Tekun Atlantika, Da Albarkatun Da Ke Cikinsa (3)

Wannan shi ne kashi na 6 cikin jerin kasidu masu take: “Tekunan Duniya da Abubuwan Da Ke Cikinsu.”


Matashiya

Idan masu karatu basu mance ba, a baya mun fara bayani kan tekunan duniya da irin abubuwan dake cikinsa (ko karkashinsu), inda muka yi bayani kan tekun Pacific, wanda shi ne babba, mafi fadi da girma a duniya.  Bayan tekun Pacific mun fara bayanai kan teku na biyu dake biye dashi, wato tekun Atlantika, ko “Tekun Legas,” kamar yadda muka saba kiransu a Najeriya.  A karkashin wannan gaba dai mun gabatar da kasidu guda biyu.

 

Na farko kan asali da samuwar tekun Atlantika, inda muka duba bangaren tarihi da kuma bigiren wa dannan teku yake a duniya.  Sannan a karshe muka sanar da mai karatu cewa turawa sun dade suna gudanar da bincike na kimiyya kan sha’anin teku a wannan bigire tun sama da shekaru dari da suka gabata.  A kasida ta biyu kuma mun jero bayanai ne kan tarihin bulaguro da tafiye-tafiyen bude ido da birgewa da turawa suka yi ta yi har zuwa wannan karni da muke ciki.  A yau cikin yardarm Allah, ga shi mun dawo don ci gaba da bayani kan tekun Atlantika.  Za kuma mu dubi tasirin wannan teku ne wajen ci gaban tattalin arzikin kasashen duniya da kuma sadarwa.

 

Tasiri Wajen Tattalin Arzikin Kasa

Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata, tekun Atlantika babban teku ne.  Shi ne na biyu a duniya, sannan ya hada alaka tsakanin manyan nahiyoyin duniya guda uku; nahiyar Amurka (Kudanci da Yammaci) ta bangaren yammacinsa.  Sai nahiyar Afirka daga bangaren arewaci.  Nahiyar Afirka na daga cikin nahiyoyin da suka fi yawan jama’a a duniya.  Sai kuma nahiyar Asiya ta gabashinsa, inda ya jonu da tekun Indiya (Bahar Maliya) daga gabas, ya nausa can don hadewa dashi.

 

Wannan gamayya na manyan nahiyoyin duniya da tekun Atlantika ya hada ya taimaka wajen sawwake hanyoyin kasuwanci a tsakanin kasashen duniya.  Tekun Atlantika wata babbar titi ce ta kasuwanci, inda manyan jiragen ruwa ke dauko dukiyoyin kasuwanci da hajoji nau’uka daban-daban daga nahiyar Amurka zuwa Afirka.  Haka ma sukan dauko kayayyaki daga nahiyar Amurka zuwa nahiyar Asiya, kai tsaye ko ta hanyar yin Zango a nahiyar Afirka.  Bayan wannan, har wa yau jiragen kasuwanci kan taso daga nahiyar Amurkan dai zuwa nahiyar Turai; musamman masu tasowa daga bangaren Latin Amerika (Kudancin Amurka – South America).

 

A daya bangaren kuma, jiragen ruwan kasuwanci kan nausa daga nahiyar Afirka zuwa nahiyar Asiya, daga can kusa karasa Turai ta hanyar maliya dake sada su da tekun Pacific.  A wasu lokuta kuma akwai masu tashi daga Afirka zuwa nahiyar Amurka kai tsaye, don kaiwa da daukowa ko kaiwa da dawowa; ya danganci abin da ya sawwaka.

 

Wannan jele da jiragen ruwan kasuwanci ke yi tsakanin wadannan nahiyoyin duniya ta cikin tekun Atlantika ya taimaka gaya wajen habaka alakokin kasuwanci tsakanin ma’abota wadannan wurare.  Wannan kuma, a turance, shi ake kira: “Transatlantic Trade,” a zamanin yau.  Akwai tashoshin jiragen ruwa a dukkan kasashen dake gaba da wannan teku a duniya baki daya; tsakanin Afirka, da Asiya, da kuma nahiyar Amurka.

 

A karkashin wannan teku mai albarka, akwai tarin albarkatun kasa irin su Man Fetur dake makare cikin curarrun duwatsun dake karkashin tekun.  Akwai sinadaran Gas, da duwatsun gini da kuma duwatsun alfarma a jibge a karkashin wannan mahalli.  Bayan wadannan, an gano tarin duwatsun zinare a nisan zurfin da bai shige mil day aba, a karkashin tekun.  Bincike ya nuna cewa, gano hanyoyin zakulo wadannan duwatsun zinare a halin yanzu ba abu bane mai sauki, ta la’akari da yanayin mahallin.  Sai dai nan gaba.

 

Bayan haka, tekun Atlantika ne ke dauke da albarkatun kifi mafi girma a duniya; fiye da tekun Pacific ma.  Wuraren da suka fi kowane tarin wannan nau’in albarka na kifaye su ne: bakin tsibirin Newfoundland da Dogger Bank dake kasar Scotland, sai Georges Bank na kasar Amurka, da kuma tsibirin Bahamas.

