Mu Leka Duniyar ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) (1)

Matashiya

‘Yan Dandatsa kwararru ne kan harkar kwamfuta da abin da ya shafi ruhinta, masu amfani da kwarewarsu wajen shiga kwamfutocin mutane ba tare da izni ba, a nesa ne ko a kusa ; masu aiko ma kwamfutoci cututtuka da dama, don satan bayanai ko aikin leken asiri.  A takaice dai mutane ne masu mummunar manufa wajen kwarewarsu.  A yau za mu leka duniyarsu ne don sanin hakikanin tsarin rayuwarsu : irin sunaye ko lakubbansu, gidajen yanar sadarwarsu, shahararrun littafai kan aikinsu, dabi’unsu da addininsu na dandatsanci da kuma shahararru cikin finafinan da aka yi kan sana’arsu. Ga fili ga mai doki.


Tsarin Tunaninsu

Su wadannan mutane ‘yan adam ne kamar sauran mutane, illa dai suna da wani tunani da ya sha banban da na sauran masu sana’ar ginawa da kuma tsara manhajar kwamfuta irin su.  A yayin da sauran ‘yan uwansu ke tafiyar da sana’arsu ta hanyar gina manhaja tare da cikakken hakkin mallaka, wato Copyright, su suna ganin bai dace ba a ce don ka kirkiri manhaja, kai za ka mallake shi kai kadai, sai wanda ka sayar masa.  Suna ganin duk mai wata fasaha ko wani ilimi; littafi ne ko finafinan bidiyo, ko kuma masarrafa ce ta kwamfuta, dole ne ya sako dabarun da yayi amfani dasu (Source Codes), don kowa ya kwafa, ya canza, ya kuma sarrafa shi yadda yake so.

 

Wannan tsari da suke kira gareshi shi ake kira Open SourceIdan kuwa ka gina masarrafa ka boye, to duk inda ka ajiye shi, muddin yana cikin kwamfuta a duniyan nan, za su shiga su sato shi, su raba ma jama’a ko duk wani mai bukata.  Idan littafi ne ma haka ne, za su sace, ta hanyar P2P su kuma raba wa duk mai so.  Wannan tunani nasu ya yi daidai da tunani irin na ‘yan gurguzu, wato SocialistsShi yasa idan ka samu mujallarsu mai suna : 2600 Hackers Quarterly, za ka samu shahararrun kalmomin shugaban ‘yan gurguzu na duniya, wato Karl Max, masu nuna cewa arzikin kasa, ko waye ya samo su, to na kowa da kowa ne.

Tarbiyyarsu

Watakila mai karatu yayi mamakin jin cewa wadannan mutane suna da wani abu mai suna tarbiyya.  Ai tarbiyyar da ake nufi a nan, ita ce ladubban tafiyar da sana’ar da suke kai na dandatsanci.  Da farko dai idan ma suna da addinai nasu (kamar Kiristanci ko Yahudanci ko Musulunci), to suna da wani addini daban mai suna Zen. Ban sani ba, watakila bai kamata a kira shi addini ba.  Amma wani tsarin tunani ne mai tattare da amince wa yiwuwar duk wani abin da kwakwalwa bazai yarda da yiwuwarsa ba.  Suka ce idan ba ka iya tunani kan yiwuwar komai a duniyan nan, to baka cika dan Dandatsa ba.  Dole ka yarda cewa kana iya yin komai da dabarunka.  Kalmar ‘komai’ a nan na nufin duk wani tsari na ta’addanci ne da iya-shege.  Har wa yau, mutane ne masu son yin ba daidai ba, masu kaifin hadda, masu iya lissafi da  kididdiga, masu yawan sauraron wakoki na wasu mawaka da suka killace, masu kwarewa wajen iya rubutu da karatu, masu sha’awan tsarin dambace-dambace daban daban na duniya, (irin su Tae Kwon Do, da Karate, da Kung Fu, da Akido).  A takaice dai mutane ne marasa tsoro da son kuru da tsaurin ido.

