Nau’ukan Fasahar Sadarwa a Intanet (1)

Shimfida

 

Watakila mai karatu zai yi mamakin ganin taken wannan kasida na wannan mako, cewa “ah ah…shi Intanet din ba fasaha ba ne na sadarwa?”.  Fasaha ce mai zaman kan ta, amma ta sha banban da sauran fasahohi ‘yan uwanta, saboda irin tsarin da aka gina ta a kai.  Idan muka ce za mu yi Magana a kan nau’ukan fasahar sadarwa da ke cikin Intanet, muna nufin dukkan wasu hanyoyi da ake amfani da su kafin ko bayan zuwan fasahar Intanet, wajen sadarwa a tsakanin al’umma da ke wannan duniya ta mu, wadanda kuma ake amfani da su wajen wajen sadarwa ta wannan hanya ta Intanet, a wannan zamani, saboda irin kyakkywan tsari da daman da Intanet din ya bayar.  Wannan zai ba mu daman sanin irin gamewar da wannan fasaha ta Intanet ta yi ma duniya.  Ta zama jakar magori.  So nake mu dauki kowace hanya ta fasahar sadarwa daya-bayan-daya, don yin bayani kan samuwar ta a fasahar Intanet, da dukkan wani bayani da ya danganci yadda ake gabatar da sadarwa ta hanyar, duk da kasancewar ta a Intanet, ba tare da wata matsala ba.  A takaice dai za mu dubi muhallin da kowanne ke gudanuwa ne a Intanet da tasirin hakan ko rashin sa, wajen dada yaduwar hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani a duniyar yau.  Za mu yi kokarin takaita bayani kan kowanne, kamar yadda mu ka saba.

 

Kafin nan, zan so a yau mu dubi dalilan da suka kawo zuwan wadannan hanyoyin sadarwan kan giza-gizan sadarwa na Intanet.  Ta yaya aka yi masu tafiyar da gidajen sadarwa ta rediyo suka fara tunanin zuwa kasuwar Intanet?  Ina masu gidan talabijin?  Me ya kai su can?  Ai na hangi masu wayoyin salula ma suna ta cin duniyar su da tsinke.  Me ya kai su can su ma?  Wadannan tambayoyi da ma wasu, su ne za mu shagaltu da su a wannan mako.  Daga karshe za  mu kawo wasu tambayoyi da wani cikin masu karatu ya rubuto, don fayyace amsoshin su in Allah Ya yarda.  A yanzu kam mu je zuwa, wai kwamfuta ta hau kura!

 

Musabbabai
 

Samun nau’ukan fasahar sadarwa a Intanet a yau ya samo asali ne saboda wasu dalilai kwarara guda uku, wadanda galibin kamfanonin wadannan sadarwa suke ganin dama ce ta samu wajen ci gaba da habbaka harkokin sadarwa wajen yada al’adu da tunani da ilmummuka daban-daban a duniya, kamar yadda su ka faro a baya.  Wannan bai sa sun bar tafarkin yada labarun su da suka gada kaka da kakanni ba.  Hasali ma dai galibin kamfanonin ma sabbi ne, wadanda wannan ita ce kadai hanyar da suka dauka don tafiyar da wannan harka.  Wadannan dalilai dai ga su kamar haka:

 

“The DotCom Boom”

 

Kamar yadda bayani ya sha gabata a wannan shafi cewa daga cikin dalilan da suka haddasa yaduwar fasahar Intanet wajen tasiri a duniya su ne samuwar ingantacciyar hanyar tsarawa da kuma kayatar da shafukan gidajen yanar sadarwa ta hanyar fasahar Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) da kuma ka’idar mika bayanai da ke dauke a shafin Intanet masu launi ko dauke da sauti ko hotuna, wanda kafin kirkiran wannan ka’ida da fasaha, hakan baya yiwuwa.  Wannan ka’ida, kamar yadda muka sani, ita ce ka’idar Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), kuma Farfesa Tim Bernes-Lee, wato “Baban Intanet”, shi ya kirkiri wannan ka’ida tare da fasahar HTML a shekarar 1990.  Wannan ci gaba da aka samu a tafarkin bunkasar Intanet ta dada kara jawo sanayya ga wannan fasaha, ta in da musamman ‘yan kasuwa suka ga dama ta samu wajen tallata hajojin su.  Ana cikin haka kuma sai ga Rariyar Lilo da Tsallake-tsallake (Web Browser) na kamfanin Microsoft mai suna “Internet Explorer” ta shigo.  Mc Andreessen, masanin manhajar kwamfuta kuma mai kamfanin Netscape, shi ma ba a bar shi a baya ba, in da ya shiga dakin bincike don kirkiro tasa Rariyar Lilo da Tsallaken mai suna “Netscape Navigator”.  Shi kenan, ai sai duniya ta game wajen aiwatar da hada-hada a giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya.  Maimakon malam jami’o’i da a farko su kadai ne ke cin Karen su ba babbaka wajen zuba bayanai da gudanar da bincike, sai ga ‘yan kasuwa da hajojin su, sun kwace fage.  Wannan har wa yau ta sa aka samu ci gaba da samun kirkire-kirkiren manhajoji ko masarrafan kwamfuta da ake iya gabatar da kasuwanci ko Karin bincike  da su.