 

Tasiri Wajen Sadarwa

Masu karatu zasu yi mamakin jin cewa tekun Atlantika wata matattara ce dake dauke da hanyoyin sadarwa.  Kusan dukkan manyan kamfanonin sadarwa na duniya, da gidajen yanar sadarwa na duniya, da gwamnatocin kasashe daban-daban (ta hanyar kamfanoni hukumominsu), sun bisne wayoyin sadarwa nau’in “Fiber Optics,” wanda hadakar waya ce amma a yanayin gilashi, mai daukan siginar bayanan sadarwa na zamani cikin mafi saurin yanayi da girma.

 

A halin yanzu an kiyasta cewa, kashi 95 a kalla na hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani na suna amfani ne da wayoyin sadarwa na “Fiber Optics” ta karkashin teku, don aiwatar da sadarwa.  A yayin da ragowan ke amfani da tsarin sadarwa ta wayar-iska (Wireless).  Wannan ya faru ne saboda ingancinsa da kuma sauri wajen aikawa da sakonnin bayanai na zamani.  A yayin tsarin hanyar aikawa da sakonni ta wayar-iska ke daukan mizanin bayanai biliyan daya cikin dakika guda (1GB per second), tsarin aikawa da sakonni ta wayar “Fiber Optics” na daukan mizani tiriliyon daya ne a duk dakika guda (1Terabyte per second).   To, duk meye alakar wannan da tekun Atlantika?

 

Alakar ta samo asali ne saboda mahalli.  Ma’ana, kusan dukkan madaukan wadannan bayanai suna biyowa ta cikin wasu wayoyi na sadarwa da aka shimfide su a karkashin tekunan duniya, ciki har da tekun Atlantika.  Sai dai ba yau abin ya fara ba.

 

Yunkurin farko da aka fara yi wajen shimfide wayoyin sadarwa a karkashin teku dai ya faro ne tun cikin shekarar 1850s.  Malaman tarihi suka ce a lokacin ne aka fara shimfida wayoyi masu dauke da siginar sadarwa don amfani da na’urar “Telegraph.”  Hakan ne ya sawwake tare da bayar da damar karba da iya aika sakonni tsakanin nahiyoyin duniya masu dauke da wannan na’ura.  Duk da cewa a lokacin kusan kasashen yammacin duniya ne kadai ke mallakar wannan na’ura ta “Telegraph,” to amma ganin cewa suna mulkin mallaka a lokacin, kuma hukumominsu sun yadu tsakanin tsakiya zuwa gabashin duniya da kuma nahiyar Afirka, sai suka yi wannan kokari don samun damar aikawa da sakonni cikin gaggawa daga kasashensu zuwa inda suke mulkin mallaka ko akasin hakan.

 

Sai yunkuri na biyu, wanda ya samu bayan gushewar na’urar “Telegraph,” sanadiyyar samuwar na’urar wayar tangaraho.  Shi ma ya haddasa shimfide wayoyin sadarwa masu dauke da siginar rediyo don daukar murya daga wata nahiya zuwa wata.  Daidai wannan lokaci dai duniyar ta fara gamewa a fannin sadarwa, sanadiyyar yaduwar wayoyin tangaraho irin na zaman baya (Analog).

 

Marhala ta uku ta samu ne sanadiyyar bayyana da yaduwar hanyoyi da na’urorin sadarwa na zamani.  Wannan, kamar sauran dalilan baya, shi ma ya haifar da samuwar kasashe da manyan kamfanonin sadarwa na duniya wajen bisne manyan wayoyin sadarwa na zamani masu suna “Fiber Optics,” don samar da tsarin sadarwa mai inganci tsakanin nahiyoyin duniya baki daya.   Wadannan wayoyi, sabanin wadanda suka gabace su, suna iya taskance rubutattun bayanai ne, da sauti/murya, da hoto mai motsi, da hoto mara motsi, tare da bayanansu (Metadata), daga asali zuwa tikewarsu (daga inda aka aika su zuwa inda za a karbe su).  Dukkan tekunan duniya a makare suke da ire-iren wadannan nau’ukan wayoyin sadarwa da ake bisnewa don jona sauran bangarorin duniya da bayanai.

 

A bangaren tekun Atlantika ma haka lamarin yake.  Cikin shekarar 1920 aka fara yunkurin bisne wayoyin sadarwa a karkashin wannan teku, amma sai abin bai cinma nasara ba.  Hakan ya faru ne sanadiyyar rashin ingantacciyar fasahar da za ta iya sawwake aikin, da kuma matsalar tattalin arzikin kasa da duniya ta samu kanta cikin shekarar 1930, wato: “Great Depression.”   Wannan yasa sai cikin shekarar 1942 tukun hakan ya yiwu.