 

Nau’ukansu

Sun kasu kashi biyu ne ; akwai kwararru, wadanda sun kware ne kan harkar kwamfuta da manhajojinta, kuma da wannan suke ci ko suka ci abinci a farkon rayuwarsu.  Amma daga baya sai suka zaban ma kansu wannan hanya mummuna a matsayin sana’a.  Wadannan, su ake kira Black Hat Hackers. (Su kuma kwararru makamantansu da suka zabi hanyar cin halal da zaman lafiya da kwarewarsu, su ake kira White Hat Hackers).  Su Black Hat Hackers sune masu gina manhajojin sata da leken asiri, su ne masu gina manhajojin kai hari ta amfani da tsarin DDoS, da ma dukkan wani manhaja na dandatsanci ga kwamfutaSai kuma wadanda suka tsinci sana’ar a rana, masu amfani da tsintattun masarrafan ta’addanci da ake samu daga Intanet.  Galibinsu idan sun kai hari a wata kwamfuta, a kan gane.  Su wadannan su ake kira Script KiddiesWato kamar  kace ‘yan kananan kwari, masu takaitacciyar barna.

 

Kwararrun Cikinsu

Kada ka raba daya biyu, wadanda suka fi kwarewa wajen iya dandatsanci (Hacking) a duniya su ne ‘yan kasar Rasha, wannan da tabbacin duk wani dan Dandatsa a duniya.  Hakan ya faru ne kuwa saboda Allah Ya hore musu kwarewa wajen fannin lissafi (Mathematics)don kasar Rasha ce ke da makarantar fannin lissafi mafi girma a duniya –  su ke ba kamfanonin caca na kasar Ingila tsananin ciwon kai ; su ne ke da kwarewa wajen iya darkake kwamfuta a ko ina take, ta amfani da makamin Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), wanda bayaninsa ya gabata makonni biyu da suka wuce ; su suka fi kowa iya sata ta hanyar kwamfuta ; su suka fi sauran ‘yan dandatsa kwarewa da hazaka wajen aikin.  A duniya an yarda kasar Isra’ila na daya cikin masu karfi kan fannin sadarwa ta kwamfuta.  Hakan ya faru ne da taimakon ‘yan dandatsan kasar Rasha.  Dalili kan dukkan wannan kuwa shi ne, a duniya kasar Rasha ce tafi kowace kasa yawan kwararru kan sana’ar ginawa da kuma lura da manhajar kwamfuta, wato Computer ProgrammersAmma duk da yawansu, galibinsu ba su da sana’a tsayayye kan harkar, don haka sai suka shiga dandatsanci kawai.

Tsarin Zumunci a Tsakaninsu

Mutane ne masu son zumunci a tsakaninsu ; abokin biri, kare ; abokin damo, guza.  Ko basu taba ganinka ba, idan suka ga sakon ka na dauke da tsarin lafazin su, za suso kawance da kai.  Suna shirya babban taron su a duk shekara, wanda suke kira Hacker on Planet Earth Conference, wato HOPE, kuma sun fara wannan taro ne tun shekarar 1994.  A wannan rana kusan duk wani dan Dandatsa da ke Amurka da sauran kasashen Turai (wasu ma daga Asiya) sukan taru, a gabatar da kasidu da makaloli kan yadda sana’arsu za ta ci gaba da kasancewa.  Suna kuma taruwa ne a daya daga cikin manyan Otal din birnin New York, mai suna Hotel PennsylvaniaKusan duk shekara sai an kai musu samame a wajen wannan taro, amma sun ki dainawa. A karshe dai, hukumar gwamnatin Amurka karkashin Bush ta yanke shawaran rusa Otal din ma gaba daya, don a cewarta, tsohon gini ne da ya tare hanya, kuma yana haddasa cinkoso a Unguwar Manhattan da ke birnin New York.  Babban Magana!

 

Wuraren Shakatawarsu

Kaman kowa, ‘yan Dandatsa na bukatar shakatawa, don samun sararawa daga fitintinun jami’an tsaro da ke bin su sau da kafa a dukkan lokuta.  Tabbas sukan je gidan rawa da wuraren shakatawa, amma babu inda suka fi samun sakewa irin Intanet, don a nan ne suke haduwa, su yada ilimin sana’arsu a tsakanin su, su taimaka wa junansu, su tattauna kan matsalar su kafin babban taro, su nemo sabbin hanyoyin warware wasu matsaloli da ke ci musu tuwo a kwarya.  Wasu cikin wuraren sun hada da http://.talk.hope.net, da http://www.lifehacker.com, da dai sauran su.

 

Tsarin Lakubbansu

Mutane ne masu bad-da-kama, ba su son a san ko su waye ne.  Idan ba sana’arsu kake ba, baka isa ka san halin da suke ciki ba.  Wannan tasa suke amfani da lakabi ko lakubba, wato Handles, wajen sadarwa a tsakaninsu da sauran mutane.  Su daman galibi a duniyar karkashin kasa suke, inda suke cin kasuwansu da tsinke. Don haka bai sayi wuri ba ka ga sunaye irinsu: Major Lump, ko Cliff, ko Cadet Crusher, ko Xyzzy, ko BillSF, ko EvilBrak, ko Natas, ko dNight, ko Local Luminary, ko Comfreak da dai sauran lakubba marasa ma’ana ga makaranci.  Su a garesu hatta harafin 0 na da ma’ana.

