kere-kere, da gine-gine (na gidaje, da gadaje, da ma’aikatu), da yadda fannin lissafi har wa yau ya zama makami wajen kawo ci gaba a fannin likitanci da hada magunguna a duniyar jiya da yau.  Galibinmu idan wadannan al’amura suka birge mu, sai ka ji mutum ya ce: “Shege Bature!,” ko yace: “Aikin Nasara…!”, ko wani zance makamancin wannan da ke nuna gamsuwarsa da abin, da kuma mamaki kan yadda abin ya kayatar da shi.  Sai dai kadan daga cikinmu (al’ummar Musulmi) ne muka san cewa, fannin lissafi a yau, musamman bangaren da ya shafi kimiyya da fasahar kere-kere da likitanci, da kimiyyar gine-gine, wanda ya samar da asalinsa, ya kuma habaka shi, ya inganta shi, ya kuma samar da turbar da har zuwa yau ake amfani da shi, musulmi ne!  Wannan bawan Allah kuwa shi ne Abu Abdallah, Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khawaarizmi, wanda ya assasa fannin lissafin da a Turancin yau ake kira Algebra, da Trigonometry,da kuma Algorithm.

 

An haifi Imam Al-Khawaarizmi ne cikin shekarar 780 miladiyya, a garin Khawaarizm (ko Khiva) da ke Lardin Khuraasan a wancan lokaci, wato Lardin Xorazm kenan da ke kasar Uzbekistan a yau.  Imam Abu Rayhaan al-Birooni, daya daga cikin manyan malaman tarihi da ilmin musulunci a wancan karni ya ce asalin zuriyarsu Al-Khawaarizmi ‘yan kabilar Fasha ne.  Imam Abu Ja’afar Al-Tabari kuma ya ce dan asalin Lardin Qatrabbul ne, kusa da birnin Bagadaza na kasar Iraki a yau.  A takaice dai galibin marubuta sun nuna cewa ayyuka da hidimar da Imam Al-Khawaarizmi yayi wa ilmi sun fi nasabarsa shahara a duniya. A nashi bangaren, Imam Ibn Nadeem a cikin littafinsa mai suna Kitaabul Fihrisah, ya kawo takaitaccen tarihin Imam Al-Khawaarizmi, inda ya kididdige littattafan da ya rubuta, da kuma cewa ya rubuta su ne tsakanin shekarar 813 – 833 miladiyya. Ya yi hijira zuwa birnin Bagadaza, inda ya yi aiki a matsayin mai binciken ilmi a babbar cibiyar ilmi da ke daular musulunci ta Bagadaza a wancan lokaci da ake kira Daarul Hikmah, karkashin Khalifah Ma’amoon.  A nan ne ya yi bincike kan fannin kimiyya, da lissafi tsantsa, musamman kan rubuce-rubucen kimiyya da a baya aka rubuta cikin harshen Girka, da Sanskirit.

 

Babbar hidimar da Imam Al-Khawaarizmi ya yi wa fannin kimiyya shi ne kan lissafi (Mathematics & Arithmetics), da ilmin sararin samaniya (Astronomy). Dukkan masana fannin lissafi da ke kasashen Turai – na karnin baya da na yanzu – sun yi ikirari da cewa shi ne asalin wanda ya samar tare da inganta fannin ka’idar lissafi kan “ragewa da daidaito”, ko Aljabru wal Muqaabala, a harshen Larabci, ko Algebra a Turance, da dukkan nau’ukanta – irinsu Trigonometry, da Linear Equation, da kuma Quadratic Equations.  Hakan na taskance ne cikin shahararren littafinsa mai suna Al-Kitaabul Mukhtasar fee Hisaabil Jabr wal Muqaabalah.  Khalifah Ma’amoon ne ya zaburar da shi wajen rubuta wannan littafi.  Robert da Gerard sun fassara littafin zuwa harshen Latin.  A halin yanzu akwai kwafin littafin, wanda ya rubuta da larabci, a Jami’ar Oxford.  Wannan fannin ilmin lissafi ne ya samar da asalin ilmin tsarin yadda kwamfuta ke lissafi, da yadda take iya kurumtar da bayanai (Cryptography) da kuma yadda ake tsara hanyoyin gina masarrafar kwamfuta, wato Computer Algorithm.  Ya kuma yi bayanin hanyoyin da fannin lissafi ke taimakawa wajen kasuwanci da kuma tsarin rabon gado, duk ta wannan fanni na “Ragewa da Daidaito”, wato Algebra. 

 

Daga cikin hidimarsa har wa yau akwai littafin da ya rubuta mai dauke da lissafin tazarar da ke tsakanin halittun sararin samaniya, irin Rana, da Wata a yayin da suke juyawa ko shawagi. A cikin wannan littafi mai dauke da babuka talatin da bakwai har wa yau, ya kididdige jadawalolin da ke dauke da wannan lissafi wato Astronomical Tables.  Ya yi nazarin asalin wannan littafi ne daga nau’ukan ilmin sararin samaniya da aka rubuta cikin harshen Hindu na kasar Indiya. Masana sun fahimci hakan ne daga sunan da ya baiwa littafin bayan ya rubuta, wato: Zinjul Sindhind.  A cikin wannan littafi har wa yau ya yi bayanin yadda duniyoyi biyar da aka gano a wancan lokaci (wato The Five Planetary Bodies) suke juyawa. Bayan haka, akwai littafi da ya rubuta mai suna Kitaabu Sooratil Ard, a fannin ilmin kasa (Geography).  Wannan littafi yana dauke ne da yadda duniya take, da abubuwan da ke cikinta ko samanta na teku da rafuka da sauransu.  A cikin littafin ya yi bayanin tazarar nisar duniya a kwance (Latitude) da kuma tazarar nisanta a tsaye (Longitude), da yadda tsarin rani da damina ke kasancewa. Bayan haka, ya samar da babbar Taswirar Duniya, wato Global Map, wanda har yanzu ake amfani da shi (wato taswirar duniya mai kamar kwallo).  A ciki ya haddade fadi da tsawon manyan tekunan duniya, ya kuma gano wasu, ta hanyar ilmin gano bigiren kasa ta hanyar lissafi.  Har wa yau akwai kwamiti na musamman da Khalifah Ma’amoon ya kafa mai dauke da masana kimiyyar sararin samaniya guda 70, Imam Al-Kawaarizmi ne ya shugabanci wannan kwamiti.  Wannan ke nuna kwarewarsa, da kuma tasirin ilminsa a zamanin da yake raye.

 

Allah ya karbi rayuwarsa a shekarar 850 miladiyya, shekaru kusan 1200 kenan; yana dan shekaru 70 a duniya.  Allah ya rahamshe shi, ya kuma sa aljanna makomarsa, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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