Tekun Pacific, Da Albarkatun Da Ke Cikinsa

Wannan shi ne kashi na 3, a jerin kasidu masu take: “Tsarin Tekunan Duniya da Abin da Ke Cikinsu.”


 

Tekun Pacific (Pacific Ocean)

Wanann shi ne teku mafi girma daga cikin tekunan duniya guda biyar da ambatonsu ya gabata a baya.  Idan ba a mance ba, su ne: Tekun Pacific (Pacific Ocean), da Tekun Atlantika (Atlantic Ocean), da Tekun Aktic (Arctic Ocean), da Tekun Indiya (Indian Ocean), sai Tekun Kudancin Duniya (Southern/Antactic Ocean).   Wannan teku na karshe, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani nan gaba, asalinsa daga tekun Pacific ne, amma daga baya aka zaftace bangaren kudancinsa, don samar da abin da hukumar lura da tekunan duniya ta kira: “The Southern Ocean” ko kuma “Antarctic Ocean.”  Duk dai sunayen na ishara ne ga bigire daya.

 

Tekun Pacific, ta bangaren bigire da fadi da tsawo, yana makwabtaka ne da Tekun Arctic daga arewacin duniya, da Tekun Kudu (Southern Ocean) daga kudancin duniya, da nahiyar Asiya da Ostiraliya daga yammacin duniya, sannan ya yi makwabtaka har wa yau da nahiyar Amurka (Arewaci da Kudanci) daga gabashin duniya.  Wannan teku yana da fadin murabba’in kilomita miliyan 165.25 (165.25 million km2).  Wannan shi ne bangaren duniya (idan aka hada tekuna da gundarin kasa) mafi girma.    Shi ne ke dauke da kashi 46 cikin 100 na fadin duniyan baki daya.  A takaice dai, idan aka raba duniya zuwa kaso 3, Tekun Pacific ya lashe kashi daya.  Ba wannan kadai ba, tekun Pacific ya fi girman gundarin kasar duniyar da muke rayuwa a ciki.  Sannan girmansa ya ninka girman tekun Atlantika da kasarmu ke makwabtaka dashi, sau biyu.

 

Ta bangaren zurfi kuma, tekun Pacific yana da zurfin gaske, fiye da kowane teku a duniya.  Bangaren da yafi zurfin a Tekun Pacific yana daidai bangaren yammacin kasar Philippines ne, arewa da tsibirin Papua New Guinea kenan.  An kiyasta wannan bigire yana da zurfin da ya kai nisan mita 10,920 (10,920m), wato kusan taku 35,827 (35,827ft) kenan.  A halin yana ana kiran wannan bigire mafi zurfi da suna: “The Challenger Deep,” ta la’akari da sunan baturen da ya fara gano wannan bigire a duniya a shekarar 1875, mai suna: HMS Challenger.  Dangane da dalili (Allah shi ne mafi sani), Malaman kimiyya da suka gudanar da binciken dalilin samuwar wannan zurfi haka, sun ce ta yiwu gocewar teburan karkashin kasa (Ocean Tectonic Plates) da ya faru a shekarun baya ne ya haddasa haka.  Domin, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani nan gaba kadan, galibin bigirorin da ake samun ambaliyar teku sanadiyyar gocewar teburan karkashin kasa dake haddasa aman dutse suna bakin gabar wannan teku ne na Pacific.

 

Malaman kimiyyar teku sun raba teku Pacific zuwa kashi biyu; da bangaren Arewaci, wato “North Pacific Ocean,” sai kuma bangaren Kudanci, wato “South Pacific Ocean.”  Babban abin da ya raba wannan teku shi ne shacin Equator da ya tsaga duniya a kwance a tsakiya, inda aka samu bangaren Arewaci da bangaren Kudanci.

