Tsakanin “Windows XP” da “Windows Vista”, Wanne Tafi Inganci? (1)

Asalin Babbar Manhajar “Windows” a Tarihi

Sanadiyyar kin yarda da sabuwar manhajar kwamfuta da Bill Gates ya tallata musu cikin shekarar 1985, bayan tsawon lokaci da suka dauka suna harkar kasuwanci kan babban manhajar kwamfuta, kamfanin IBM ya bullo da nasa manhajar sabuwa ful, mai suna OS/2 cikin shekarar 1990, shi kuma Bill Gates yaci gaba da kawata wannan sabuwar manhaja, wacce a karshe ya sanya wa suna Windows 3.1, ya kuma fitar da ita kasuwa cikin shekarar 1992.  Kafin wannan takaddama ta shiga tsakaninsu, Bill Gates, wanda shi ne shugaban kamfanin Microsoft a wancan lokaci, ya dade da bai wa kamfanin IBM lasisin babban manhajarsa ta kwamfuta mai suna Microsoft Disk Operating System, ko MS-DOS, a gajarce.  Wannan ita ce babban manhajar kwamfuta da aka fi amfani da ita a wancan lokaci, musamman ganin cewa kamfanin IBM kadai ke da lasisin yadawa da tallata ta a duniya gaba daya.  Don haka sai ya zama duk kwamfutocin da wannan kamfani na IBM ke kerawa da sayarwa a duk shekara, suna dauke ne da wannan manhaja ta MS-DOS.

 

Babban manhajar kwamfuta ta MS-DOS, sabanin manhajar kwamfuta ta Windows da muke amfani da ita a yanzu, tana zuwa ne cikin ‘yan kananan ma’adanar kwamfuta ta Floppy Disk, sai a loda manhajar cikin kwamfutar, sannan idan ka tashi aiki, sai ka dauko masarrafar da kake son aiki a kanta, ka loda ta ciki.   Idan ka gama aikinka, sai ka fice daga kwamfutar, sannan ka zare ma’adanar da ke dauke da masarrafar da kayi aiki a kanta.  Ba wai sanya masarrafar kai tsaye ake yi, a yi ta aiki da ita da’iman ba.   Amma cikin shekarar 1985, sai Bill Gates ya canza tsari da zubin wannan manhaja, inda ya bullo da tsarin da ke ba duk mai mu’amala da kwamfuta yin aikinsa cikin sauki, ta hanyoyi mafiya sauki.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira Graphical User Interface (GUI).  Idan kana bukatar yin wani abu, sai ka matsa alamun da ke dauke da abin da kake son yi, sai kwamfuta ta baka zabi, sannan ka ci gaba, (kamar dai hira kake da ita) har ka kai ga gaci.

 

Da ya tsara wannan sabuwar manhaja, sai ya tallata wa kamfanin IBM.  Ko da kamfanin ya kalli wannan tsari, ganin ya sha bambam da wacce suke amfani da ita, sai ya hada Bill Gates da wani gungun kwararru kan harkar manhajar kwamfuta, suka zauna don yin nazari.  Da suka mika rahoton su ga kamfanin, ganin zunzurutun kudin da zai kashe, sai kawai yaki amincewa.  Kasancewar kamfanin IBM bai samu natsuwa da wannan sabon tsari da Bill ya tallata masa ba, sai yarjejeniyar su kan lasisin manhajar MS-DOS ta kare cikin shekarar 1990, shi kuma Bill ya samu kamfanoni irin su Compaq, da ma wasu kamfanoni da ke kasar Jafan suka ci gaba da sanya wannan sabuwar manhaja cikin kwamfutocinsu suna sayarwa a dukkan kasashen duniya.

 

Wannan tsari na cikin abin da ya kara sawwake wa jama’a damar mu’amala da kwamfuta da kuma koyon ta cikin sauki.  Kuma  Wannan shi ne asalin haihuwar babban manhajar kwamfuta ta Windows da muke ta amfani da ita a yanzu.  Haka kamfanin Microsoft yaci gaba da baiwa wasu kamfanoni lasisin yada wannan sabuwar manhajar ta Windows 3.1 da ya kirkira.  Ya kuma hada kai da kamfanin kera masarrafar da ke kara wa kwamfuta inganci, wato Microprocessor ko Chips, inda ya yi hadin guiwa da kamfanin Intel.  Wannan ta sa ba a samun matsala tsakanin mizanin kwamfutar da ake kerawa sabbi da kuma irin zubin babban manhajar kwamfuta ta Windows.  Bayan fitowar manhajar Windows 3.1 a shekarar 1992, bayan wasu shekaru kuma sai ga Windows NT, wacce kamfanin Microsoft ya fitar cikin shekarar 1993.