 

Kamfanin “Siemens Brothers” mai reshe a birnin Landan, ta hadin gwiwa da hukumar Burtani mai suna: “British National Physical Laboratory,” suka fara shimfide bututu a karkashin tekun Atlantika.  Sun yi haka ne don samar da bututun mai na karkashin, wanda shi ne na farko a duniya baki daya.  Hakan ya faru ne a daidai lokacin Yakin Duniya na II (tsakanin 1940 zuwa 1945 kenan).

 

Bayan kamfanin “Siemens” sai “Transatlantic-1”, wanda shi ne kamfanin farko da ya fara bisne wayoyin sadarwa na tarho a karkashin tekun Atlantika.  Kada a mance, kamfanin “Siemens” ya bisne bututun mai ne, wanda shi ne na farko a wannan bangare.  Amma a babin sadarwa, kamfanin “TAT-1” kamar yadda aka saba kiransa a gajarce, shi ne na farko.  Ya yi wannan aiki ne tsakanin shekarun 1955 zuwa 1956, a daidai gabar tsibirin Gallanach dake kasar Scotland, da gabar tsibirin Clanreville dake Newfoundland a kasar Kanada.  Wadannan wayoyi na aika bayanan murya ne da sauti, kuma suna dauke ne da tashoshin tarho guda 36.

 

Haka lamarin yaci gaba har zuwa lokacin da fasahar Intanet ta bayyana, aka samu ci gaba a fannin kere-keren lantarki.  A daidai wannan lokaci ne, sanadiyyar habbakar kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa, bukata ta karu kan ingancin tsarin sadarwa.  Wannan ya samar da nau’ukan na’urorin safaran bayanai daban-daban, ciki har da wayoyin kebul nau’in “Fiber Optics.”  Idan mai karatu bai mance ba, a shekarar 2010 ko kasa da haka kadan ne muka gabatar da kasidu wajen hudu kan wannan fasaha, masu take: “Fasahar Fiber Optics.”

 

Wannan fasaha ta wayoyin sadarwa nau’in waya ce da aka kera ta daga damammen kunun gilasai, aka daskarar da ita, sannan aka yanka ta sille-sille.  Babbar manufar hakan kuwa shi ne don tabbtar da inganci wajen sadarwa da yawa ko girman mizanin sakonnin da ake son wannan fasaha ta rika dauka yayin aikawa da sakonni.  Idan mai karatu na son ya gane hakan, ya dauki gilashi mai dan tsawo, a cikin duhu, ya haska tocila daga farkonsa zuwa karshe; idan har ya iya tantance tsawon lokacin da hasken ya dauka tsakanin lokacin haskawa da isan hasken zuwa karshen gilashin, to, wannan ita ce tazarar da za ta dauka idan aka cillo siginar bayanan sadarwa daga asali zuwa muntaha.

 

Kusan dukkan kamfanonin sadarwa na zamani suna da manyan wayoyin sadarwa da suka bisne a karkashin tekunan duniya, ciki har da tekun Atlantika.  Wannan gasa ce suke yi a tsakaninsu.  Kamfanin Yahoo!, da Microsoft, da Google, da AT&T, da Verizon da sauransu, duk suna da wannan tsari.

 

Matsaloli

Babbar matsalar da ire-iren wadannan tsare-tsare ke fuskanta, duk da ingancinsu wajen sadarwa da samar da fa’ida ta kasuwanci, shi ne irin hadarurrukan dake samuwa a tekun; ya Allah a karkashi ne ko a saman tekun, wanda ke gangarawa zuwa inda wadannan wayoyi suke.  Wadannan hadarurruka dai sun hada da girgizan kasa da aman dutse da ake samu a karkashin teku, wato: “Earthquarke and Volcanic Eruption.”   Samuwar wannan yanayi na sanadiyyar konewa ko yayyakewar wadannan wayoyi.  Sai kuma matsalar rubewa da sanadiyyar tsawon zamani, musamman ga wadanda aka bisne su da jimawa.

 

Bayan haka, akwai matsalar dabbobin ruwa, wadanda ke kokarin yagalgala wadannan wayoyi, ko ta hanyar ci ko sarkafe jikinsu dasu.  Ba da dadewa ba kamfanin Google ya sanar da cewa lallai ya gano cewa manyan kifayen karkashin teku (Sharks/Whales) na guiguyar wayoyinsa da ya shimfide a karkashin tekun.  Wannan, a cewarsa, ba karamin hatsari bane ga bayanan da wadannan wayoyi ke dauke dasu.  Amma ya tabbatar da cewa ya samar da wata sabuwar fasaha ta nau’in waya mai suna: “Kelvar,” wacce ke da inganci, mai jure matsaloli irin wannan.  Wannan fasaha ta “Kelvar” dai nau’in waya ce amma mai kama da tayar mota, wato wajen dabi’a kenan, ba wai siffa ba.

 

Wannan, a takaice, na cikin gudunmawar tekun Atlantika ga tattalin arzikin kasan duniya da fannin sadarwa, musamman nahiyoyin dake makwabtaka dashi.

 

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

One thought on “Tekun Atlantika, Da Albarkatun Da Ke Cikinsa (3)

  • July 10, 2017 at 2:28 pm
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    Muna godiya Malam, Allah ya kara basira.

    Reply

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