 

Asali

Komai na da asali, kamar yadda ita ma duniyar take da asali wajen samuwa.  Dangane da asali babu ja, cewa tekun Pacific ya samo asali ne a daidai lokacin da sauran bangarorin duniya suka samu, lokacin da Allah ya samar dasu.  Amma babu wanda ya san da samuwarsa sai daga baya.  Wannan shi ne inda malaman tarihi suka shigo.  Wa ya gano tekun Pacific a farko?

 

Rubutattun tarihi sun nuna cewa manyan daulolin duniya sun dade suna gasar yawace-yawace zuwa bangarorin duniya a lokuta daban-daban, don manufofi mabambanta.  Ta sanadiyyar haka ne ma aka gano hatta bigiren da a yanzu ake kira da suna kasar Amurka.  Asalin wadanda suka gano wurin da mahallin, turawan kasar Andalus (Spain) ne da na Ingila.  Tekun Pacific, a nasa bangaren, an fara gano shi ne a cikin karni na 16, daidai shekarar 1513 kenan.  Wanda ya gano wannan wuri shi ne Vasco Nunez Baboa, dan kasar Andalus (Spain), a sadda ya ziyarci tsibirin Panama (wanda wani bangare ne daga cikin tsibiran dake tekun Pacific).  Ganin wannan teku mai girman gaske ya bashi sha’awa, inda ya sanya wa wurin suna: “Mal del Sur,” wanda ke nufin “The Great Southern Sea,” ko “Teku mafi girma a kudancin duniya.”

 

Bayan gushewarsa Vasco, an ci gaba da ziyarce ziyarce a bigirorin duniya da dama, har zuwa shekarar 1521, sadda Ferdinand Magellan, dan kasar Portugal, a cikin wani zuga ta na matafiya da kasar Andalus ta shiya a shekarar, ya dira wanan teku.  Sadda ya isa inda wannan teku yake, Ferdinand ya ci karo da yanayin iska mai dadi, mai armashi.  Wannan ya bashi sha’awa har ya kira tekun da suna: “Mar Pacifico,” wato: “Peaceful Sea.”  Kuma daga nan ne wannan teku ya samo asalin sunan “Pacific,” wanda ke nufin zaman lafiya ko lumana.

 

Makwabta

Kasashen dake makwabtaka da tekun Pacific suna da yawa.  Wadannan kasashe su ne: Ostiraliya, da Ecuador, da Honduras, da Papua New Guinea, da Solomon Islands, da Alaska, da Brunei, da El-Salvador, da Indonisiya, da Meziko, da Peru, da Taiwan, da Amurka, da Kambodiya, da Kanada, da Philippines, da Tailand, da Chile, da Koriya ta Arewa, da Koriya ta Kudu, da New Zealand, da Nikaraguwa, da Singafo, da Costa Rica, da Malesiya, da Panama, kasar Sin.  Dukkan wadannan kasashe suna mabakwata da tekun Pacific ne.

 

Bayan kasashen dake makwabtaka da tekun Pacific, wannan teku na dauke da tsibirai guda dubu ashirin da biyar (25,000) ne, wadanda ke dauke a bangarori hudu dake ilahirin tekun baki daya.  Idan aka ce tsibiri, ana nufin wani yanki ne na kasa, inda mutane ke rayuwa a kai, wanda ke gewaye da teku ta kowane bangare.

 

Tsibiran dake Tekun Pacific, wadanda adadinsu ya kai dubu ashirin da biyar (25,000), suna kunshe ne cikin bigirori uku dake ilahirin tsibirin.  Bigiren farko shi ne bangaren Arewacin tekun, wanda ya kunshi tsibirai irin su tsibirin Mariana (Mariana Island), da tsibirin Caroline (Caroline Island), da tsibirin Marshall (Marshall Island), da kuma tsibirin Karbati (Karbati Island).  Wadannan tsibirai su ne ke bigiren Micronesia, kuma gaba dayansu a dunkule ana kiransu “Micronesia Islands.”  Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a farko, wadanann tsibirai suna arewacin tekun Pacific ne, arewa da Shacin Equator kenan.

 

Nau’ukan tsibirai na biyu su ne wadanda suke bangaren kudu maso yamma da shacin Equator.  Shahararrun cikinsu su ne: tsibirin New Guinea, wanda shi ne tsibiri na biyu a girma a dukkan tsibiran dake duniya.  Tsibiri mafi girma a duniya shi ne tsibirin Greenland (Greenland Island).  Sai tsibirin Bismarck (Bismiarck Island), da tsibirin Solomon (Solomon Island), da tsibirin Santa Cruz, da tsibirin Vanuatu, da tsibirin Fiji (Fiji Island), sai tsibiri na karshe, wato New Caledonia.  Wadannan su ne tsibirin dake bangaren kudu maso yammacin tekun Pacific, kuma a dunkule ana kiransu “Malanesia Islands.”

 

Sai bangare ko bigiren tekun Pacific na karshe, wanda shi ne bangare mafi girma daga cikin ukun – domin ya debo daga tsibirin Hawaii ne zuwa nahiyar New Zealand.  Wannan bangare shi ake kira: “Polynesia” ko “French Polynesia Islands.”  Wannan bangare ya tattaro tsibirai irin su: tsibirin Tuvalu (Tuvalu Island), da tsibirin Tekelau (Tekelau Island), da tsibirin Samoa (Samaoa Island), da tsibirin Tonga (Tonga Island), da tsibirin Kemadec wanda ke yammacin tekun.  Sauran tsibiran sun hada da: tsibirin Cook, da tsibirin Society, da tsibirin Austral (Austral Island), da tsibirin Marquessa, da Tuamotu, da Mangareva, da kuma Easter Island.  Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, wadannan tsibirai su ake kira: “French Polynesia Islands.”

 

Dangane da yanayin mahalli kuma, wadannan tsibirai dake tekun Pacific sun kasu kashi hudu ne.  ma’ana, yanayin tsarin wurin, na tudu ko gangara ko rashin kowannensu.  Bangaren farko su ake kira: “Continental Islands,” wato tsibiran dake bakin gabar tekun kenan, wadanda suke makwabtaka da nahiyoyin duniya.  Tsibiran dake wannan bangare sun hada da tsibirin New Guinea (tsibiri na biyu a girma a duk fadin duniya kenan, bayan tsibirin Greenland), da tsibirin New Zealand (wanda shahararren tsibiri ne a duniyar yau), da kuma kasar Philipines.  Duk tsibiran dake makwabtaka da wadannan wurare su ake kira: “Continental Islands.”

 

Sai bangare na biyu ya kunshi tsibiran mahallinsu na kan tudu ne a inda suke, cikin tekun Pacific din.  Wadannan su ake kira: “High Islands;” su ne tsibiran dake kan tsunuka, ko ma dai gaba dayan mahallinsu tsauni ne, a tekun Pacific din.  Su ne tsibiran dake kan tsaunuka masu aman wuta, wato “Volcanic Islands.”  Daga cikin wadannan tsibirai akwai tsibirin Bougainville, da tsibirin Hawaii, da kuma tsibirin Solomon (Solomon Island).

 

Bangare na uku su ake kira: “Coral Reefs Islands,” kuma su ne tsibiran dake kan tsaunuka marasa bisa ko tsawo, wato gajerun tsaunuka kenan, kuma ba masu aman wuta ba.  Wadannan tsaunuka dake dauke da wadannan tsibirai asalinsu daga daskararren kunun aman tsaunuka ne, wato Volcanic Lava.  Wanann shi ne kunun dutse mai zafi dake malalowa daga saman tsauni a yayin da yake aman wuta.  A yayin da wannan kunun dutse ke malalowa daga saman tsaunin, yana daskarewa ne nan take.  Da zarar ya daskare sai ya zama tsauni mai matsakainin girma da tsawo, iya gwargwadon yawa da malalarsa.   Wannan daskararren kunun dutse yana da fa’ida sosai.  A bangaren farko yana zama taki ne ga shuke-shuken dake wurin da ya malala.  A bangare na biyu kuma, wani mahalli ne na sabuwar rayuwa.  Allah buwayi gagara misali!  Tsibiran dake wannan mahalli su ake kira: “Coral Reefs Islands.”