 

Daga nan aka samu Windows 95, wacce aka fitar a shekarar 1995.  Sai kuma Windows 98 wacce kamfanin ya fitar cikin shekarar 1998.  Wannan babbar manhajar Windows 98 na dauke da kayatattun abubuwa da suka bambanta ta da sauran, musamman dangane da abin da ya shafi mu’amala da fasahar Intanet.   Shekaru biyu da fitar Windows 98 kuma sai ga Windows 2000 (Millennium Edition).  Hakan ya faru ne cikin shekarar 2000, daidai lokacin da kasuwar kwamfutoci ke habaka, tare da fasahar Intanet.  Wannan zubi na Windows 2000 ta samu karbuwa sosai, duk da yake galibin kamanninta daya ne da wacce ta gabace ta.  Da aka shiga shekarar 2002, sai kamfanin Microsoft ya sauya wa manhajar Windows kamanni da wasu sabbin tsare-tsare, cikin sabuwar manhajar Windows XP da ya fitar a shekarar 2002

 

Tun bayyanar nau’in farko na babban manhajar Windows, kwararru kan harkar kwamfuta sun yarda cewa ba a taba samun nau’in Windows da ta samu karbuwa irin Windows XP ba, har yanzu kuwa.  Wannan ya faru ne saboda dalilai masu yawa.   Da farko dai manhajar Windows XP na da cikakken natsuwa, bata cika rikicewa ba kamar sauran wadanda suka gabace ta.  Na biyu kuma tana da kare-karen manhajoji da jami’ai (software drivers) masu taimaka wa mai amfani da ita wajen hada alaka tsakaninta da wasu kwamfutocin.  Sannan tana da hanyoyin tsaro masu taimakawa wajen tsare maka bayananka da dukkan manhajojin da kake amfani dasu.  Idan kana mu’amala da fasahar Intanet, fargabanka kadan ne dangane da ‘yan dandatsa masu ketowa cikin kwamfutocin mutane suna aikata ta’addanci iri-iri, musamman idan kana yawan kara mata tagomashi ta hanyar Windows Update da kamfanin ke bayarwa a kusan dukkan mako.

 

Tabbas babban abin da ya kara yaduwar ‘yan dandatso a duniya shi ne kasancewar kusan kashi sittin cikin dari na masu amfani da babban manhajar kwamfuta a duniya suna yi ne da na kamfanin Mircosoft, wato Windows.  Hakan na faruwa ne sanadiyyar hanyoyin da kamfanin ke bi wajen kawatawa da kuma tsara manhajar, don masu amfani da ita su samu sauki.  To amma hakan baya yiwuwa musu ta sauki.  Wannan ma tasa galiin kamfanoni masu saye da sayarwa ta hanyar Intanet basu amfani da babban manhajar uwar garke (Server) ta kamfanin Microsoft, sai dai su ne nau’ukan Linux ko Unix ko kuma Mac, don sun fi karko wajen kariya da kuma baiwa mai mu’amala natsuwa a zuciyarsa.  To duk da haka dai manhajar Windows XP ta samu karbuwa fiye kowace babban manhajar kwamfuta da kamfanin Microsoft ya fitar.

 

Kamfanin Microsoft bai fitar da wata sabuwar babban manhaja ba bayan Windows XP sai bayan shekaru biyar, lokacin da ya fitar da Windows Vista, a Janairun shekarar 2007.  Kafin wannan lokaci, an samu nau’ukan Windows XP wajen uku; Service Pack 1 da Service Pack 2 da kuma Service Pack 3.  Kafin bayyanar Windows Vista, mutane da dama sun yi ta haba-haba da Allah Allah da bayyanar ta.  Amma ko da kamfanin Microsoft ya fitar da wannan manhaja, sai da dama cikin manyan kamfanoni suka ki amfani da ita kai tsaye.  Wasu suka ce sai bayan shekaru zasu mika wuya, wasu kuma suka ce har abada, ba su ba Vista.  To me ya kawo hakan?  Da farko dai, kamar sauran babban manhajar kwamfuta da kamfanin Microsoft ya saba fitarwa, Vista na dauke da kayatattun abubuwa masu taimaka wa mai mu’amala da kwamfuta, musamman kan abin da ya shafi neman taskantattun bayanan da ke cikin kwamfutarka, ta hanyar Matambayi Ba-ya-bata, wato Windows Search.  Bayan wannan, wani siffa da Windows Vista ke takama da shi shi ne kan abin da ya shafi kyale-kyale na dukkan abin da zaka bude.  Zaka ga dukkan fuskar kwamfutarka na cike da ado da kuma hanyoyin nemo manhajoji ko bayanan da ka adana cikin sauki, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, wannan babban manhaja ta Windows Vista da dukkan nau’ukanta, na bukatar mizani mai dimbin yawa kafin ka dora wa kwamfutarka ita, don yi mu’amala da ita.  Sabanin Windows XP da dukkan nau’ukanta, wacce ke bukatar dan takaitaccen ma’adana (daga 128MB RAM zuwa 512MB RAM) don shiga kwamfutarka, mafi karancin nau’in Vista, irin su Windows Vista Home Basic ko Premium Edition na bukatar a kalla ma’adanar sarrafa manhajar kwamfuta (RAM) mai mizanin tarin bayanai biliyan daya, wato 1gigabyte (1G).  Har way au, ba za ka samu irin hanzarin da kake bukatar ba idan ba kaiwa kwamfutarka umarnin aikata wani abu.  Bayan wannan, wani abin bakin ciki shi ne, duk da wannan kyaun siffa da manhajar Vista ke takama da shi, ba dukkan manhajojin kwamfuta zaka iya sanya mata kayi amfani da su ba.  Wasu baza su shiga ba, wasu kuma su shiga, amma ka kasa samun biyan bukatarka da su.  Har wa yau, sai dan Karen saibi.  Maimakon a ce tunda har wannan babban manhaja na bukatar mizani mai tarin yawa, idan ta samu ta biya bukata, ina, ko kadan!  Abin da yafi kusan baiwa kowa haushi shi ne yawan sumewa da wannan manhaja ta Vista ke sanya kwamfutarka ta rika yi akai-akai, wato Hanging, ko Crashing. 

 

Kamfanin ya sha bayanin cewa bayan wasu ‘yan lokuta abubuwa zasu daidaita, amma har yanzu galibin mutane da wasu kamfanoni basu amince ma wannan manhaja ba.  Kusan duk sun ci gaba da amfani da tsohuwar manhajar Windows XP, wacce tafi Vista aminci nesa ba kusa ba.  Wani abin mamaki ma shi ne, hatta kamfanin Intel Inc. wacce ke da hadin guiwa da kamfanin Microsoft, ya sanar da cewa ba zai canza babban manhajar kwamfutar da kamfaninsa ke amfani dasu daga Windows XP zuwa Windows Vista ba, duk da kusancin da ke tsakanin kamfanonin biyu.  An kuma kiyasta cewa wannan kamfani na Intel Inc. ya mallaki kwamfutoci sama da dubu tamanin masu dauke da manhajar Windows XP, wanda a cewarsa, rashin amince ma ingancin manhajar Windows Vista ya hana shi wannan sauyi.  Idan haka ne, wannan ke nuna cewa koke-koken da galibin mutane ke yi kan ingancin Vista, musamman dai a yanzu, yana da asali da wannan dalili na rashin inganci.

 

Ana cikin haka ne, sai kamfanin Microsoft, ranar 30 ga watan Yuni ya bayar da sanarwar cewa zai daina sayar da sabbin manhajar Windows XP  cikin shekarar 2009 da ke tafe.  Wannan ke nuna cewa duk dillalan da ke dauke da wannan manhaja ta Windows XP da zarar ta kare a shagunansu shikenan, mutane basu da wani zabi illa su sayi sabuwar manhajar Windows Vista, duk da dimbin matsalolin da take dauke dasu kuwa.  A cikin sanarwan ta ci gaba da cewa, zata ci gaba da baiwa masu dauke da ingantattun manhajar Windows XP din tallafi, har zuwa shekarar 2014.  Wannan tallafi, ita ce hanya mafi sauki da mai amfani da wannan manhaja zai rika samun damar kara wa manhajar kuzari da kuma warware dukkan matsalolin da ka iya samun sa; ya Allah ta hanyar tuntubar kamfanin ta wayar tarho ne ko ta hanyar zuko manhajojin kara kuzari ne, wato Windows Update.  Kafin wannan sanarwa, akwai rade-radin cewa kamfanin Microsoft na aiki a kan wata sabuwar manhaja mai suna Windows 7, wacce a cewar jami’an kamfanin, za ta maye gurbin Windows Vista ne, cikin shekarar 2010.  Wannan tasa galibin kamfanoni suka ce sun gwammace su jira wannan sabuwar manhaja da su yi gangancin dora wa kwamfutocinsu masu dauke da muhimman bayanai manhajar Vista, wacce basu amince wa ingancinta ba.

 

Wannan tasa wasu cikin masu fashin baki a harkar sadarwa ta kwamfuta ke ganin cewa duk yadda kamfanin Microsoft ya kai wajen inganta babban manhajar Windows Vista mai ci a yanzu da kuma Windows 7 da yake kokarin fitarwa nan da shekaru biyu masu zuwa, aikin banza kawai yake yi.  Domin, a cewar wasu kwararru kan harkar kwamfuta, tun asalin  ginin manhajar Windows da kamfanin yayi shekaru sama da talatin da suka gabata, akan sa kamfanin ke gina duk wani sabon gini na sabuwar manhajar da yake fitarwa.  Wannan tasa suke ganin asalin ginin manhajar Windows ya gaji, don haka kamfanin Microsoft ya sauya tsari, yayi koyi da kamfanoni irin su Apple da Linux ko irin su Mac, in har yana son yaci gaba da rike kasuwar manhajar kwamfuta a duniya, kamar yadda yayi ta yi cikin shekarun baya.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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