Sakonnin Masu Karatu (2014) (6)

Ci gaban sakonnin masu karatu.


Assalaamu alaikum Baban Sadik, mun gode da yadda ake agaza wa jama’a.  Don Allah ina da tambaya; shin, zan iya yi wa kwamfuta “Formating,” in eh, yaya ake yi?  Sannan don Allah yaya zan yi in mayar da babbar manhajar “Windows 7” zuwa “Windows 8?”  Na gode, Allah kara maka fahimta.  – Mishary Mishary

 

Wa alaikumus salam, barka da warhaka. Yadda ake “Formating” kwamfuta ko babbar manhajar kwamfuta ba abu bane da bayaninsa zai gamsar a nan.  Domin na farko baka ambaci nau’in babbar manhajar ba.  Na biyu baka ambaci ko hakikanin manhajar da kwamfutar tazo da ita ne ko kuma daga baya ne aka sanya wa kwamfutar ba.  Na uku, baka ambaci nau’in babbar manhajar da za ka sa mata ba idan ka goge wanda ke ciki.  A tare da haka, kalmar “formating” na ishara ne ga tsarin maye gurbin wata babbar manhajar kwamfuta da wata daban, ko da irinta ce.  A tsarin “Formating” idan aka maye gurbin wata babbar manhaja da wata, komai na gogewa ne, sai sabuwar babbar manhajar da aka sa ce za ta tabbata.

 

Kafin ayi “Formating” babbar manhajar kwamfuta, yana da kyau ya zama an bi dukkan hanyoyin da za a iya bi wajen gyara babbar manhajar da ke cikin kwamfutar.  Sai in an rasa wata hanya ce sannan za a yanke hukunci na karshe.  Domin da zarar anyi “Formating,” to kwamfutar ta dawo kamar sabuwa ce.

 

Idan kwamfuta ta rikice, yana da kyau a bibiyi hanyoyin gyara.  Misali, idan tana saibi ne, ba ta sauri a duk sadda aka bata umarni, wannan alama ce dake nuna abubuwa da dama, musamman idan a baya ba haka take ba.  Da farko sai a duba babbar ma’adanarta (Hard Disk Drive) watakila ta cushe ne, ma’ana ta kusan cikewa ko ma ta cike.  Idan akwai sauran wuri a ma’adanar isasshe, sai a duba ma’adanar wucin-gadi, wato “RAM” kenan.  Ita ma muddin tayi karanci, babu yadda za ayi kwamfutar ta tafi daidai.  Domin ita ce ma’adanar da ke samar wa sauran manhajoji wurin zama da zarar ka kira su don yin amfani dasu.  Idan wannan ma’adana ta yi karanci ne (watakila bata wuce 1GB ba, alhali tana dauke ne da Windows 7 misalia), duk sadda ka kira wata manhaja, da kyar za ta budo, domin babu isasshen wurin zama.  A nan dole ne a kara mata ma’adanar RAM zuwa a kalla 2GB, ko a yalwace 4GB.

 

Abu na gaba dake iya sa kwamfuta ta rika saibi shi ne samuwar kwayoyin cutar kwamfuta, wato “Computer Virus” kenan.  Wannan ana iya magance shi ne ta hanyar tace dukkan bayanan da ke kwamfutar kai tsaye, ba tare da bata lokaci ba.  Wannan shi ake kira “Scanning” a turance.  Haka idan kwayoyin cutar kwamfutar sunyi mummunar tasiri a kan bayanan babbar manhajar ta yadda ba ta iya aiki yadda ya kamata sanadiyyar goge su da tayi ko wani abu makamancin haka, ana iya “gyara” babbar manhajar kwamfutar ba tare da an goge ta ba.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Repair.”  Ana iya hakan ne ta hanyar amfani da faifan CD din babbar manhajar, kwamfutar za ta kashe kanta ta sake kunnuwa, daga nan za ta loda dukkan bayanan da suka goge, sauran kuma ta barsu yadda suke, sai a gyara babbar manhajar cikin sauki.  Don haka, sai an bi matakai makamantan wadannan, an rasa mafita, sannan a fara batun “Formating.”

 

Idan bukata ta kama a maye gurbin wata babbar manhaja da wata, ana iyawa.  Sai a kwashe bayanan da ke ciki masu amfani in zai yiwu.  Idan ba zai yiwu cikin sauki alhalin tana kunne ba, ana iya kashe ta, sai a cire babbar ma’adanar kwamfutar, a jona ta da wata kwamfutar ta amfani da wayar USB, don kwashe bayanan dake ciki, cikin sauki.  Bayan nan, sai ka shiga gidan yanar sadarwar kamfanin da ya kera kwamfutar don nemo dukkan kananan msarrafun da ke hada alaka a tsakanin babban manhaja da gangar-jikin kwamfutar.  Wadannan kananan masarrafu su ake kira “Driver Softwares,” domin idan ka maye wancan babbar manhaja mai matsala da wata sabuwa, dole sai ka maye gurbin wadannan kananan masarrafai, in ba haka ba, kwamfutar ba za ta iya kada sauti ba, ko nuna hoton bidiyo, ko iya shiga Intanet.    In ka gama samunsu sai ka adana su a bangare guda.  Sai abu na gaba.