 

Sai bangare na hudu kuma na karshe, wanda malaman kimiyyar teku ke kira: “Uplifted Coral Reefs Islands.”  Wannan mahalli ya dara bangare na uku bisa da tudu, amma tsawonsa bai kai tsawon tsauni irin na al’ada ba.  Tsibiran dake wannan mahalli sun hada da: tsibirin Banaba (Banaba Island), da tsibirin Makatea (Makatea Island) dake bangaren French Polynesia.

 

Wadannan su ne nau’ukan mahallan dake dauke da tsibiran dake Tekun Pacific.

 

Tashoshin Jiragen Ruwa

Abu ne sananne cewa duk wani teku dake duniya yana da tashoshin jiragen ruwa dake shawagi a cikinsa; dare da rana safe da yamma.  Wadannan tashoshi dai suna bakin gabar kasashen dake makwabtaka da tekun ne.  A baya mun lissafo kasashen dake makwabtaka da tekun Pacific, a wannan bangare, mai karatu zai san tashoshin da jiragen ruwa ke sauka da tashi daga gare su ne, a wannan babban teku na duniya.

 

Akwai tashoshin jiragen ruwa dake sauka/tashi a tekun Pacific a kasashe daban-daban na duniya dake makwabtaka da tekun.  Tabbas akan samu tashoshin jiragen ruwa dake shawagi a tekun Pacific sama da daya a wasu kasashen.  A takaice dai, akwai tashoshin jiragen ruwa a: birnin Bangkok na kasar Tailand, da birnin Hong Kong na kasar Sin (China), da birnin Kao-Hsuing dake Lardin Taiwan.  Wasu daga cikin tashoshin sun hada da: na birnin Los Angeles dake kasar Amurka, da na birnin Manila dake kasar Filifins, da na birnin Pusan dake kasar Koriya ta Kudu, da na biranen San Francisco da Seattle dake kasar Amurka.  Daga ciki har wa yau akwai tashar birnin Shanghai dake kasar Sin (China), da na birnin Singapore dake kasar Singafo, sai na birnin Sydney dake kasar Ostiraliya.  Sauran su ne na birnin Vladivostok dake kasar Rasha, da wanda ke birnin Wellington na kasar New Zealand, sai na karshe, wanda ke birnin Yokohama na kasar Jafan.

 

Wadannan, a takaice, su ne tashoshin jiragen ruwan dake shawagi a cikin tekun Pacific, dare da rana safe da yamma.

 

Yanayin Ruwa

Tekun Pacific na dauke da ruwan da babu wani teku a duniya mai dauke da irinsa, wajen yawa, da zurfi, da kuma fadi.  Tekun Pacific ne ke dauke da kashi 50 cikin 100 na ruwan dake duniya baki daya; tsakanin ruwan zartsi (gishiri) da ruwan gardi.  Idan ka raba ruwan duniya baki daya, rabin adadinsa daga tekun Pacific ne.  A ma’aunin “Cubic,” adadin ruwan tekun Pacific ya kai miliyan 714 (714 million cubic meter).  Ruwan tekun Pacific na dauke da yanayi nau’uka uku ne; da na sanyi, da na dumi, sai na kankara.  Wadannan nau’ukan yanayi suna sauyawa ne iya gwargwadon yanayin iska dake bugawa ko shawagi a fadin wannan duniya tamu.

 

A iya binciken malaman kimiyyar teku, dandanon ruwan tekun Pacific ba daya yake ba.  Na’am, yana da dandanon gishiri tabbas, amma bangaren tekun dake can kusa da shacin Equator, makuran arewaci inda tekun ya fara, ya fi dandanon gishiri fiye da kowane bangarensa.  Sannan wannan bangaren ne yafi tsananin sanyi inda har yakan kai mizanin sandarewa (Freezing Point) a wasu lokuta na shekara.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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