 

Wannan zamani ya faro ne daga farko-farkon shekarar 1990 zuwa 1999, kuma shi a ke ma lakabi da “The DotCom Boom”; wato zamanin yaduwar kamfanonin kasuwanci a giza-gizan sadarwa na duniya.  Zamanin da kamfanoni masu tozon adireshin (.com) suka yawaita a Intanet.  Babu shakka daidai wannan lokaci ne aka fara samun yaduwar sauran nau’ukan fasahar sadarwa a giza-gizan sadarwa ta Intanet.  Don an samu manhajoji ko masarrafa na kwamfuta masu bayar da daman tsara shafin yanan gizo mai launi ko dauke da sauti ko hotuna masu motsi da ma marasa motsi, duk a Intanet.  Har wa yau, duk a cikin wannan zamani ne aka samu masarrafa masu iya daukawa da kuma yada labarai ta hanyar Radio Transmitters.  Da wannan ya zama abu ne mai sauki ka iya sauraran shirye-shiryen gidan rediyo a Intanet kamar yadda kake sauraro a akwatin rediyon ka.  Wannan ita ce daili ta farko, kuma mafi karfi daga cikin dalilan da suka haddasa samuwar sauran nau’ukan fasahar sadarwa a Intanet.

 

Saurin Yaduwa

 

Bayan samuwar wannan zamani mai take “The DotCom Boom”, sai ya zama fasahar Intanet ta samu wani nau’i na yaduwa mai ban mamaki, wanda kusan duk inda dan Adam yake a duniya, muddin ya mallaki kwamfuta da hanyoyin hada shi, to zai sadu da wanda ke ko ina ne a gidajen yanar sadarwa ta duniya.  Wannan sifa ta yaduwa da Intanet ya mallaka, ya kara karfafa samuwar nau’ukan sadarwa a Intanet.  Wannan siffa har way au na daga cikin kebantattun siffofin fasahar Intanet.  (Sabanin sauran nau’ukan fasahar sadarwa da sai an dauki tsawon lokaci kafin su yadu).  Malama Helen Cairncross, a cikin littafinta mai suna The Death of Distance, ta nuna cewa hanyoyin sadarwa irin su Rediyo da Talabijin da jaridu da kuma hanyar aikawa da bayanai na Fax da kuma Telegram, duk sun dauki shekaru a kalla goma zuwa talatin kafin su zama ruwan dare a sauran kasashen duniya.  Amma fasahar Intanet ta samu habbaka ne a tsawon lokacin da bai wuce shekaru ashirin ba ko kasa da haka.  Don haka, wannan saurin yaduwa na daga cikin dalilan da suka haddasa samuwar sauran nau’ukan fasahan sadarwa a Intanet.

 

Saukin Mu’amala

 

Sai dalili na karshe, wato Saukin Mu’amala.  A tabbace yake cewa duk abin da ya yadu a hannun jama’a, kuma suke amfani da shi a kullum don tafiyar da rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum, duk wahalan sa, wataran zai zama sassauka.  Wannan mujarrabi ne na rayuwa, kuma abin da ya faru da fasahar Intanet kenan.  Daidai lokacin da wannan fasaha ya yadu kuma mu’amala da shi ya sawwaka a hannun al’umman da ke rayuwa tare da shi, sai ya zama masu dillancin labaru da hanyoyin yada shi sun sake samun wata kafa ta saduwa da mutane cikin sauki da araha.  Wannan ya kara musu kwarin guiwan kirkiran kafafen yada labarai da sadarwa a Intanet ta dukkan hanyoyi.  Domin a tunaninsu wannan shi zai kara sa su samu karbuwa da yawan masu sauraro ko abokan mu’amala.

 

Kammalawa

 

Daga karshe za mu dakata a nan. Ina mika godiya ta ga dukkan masu aiko sakonnin text ko na Imel.  Mun gode Allah saka da alheri.  Har wa yau, duk abin da ba a fahimta ba, a rubuto don neman Karin bayani.  Matambayi, in ji Malam Bahaushe, ba ya bata.  Allah sa mu dace baki daya, amin.  A mako mai zuwa in Allah Ya yarda, za mu fara koro bayanai kan nau’ukan wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa da suke cin duniyarsu kuma suke cin wata a giza-gizan sadarwa ta Intanet.  A dakace mu!

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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