 

Shi ne, sai ka samo faifan CD da kwamfutar tazo dashi.  Idan babu, sai a dauko ma’adanar da aka taskance babbar manhajar da ita (idan anyi kenan).  Idan duk babu wannan, ana iya samun wani faifan CD sabo irin na babbar manhajar da ake son mayewa.  Tunda sabon zubin babbar manhaja za a mata yanzu, wato “Fresh Installation.” Bayan samun wannan faifan CD, sai a jona kwamfutar da wutar lantarki kai tsaye.  Ba a “Formating” kwamfuta idan tana kan batir, ko da kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka ce, wato Laptop.  Sai a sanya faifan CD a cikin kwamfutar, a kunna.  Da zarar ta fara tashi, za ta hangi wannan faifan CD, sai ta loda shi.  Da zarar ta loda, za ta fara sarrafa bayanan da ke ciki kai tsaye.  Sai ka bi ta a hankali, za ta rika maka tambayoyi kana bata amsa. Za ta goge babbar manhajar dake ciki ne gaba daya, sai ta loda sabuwa, sannan ta baka damar tsara sabuwar babbar manhajar wajen shigar da sunanka, da kalmar iznin shiganka, da kasarka, da lokaci, da kwanan wata da dai sauransu.  Idan ta gama za ta kai ka shafin farko, wato “Desktop” kenan.  Daga nan sai ka loda mata dukkan kananan masarrafan da ka nemo daga gidan yanar sadarwar kamfanin da ya kera kwamfutar, wato “Driver Softwares” kenan, nan take za ta dawo sabuwa ful, zam zam.

 

Batun juya babbar manhajar “Windows 7” zuwa nau’in “Windows 8” kuma matakansa daban ne.  Da farko dai dole ne ya zama babbar manhajar da ke kwamfutar ta asali ce, wato orijina, wacce kwamfutar tazo da ita ko wadda aka loda daga faifan CD na asalin kwamfutar, ba irin na bogi wadanda ake sayarwa a bakin titi a biranen kasar nan ba.  Ko wadanda ake saukarwa daga Intanet na bogi (Pirated) ba.  Domin illar wadannan nau’uka na bogi shi ne, da zarar ka fara amfani da babbar manhajar, har wata munasaba ta fuskantar da akalarka zuwa shafin kamfanin Microsoft dake Intanet, nan take za su gane cewa jabu ce, kuma duk wasu kare-karen tagomashi da ake baiwa babbar manhajar Windows ta hanyar Update ba za ka same su ba.   Wannan zai jefa kwamfutar cikin hadari, ta yadda a karshe, rashin wadancan kare-karen tagomashi na iya sa ta kamu da kwayoyin cutar kwamfuta.

 

Ba wannan kadai ba, kafin ka juyar da Windows 7 zuwa Windows 8, dole ne kayi abin da ake kira “Compatibility Test” ta hanyar loda wa kwamfutarka wata manhaja karama daga shafin Microsoft dake Intanet, don auna mizani, da tsari, da kintsin kwamfutarka ko za ta iya daukan sabuwar manhajar Windows 8 ba tare da matsala ba.  Da kuma nau’ukan masarrafan da ke kwamfutarka a yanzu wadanda ba za ka iya amfani da su ba a Windows 8.  Domin akwai bambancin tsari da kintsi sosai a tsakanin Windows 7 da Windows 8.

 

Bayan ka tabbatar da ingancin babbar manhajar dake kwamfutarka, sai ka jona ta da Intanet, ka nemo bayanan karin tagomashi, wato “Windows Update”. Kana iya haka ta hanyar latsa “Start” kaje “All Programs” sai ka gangara “Windows Update,” ka latsa, shafi zai budo.  Sai ka matsa “Check for Updates.”  Za ta nemo dukkan bayanan da kwamfutarka ke bukata.  Idan ka gansu, sai ka matsa “Install Updates,” don loda wa kwamfutar.  Haka za ka tayi, har sai an ce maka “Your Computer is Up to Date.”  Daga nan sai ka shiga shafin Microsoft da ke Intanet (www.microsoft.com) kaje sashen Windows 8, ka matsa alama mai take: “Run Windows 8 Compatibility Test.”  Idan ta gama wannan bahasi, kamar yadda na zayyana a sama, za ta sanar da kai manhajojin da baza su yi amfani ba a sabuwar babbar manhajar.  Wannan matakin farko kenan.

 

Sai ka nemo faifan CD mai dauke da babbar manhajar Windows 8 ka loda wa kwamfutar, ka sake kunna ta, wato “Restart” kenan.  Babbar manhajar za ta gudanar da sauran ayyukan, tana neman bayanai daga wajenka kana ba ta.  Ba wai barinta za ka yi kawai tayi ta yin kidinta da rawanta ita kadai ba.  Akwai inda za ta kai ta saurareka don bata bayani.  Idan ba ka kusa, haka za ta tsaya cif, ba gaba ba baya.  Ka ga idan ba ka kusa da matsala kenan.  Idan ta gama za ta sanar da kai, sai ka tsara ta yadda kake so.  Za ka ga shafin farkonta ya sha bamban da na Windows 7.  Maimakon budo maka shafin farko (Desktop), za ta budo maka “Start Page” ne, mai dauke da sabon fuskar babbar manhajar.  Allah sa a dace, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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