Tsari Da Gudanuwar Na’urar “Black Box” (3)

Tsari da Kintsin Na’urar “Black Box”

Daga bayanan da suka gabata cikin makonni uku da wadannan kasidu suka fara riskar mai karatu, a bayyane yake cewa lallai wannan na’ura ta “Black Box” abu ne mai girman sha’ani, wanda hukumomi da masu binciken ilimi kan fannin tsarawa da kera jirgin sama suka himmatu dashi.  Wannan ya kawo mu ga yadda tsarin wannan na’ura yake.  Bayanai kan haka sun kunshi manufar samar da wannan na’ura ne, da launin da na’urar ke dauke dashi tare da dalilin da yasa launin ya zama abin da ya zama.  Sai bayanai kan abin da ke rubuce a jikin na’urar, da yadda na’urar ke taskance bayanai, da irin bayanan da take taskancewa, da tsawon lokacin wannan na’ura ke iya dauka wajen nannade su. A karshe mai karatu zai san a wani hali yanzu ake wajen inganta wannan na’ura, musamman ganin cewa idan jirgi ya bace – kamar yadda jirgin kasar Malesiya ya bace a shekarar da ta gabata – ba a sanin a wani hali yake; tunda na’urar na tare da jirgin kuma ba a iya kaiwa gare ta sai an ga jirgin?

 

Babbar manufar samar da wannan na’ura, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a kashi na farko, shi ne kokarin gano ire-iren matsalolin da jirgi ke fuskanta, wadanda ke haddasa masa hadarurruka a halin tashinsa daga filin tashin jirgi, ko a halin tafiyarsa a sararin samaniya, ko kuma, a karo na karshe, a yayin da yazo sauka a filin da zai sauka, don tantance me ya faru?  Sanadiyyar me?  Daga wani lokaci?  –  lokacin tashi, ko tafiya, ko kuma sauka?  Har wa yau, yana daga cikin manufar samar da wannan na’ura kokarin fahimtar abin da ya faru ta hanyar kara ko sauti da inji ko na’urar dake cikin jirgin ya fitar.  A daya bangaren kuma, da kokarin jin zancen wadanda ke cikin jirgin a sadda abin ke kokarin faruwa ko yake faruwa, musamman muryar matukin jirgin, da muhawarar da ta kasance tsakaninsa da masu bashi umarnin sauka ko tashi daga filin jirgin (Flight Controllers).

 

A sadda ake ta kokarin inganta wannan na’ura don samun cinma wadannan manufofi, an samu jirage da dama da suka yi hadari kuma aka wayi gari na’urorin da ake amfani dasu a wancan lokaci suka kasa gamsar da masu bincike wajen gano musabbabin hakan; sai dai hasashe kawai aka tayi da kirdado.  Wannan yasa duniya bata gushe ba wajen hangen hanyoyin inganta wannan na’ura har zuwa wannan lokaci da mai karatu ke karanta wannan kasida.

 

Tunda ake kera wannan na’ura ba a taba mata launin fenti baki ba, har zuwa yau.  Fentin da ake mata launin ruwan lemo ne, wato “Orange Color.”  Dalilin yin hakan kuwa, a cewar masana, shi ne don baiwa masu kokarin gano inda wannan na’ura take a yayin da aka yi hadarin jirgi, don ceto na’urar.  Suka ce idan akai wa na’urar fenti baki, babu yadda za ayi a iya gano ta.  Wannan fenti ba fenti bane irin wanda mai karatu ya saba yaba wa bangon gidansa.  Fenti ne mai iya jure zafin wuta da ya kai mizanin santigireti 1000 (1000 Centigrade).  Duk yadda wuta irin ta duniya ta kai da zafi ba za ta iya kone launin ba. Sannan launin yana sheki ko kyalli, don daukan hankalin mai neman na’urar idan bukata ta taso.  Sannan a can wutsiyar jirgin ake makala wannan na’ura, don ba ta kariya daga saurin rugujewa, musamman ganin cewa galibin hadarurrukan da jiragen sama keyi kan shafi goshin jirgin ne.  Sannan a jikin na’urar an rubuta: “FLIGHT DATA RECORDER, DO NOT OPEN.”  Ma’ana: “WANNAN NA’URAR TASKANCE BAYANAN JIRGI CE, KADA KA/KI BUDE.”  Duk wannan don kokarin baiwa na’urar cikakkiyar kariya ce daga budewa, ko canzawa, ko debewa ko jirkita bayanan dake cikinta.

 

Dangane da yadda take gudanar da taskance bayanai kuwa, wannan na’ura na iya taskance bayanai nau’uka 88 ne a halin yanzu – tsakanin murya, da sauti, da kara, da tsowa, da ihu, da siginar bayanai mai shigowa, da siginar murya mai shigowa, da yanayin zafi ko sanyin mahallin da jirgin yake, kai, har da kwanan wata da lokacin da kowane irin abu ke faruwa ko aukuwa a cikin jirgi.  A bangaren taskance tsantsar murya kuwa, na’ukan na’urar “Black Box” na zamunan baya na iya yin haka iya tsawon minti 30 ne, amma a yau na’urar na iya daukan awanni biyu tana taskance bayanai na murya daga bangarorin jirgin guda hudu, a lokaci guda.   Wajen sauran bayanan da basu shafi murya ba kuma, na’urar na iya daukan sa’o’i 100 tana nannade su babu kakkautawa.  Daga cikin ayyukan da wannan na’ura ke gudanarwa har da lura da yanayin shan mai da jirgi ke yi, da irin tukin matukin jirgi; idan ganganci yake yi wajen tuki na’urar na iya taskancewa, haka idan tuki yake na Allah-da-Annabi.  Lallai lamarin ba abin wasa bane.

 

Idan aka bude wannan na’ura kana wajen, za ka tarar tana kunshe cikin tagwayen mazubin bakin karfe ne, irin wadda ba karamar wahala ke iya fasawa ko lalata shi ba.  Wannan nau’in bakin karfe ba ya tsatsa, sannan, kamar yadda launin fentinta ke iya jure zafin wuta da yanayi, haka ma wannan karfe; ba karamin zafin wuta ke iya toye shi ba.

 

Wannan na’ura na dauke ne da tsarin hararo siginar rediyo na sadarwa (Radio Siginal Communication) don fadakar da mai nemanta a duk inda take, musamman ma idan a can karkashin teku take – kamar yadda jirgin Air Asia na kasar Indonesiya ya afka, misali.  Wannan na’ura na da karfin makamashi, domin za ta iya kwanaki talatin a farke, cajin batirin da take dauke dashi bai dauke ba.  Haka kuma tana iya aiko sakon sigina na rediyo don fadakar da masu nemanta a iya zurfin mita 6,000 a karkashin teku.  A karo na karshe, a halin yanzu an girke mata na’urar aiwatar da sadarwa (Radio Transponder) tsakanin jirgin dake dauke da ita da cibiyar lura da jirgi a filin saukan jirgi, a duk dakika guda.  Tirkashi!

 

A cikin shekarar 1990 ne, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata, aka hade na’urar “Flight Data Recorder” (FDR) – wacce ke taskance gundarin bayanai zalla – da na’urar “Cockpit Voice Recorder” (CVR) – wacce ke aikin taskance muryar matukin da mazauna jirgin – zuwa na’ura guda daya, wacce ake girke ta a can kuryar baya, wato wutsiyar jirgin, don kariya.  Mai karatu kuma yaji cewa na’urar farko na daukan bayanai ne zalla, ta biyun kuma na taskance murya – duk da cewa kunnuwanta na can cikin dakin matukin jirgin ne; tana nado abin da ke faruwa a can.  Shahararren kamfanin da kera wannan na’ura shi ne kamfanin L-3 Communications.

 

To amma duk da wannan kokari da ake ta yi wajen inganta wannan na’ura, har yanzu da sauran rina a kaba.  Domin ba ka-safai ake samun gano inda wannan na’ura take ba cikin sauki, musamman idan jirgin ya bace ne, kamar yadda jirgin kasar Malesiya ya bace a shekarar da ta gabata; har yanzu babu labarinsa.  Watanni goma kenan da aukuwar wannan lamari.  Ba wannan kadai ba, akwai jirgin AirFrance mai lamba 447 da ya bace a shekarar 2009, ba a tashi gano inda yake ba sai bayan shekaru biyu, wato a shekarar 2011 kenan.  Duk da cewa an ta shawagi a inda daga baya aka gano shi, amma wannan na’ura ta “Black Box” bata sanar da samuwarta a wurin ba balle a ceto wadanda ke ciki.  Bayan gano jirgin, da kyar aka gano wannan na’ura, duk da haka ma, hasashe kawai aka ta yi, babu wata natija mai gamsarwa kan dalilan, bayan an kwashe shekaru biyu ana gudanar da bincike.  Haka kuma, hadarin jirgin kamfanin Air Asia da ya auku cikin shekarar da ta gabata shi ma ya dada farkar da duniya cewa lallai da sauran rina a kaba kan sha’anin tasirin wannan na’ura.  Domin an kwashe kwanaki kafin daga baya, sanadiyyar taguwar ruwa mai karfi a tekun JAVA, aka gano buraguzan jirgin suna tasowa saman teku.  Ko kadan ba a ji duriyar wannan na’ura ba kafin wannan lokaci.

 

Wannan yasa aka shiga sabon faifai wajen bincike, da kokarin samar da dokoki da zasu taimaka wajen lura da kowane irin jirgi ne ta hanyar na’urar da ke dauke cikinsa, ta amfani da tsarin sadarwa na zamani da ya hada da Fasahar Intanet.  Wannan tsari da ake hasashe dai ana so ne a rika amfani da tsarin da zai rika da lura da kowane jirgi, a aikace, ana kallonsa ta hanyar bidiyo kai tsaye, wato: “Live Streaming.”  Wannan zai taimaka a rika ganin jirgi a sadda ya tashi, da sadda yake tafiya da kuma sadda ya sauka.  Idan wani ya faru, za a iya sani da kuma ganin halin da yake ciki, tare da bigiren da yake, don kokarin ceto shi.  Bayan haka, an sake bayar da shawara cewa a tsawaita karfin batirin da wannan na’ura ke dauke dashi daga kwanaki 30 (wato wata daya kenan) zuwa kwanaki 90 (watanni uku kenan).  Daga cikin wadanda da suka motsa muhawara kan wadannan kalubale a Majalisar Congress ta kasar Amurka akwai Hon. David Price, inda ya gabatar da kuduri na musamman mai take: SAFE ACT, a ranar 12 ga watan Maris, shekarar 2014.

 

Kammalawa

Lallai a fili yake cewa a duk sadda duniya ta kara samun ci gaba a fannonin rayuwa, musamman bangaren kere-kere da fannin kimiyya, abubuwa sukan canza nan take; tsare-tsaren da aka yi su a baya sukan rasa tasirinsu, dole sai an sake musu salo.  Kamar yadda mai karatu ya karanta a yau da sauran makonnin da suka gabata, har yanzu duniya bata gama samun gamsuwa da wannan na’ura ta “Black Box” ba; musamman ganin yadda jirage ke yawan bacewa a kasa gano inda suke, sai bayan shekaru.

 

Ire-iren wadannan kalubale sun tilasta wani sabon yunkuri don inganta hanyoyin lura da shawagi da kai-komon jirage a duk inda suke a duniya, inda ake kokarin samar da wani tsari gamamme da zai rika lura da jira tafiyarsu, da tashinsu, da saukarsu, ta hanyar sadarwar Intanet a yanayin bidiyo na kai tsaye.  Ta wannan sabon tsari, a cewar masana, ana iya rage yawaitan bacewar jirage da salwantar rayuka da dukiyoyi kamar yadda aka saba yi a yanzu da zamunnan baya.   Wannan sabon tsari, ana kyautata zaton cewa zai maye gurbin na’urar Taskance Bayanai na jirgin sama ne, wato “Black Box,” ko kuma a kalla samar mata da kishiya ko abokiyar zama.

 

Ko ma dai mene ne, lokaci zai yi hukunci na karshe.  Muna rokon Allah yasa muyi karshe mai kyau, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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