 

Shahararrun Littafai kansu

Akwai littafai da dama da aka rubuta kan tsarin sana’arsu da kuma yadda suke haukatar da kwamfuta da sauran dabarun da suke amfani dasu.  Wasu littafan tsoffin ‘yan Dandatsa ne suka rubuta, wadanda suka tuba daga sana’arsu.  Wasu kuma masana ne kan harkar tsaron lafiyar kwamfuta da bayanai, wato Computer Security AnalystsAkwai littafi mai suna Botnets: The Killer Web App, wanda Craig A. Schiller da wasu marubuta suka rubuta shekarar da ta gabata.  Littafi ne musamman kan tsarin ROBOT NETWORK da ‘yan Dandatsa ke amfani dashi wajen sojantar da kwamfutocin mutane, suna basu umarni daga nesa.  Sai kuma ga Internet Denial of Service: Attack and Defense Mechanisms, wanda Jeleena Mirkovic, Seven Dietrich, David Dittrick da kuma Peter Reiher, suka rubuta cikin shekarar 2004.  Wannan littafi ne na musamman kan yadda ‘yan dandatsa ke amfani da makamin DDoS, wajen darkake kwamfutocin kamfanoni ko mutane, don cin ma burinsu.

 

A shekarar 2005 kuma sai ga littafin Rootkits: Subverting the Windows Kernel. Wannan littafi ne da ke nuna yadda ake shigar da manhajar leken asiri cikin kwamfuta mai dauke da babban manhajar Windows, yayi iya adadin shekaru ko tsawon lokacin da mai shi ke so, ba tare da sanin mai kwamfutar ba.  Greg Hoglund da James Butler ne suka rubuta shi.  Sai kuma wani littafi mai suna: Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, na John Erikson, wanda ya rubuta cikin shekarar 2003. Akwai kuma The Art of Intrusion: Real Stories Behind the Exploit of Hackers, Intruders, & Deceivers, wanda tsohon dan Dandatsa Kevin Mitnick da abokinsa Williams Simon, suka rubuta a shekarar 2005.

 

Idan ba a manta ba, Kevin Mitnick shi ne wanda ya watsa gamammiyar kwayar cutar kwamfuta da satan bayanai a shekarar 1995, wacce ta sato masa lambobin katin adashin bankin mutane har dubu ashirin. An kama shi, akai ta shari’a, daga karshe dai lauyansa yaci nasara aka sake shi.  Bayan nan shi ne ya tuba da Dandatsanci, ya zauna ya rubuta wannan littafi mai dauke da labaru tabbatattu na ‘yan Dandatsa; hira yake zuwa yayi dasu, yana taskance hiran, daga karshe ya tsara littafin. Amma ya boye dukkan sunayen su don tsaro.

 

Sai kuma littafin Maximun Security: A Hacker’s Guide to Protecting Your Internet Site and Network, na wani tsohon dan Dandatsa, wanda shima ya taba shiga hannun hukuma sanadiyyar dandatsancin da yayi ma wasu bankuna kan injin katin adashin bankin su, wato ATM Card MachineBai bayyana sunansa ba a littafin, balle shekarar da ya rubuta.  Idan ka samu wannan littafi, dandatsanci kuma sai dai ka koya ma wani.  Amma fa sai kana da kayayyakin aikin da kuma mummunar manufar.  Sai littafi mai saukin karatu ga masu karatu, wato Hacking for Dummies, na Kevin Beaver, ya fito cikin shekarar 2004.  Littafi ne da aka rubuta da kyakkyawan manufa, don baiwa masu karatu daman sanin yadda za su kare kansu daga ‘yan Dandatsa.  Sai kuma Hacker Disassembling Uncovered, na Kris Kaspersky. Wannan littafin ba na karatun kowa da kowa bane, sai kwararru.  Cikin shekarar 2003 aka fitar dashi.

 

Sai littafi na karshe, wanda kirkirarren labari ne (Fiction), kan tsarin da ‘yan Dandatsa ke bi wajen sana’arsu, a aikace.  Wannan littafin shi ne: Stealing the Network: How to Own a Shadow, wanda Johnny Long da abokansa suka rubuta.  A kan asalin ‘yan Dandatsa, wato Black Hat Hackers, aka rubuta shi.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *