Nau’ukan Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta

Nau’ukan Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta

Duk da cewa masana sun karkasa babbar manhajar kwamfuta zuwa nau’uka daban-daban, ta la’akari da yanayi ko tsari ko zamani ko aikinta, idan muka taro wadannan kasha-kashe da suka yi  za mu ga cewa a dunkule babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta kasu zuwa nau’i biyu ne.

 

Nau’in farko ita ce wacce ake kira “Gama-gari,” wadda kuma a harshen fannin kwamfuta ake kira “Desktop Operating System.”  Wannan ita ce nau’in da muke gani a galibin kwamfutocin da muke dasu a kasuwa ko shagunan sayar da kwamfutoci, ko kuma ofisoshi da hukumomin gwamnati ko kamfanoni. Wannan nau’in babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta hada da wadda ke dauke cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, wato Laptop, da kwamfutar kan tebur, wato Desktop.

 

Babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta gama-gari tana da siffofi guda uku muhimmai. Na farko shi ne: an gina ta ne musamman don amfanin mutum guda, wato “Single User.”  Wannan bai hana idan kana amfani da kwamfuta mai dauke da wannan nau’in babbar manhaja ta iya kara hurumin wasu don suyi amfani da kwamfutar a sadda ba ka nan ko ka bukace su da yi.  Daman kowace babbar manhajar kwamfuta kan zo ne da tsarin mai mu’amala da ita shi kadai, watau: “Administrator” kenan.

 

Sai kuma hurumin bako, wato “Guest User Account.”  Amma idan ba ka lura ba, hurumin mai kwamfutar kadai za ka rika gani. Idan kana son ganin hurumin bako, to ka shiga: “Start,” ka je “Control Panel,” sai ka matsa “User Accounts.”  Wannan a babbar manhajar Windows kenan na kamfanin Microsoft.

 

Da nace siffar babbar manhajar kwamfuta “Gama-gari” na farko shi ne bayar da damar tsarin mu’amala na mutum daya (Single User), hakan ba ya nufin ba za a iya kara wasu hurumomi ga wasu don su rika amfani da kwamfutar ba, sai dai dole ne a kowane lokaci, mutum daya ne zai zama mai amfani da ita.  Mutane biyu ba su iya sarrafa ta ko wata manhaja nata a lokaci.

 

Siffa ta biyu ita ce: tana iya sarrafa manhajojin mai mu’amala da ita.  Wato da zarar ka loda mata masarrafai (Applications/programs) za ta karba, ta kuma baka damar sarrafa su, ko amafani dasu.  Ma’ana, ba sai lalai manhajar da tazo dasu kadai za ka iya amfani dasu ba, a a, kaima kana iya loda (Install) mata naka, muddin sun dace da mahallin babbar manhajar.  Siffa ta uku ita ce: babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta “Gama-gari” na iya sarrafa bayanai a gajeren zangon sadarwa (Local Area Network).  Wannan ke nuna cewa tana dauke da ka’idojin sadarwa (Communication Protocols) masu baiwa kwamfuta damar iya “magana” wajen karba ko mika bayanai ko sakonni tsakaninta da wata kwamfuta ‘yar uwarta; ciki har da iya nemo bayanai daga Intanet.

 

Misalan babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta Gama-gari sun hada da: Windows 3.0, da Windows 95, da Windows 98, da Windows 2000, da Windows Millennium Edition, da Windows XP, da Windows Vista, da Windows 7, da kuma Windows 8.  Wadannan a bangaren kamfanin Microsoft kenan.  A bangaren kamfanin Apple kuma akwai babbar manhajar MAC OS X.  A bangaren babbar manhajar Linux da UNIX kuma akwai Ubuntu, da Kubuntu, da Lubuntu, misali.  Wadannan su ne kadan daga cikin misalan da suka kebanci babbar manhaja ta Gama-gari, wato “Desktop Operating System.”  Su an gina su ne don amfanin gama-garin jama’a, wadanda ba kwararru ba a fannin mu’amala da kwamfuta.

 

Nau’in babbar manhaja ta biyu kuma ita ce “Na Zangon Sadarwa,” wato “Network Operating System” kenan a harshen fannin kwamfuta.  Ita wannan babbar manhajar kwamfuta ta zangon sadarwa, an gina ne musamman don aiwatar da sadarwa a tsakanin kwamfutar da ke dauke da ita da sauran kwamfuta irinta ko kuma “Gama-gari.”  Ire-iren wadannan babbar manhajar kwamfuta ba kowa ke iya sarrafa su ba, saboda suna ne da wasu manhajoji ko masarrafai na musamman wadanda sai kwararru ke iya mu’amala da su.  Galibin kwamfutocin da ke dauke da shafukan yanar gizo a Intanet, duk suna dauke ne da wannan nau’in babbar manhaja. Domin daman fagensu kena; aiwatar da sadarwa cikin sauki, da inganci, da kuma nagarta.

 

Su kuma nau’in babbar manhaja ta Zangon Sadarwa, suna da siffofi guda hudu ne da ke sa a gane su.  Siffa ta farko ita ce: mutane sama da daya na iya amfani da ita ko wani bangarenta a lokaci guda.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Multi User.”  Saboda babbar manhajar na wannan tsari a tare da ita. Tsari mafi muhimmanci da ke taimaka wa babbar manhajar kwamfuta mai wannan dabi’a kuwa shi ne tsarin “Active Directory” a bangaren Windows kenan.  Wannan tsari na “Active Directory” wata rajista ce mai daukan hurumin masu iya mu’amala da babbar manhajar da yawa a lokaci guda. Tana iya daukan hurumomin masu mu’amala (User Accounts) sama da dubu ashirin a lokaci daya.

 

Misali, a babbar ma’aikata guda ana iya shuka kwamfuta guda daya mai dauke da babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa, wato “Network Operating System” wacce a cikinta za a samar wa dukkan wani ma’aikaci hurumi (User Account), wanda a duk sadda ya kunnan kwamfutarta dake jone da wannan kwamfuta, nan take zai fara mu’amala da bayanan da ke dauke cikinta.

 

Siffa ta biyu ita ce: babbar manhajar kwamfuta na zangon sadarwa tana iya sarrafawa tare da tafiyar da manhajojin mai mu’amala masu dimbin yawa a lokaci guda.  Misali, tana iya raba bayanan da ke cikinta ga dukkan masu jone da ita, a lokaci guda kuma masu adireshin Imel da ke taskance a cikinta sun shiga suna fita, wajen budowa ko aika sakonnin Imel tsakanin ma’aikatar da suke ko wajenta.  Siffarta ta uku ita ce:  tana da karfi da kuzari da juriya wajen aika da aiwatar da umarni.  Wannan babbar manhaja tana iya jure wahala da cin kwakwa a fagen sadarwa – wajen mika bayanai ko karbarsu ko sarrafa su – irin jurewar da babbar manhajar Gama-gari ba ta iya yi.

 

Misali, kana iya samun kwamfuta mai babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa a kunne tana ta aiki, tsawon watanni shida, wata ma tana iya kai shekara a kunne ba a taba kashe ta.  A duk wannan lokaci kuma ta gudanar da aiki ne, ba zaune take zaman dirshan ba.  Duk kwamfutocin da ke dauke da shafukan yanar sadarwa haka suke.  Shi yasa ma kowa ke iya shiga da fita cikin shafukan da suke dauke dasu dare da rana safe da yamma; domin a kunne suke da’iman. Da zarar an kashe su, to, ba za ka iya kaiwa ga bayanan da ke dauke a cikinsu ba.

 

Siffa ta karshe ita ce: tana da kariya na musamman, wajen kare bayanan da ke cikinta, da kariya ga dukkan kafofin sadarwarta.  Domin wannan shi ne babban marabi tsakaninta da babbar manhajar Gama-gari, musamman babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa nau’in Linux/UNIX.  Tana da manhajoji da tsare-tsare (Configuration Settings) na musamman da ke taimaka mata wajen kare duk bayanan da take dauke dasu, da wadanda take karba daga wasu kwamfutoci, da wadanda kuma take mikawa.

 

Misalan wasu daga cikin babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa sun hada da: Windows Server 2000, da Windows Server 2003, da Windows Server 2008, da Windows Server 2012.  Wadannan duk na kamfanin Microsoft ne.  A bangaren kamfanin Norvell kuma akwai: Norvell Netware.  Wannan ita babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa da fi kowanne shahara a duniya.  Domin tun shekarun 1980s ake amfani da ita.   A bangaren nau’in Linux/UNIX kuma akwai: Red Hat, da Caldera, da SuSE, da Debian, da Slackware, sai kuma Free BSD, da BSD.

 

Wadannan nau’ukan babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa suna da matukar muhimmanci sosai, domin su ne hakikanin kwamfutoci, kuma dasu ne kamfanoni da hukumomi da jami’o’i da gwamnatoci ke dogaro wajen adana bayanai, da kuma yada su; a gajeren zangon sadarwa ne (LAN), ko a faffadar zangon sadarwa (Wide Area Network) ko kuma a giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya ne, wato World Wide Web.

 

Galibin ire-iren wadannan babbar manhaja ma kanzo a sake cikin manyan kwamfutoci.  Kamfanin kera kwamfuta da yafi shahara wajen kera kwamfutoci masu dauke da irin wannan babbar manhaja kuwa shi ne kamfanin IBM (International Business Machines) na kasar Amurka.  Wannan tsohon kamfani ne sosai, kuma yana cikin kamfanonin da suka fi tasiri wajen habbaka harkar sadarwa ta zamani a duniya baki daya.  Ya kera kwamfutoci tafka-tafka masu dauke da babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa (Network Operating System Servers) masu matukar tsada, wadanda idan ba kaisatattun kamfanoni ko hukumomin gwamnatin kasashe masu arziki ba, babu mai iya sayensu.  Daga ciki akwai jerin Blue Gene da kera a shekarun baya, irin su Blue Gene/L, da Blue Gene/P, da kuma Blue Gene/Q.  Wadannan, kafin shekarar 2012 ta kare, su ne kwamfutocin da suka fi kowace kwamfuta tsada a duniya.

 

Amma ya zuwa karshen shakarar 2013, an samu wata kwamfuta mai dauke da babbar manhajar zangon sadarwa da taskance bayanai da hukumar kasar Sin (China) ta kera.  Wannan kwamfuta mai dauke da wannan nau’in babbar manhaja mai suna Tianhe-2, a halin yanzu ita ce tafi kowace kwamfuta tsada a duniya.  Tana dauke da babbar manhajar Kalyn Linux ne, kuma ma’adanarta wajen Terabyte dubu goma shabiyu da dari hudu ne (12,400TB), wato Perabyte goma sabiyu da digo hudu kenan (12.4PB).  Kuma tana bukatar makamashin wutar lantarki da karfinsa ya kai MegaWatt 18 ne (17.8 MG).

 

Ba nan ta tsaya ba, an kiyasta farashinta ta kai dalar amurka miliyan dari uku da tamanin ($380 million), wanda yayi daidai da kudin Najeriya naira biliyan sittin da miliyan dari takwas da tamanin da takwas kenan (N60,888 billion).  Trikashi!  Wani aikin sai masu kahon susa.  Wannan zunzurutun kudi duk na kwamfuta daya ce, rak.  An gina ta ne musamman don gudanar da binciken ilimi (kimiyya, da sadarwa, da karantarwa, da likitanci, da zamantakewa, da siyasa, da noma da sauransu).

 

Wadannan su ne nau’ukan babbar manhajar kwamfuta guda biyu muhimmai da ake dasu a halin yanzu.  A mako mai zuwa za mu dubi siffofi ko dabi’un babbar manhajar kwamfuta a jimlace.

 

Mu hadu mako mai zuwa.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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