Tsarin Fasahar Sadarwar Rediyo a Kimiyyance (3)

Kalmar “Radio”, Daga Ina?

Wannan kasida ce kacokam kan fasahar rediyo da tsarin gudanuwarta.  Zai dace a farko mu san asalin kalmar “Radio”, wacce a yanzu take cikin kalmomin Turanci kuma muke amfani da ita a hashen Hausa da nufin hakikanin abin da take nufi a hasken Turancin.

 

Kalmar “Radio” ta samo asali ne daga kalmar harshen Latin mai suna “Radius”, wacce ma’anarta ke nufin “Duk wani abin da ya shafi hankaki ko harshen haske.”   Ma’ana, a harshen Latin kalmar na nufin harshen haske ne, wanda ke samuwa sanadiyyar bazuwar haske a wani mahalli ko bigire na wannan duniya tamu.   Daga baya aka aro ta cikin harshen Turanci, aka cire haruffa biyu na karshe (wato: “u” da “s”), aka maye gurbinsu da harafin “o”:  daga kalmar “Radius” zuwa kalmar “Radio.”  A haka aka ci gaba da amfani da ita cikin wannan ma’ana.

 

Wanda ya fara amfani da wannan kalma a fagen sadarwa shi ne babban malamin kimiyya mai suna Alexander Graham Bell, a bisa shawarar wani malamin kimiyya dan kasar Faransa mai suna Ernest Mercadier.  Hakan ya faru ne cikin shekarar 1881, lokacin da Graham Bello ya kera wata na’ura mai amfani da haske don aiwatar da sadarwa, inda yake neman sunan da zai sanya wa na’urar, sai Mercadier ya bashi shawarar ya sanya mata suna: “Radiophone.”  Ma’anar wannan suna, a cewarsa, shi ne “Na’ura mai amfani da haske don samar da sauti.”  Kafin wannan sabon suna, sunan da Graham Bell ya sanya wa wannan na’ura shi ne: “Photophone,” wanda Ernest yake ganin sunan bai dace da irin aikin da aka kera na’urar ta gudanar ba.

 

Zuwa gab da karshen karni na 19 (1880s) wani masanin kimiyya mai suna Heinrich Hertz ya gudanar da bincike na musamman kan haske a mahangar kimiyya, wanda ya ta’allaka kacokam kan Maganadisun Hasken Lantarki (Electromagnetic Wave).  A cikin shahararriyar kasidar da ya rubuta mai bayyana sakamakon bincikensa, bai ambaci kalmar “Radio” ba, sai kalmomi irin su: “Hertzian Waves”, da “Electric Waves”, da “Ether Waves.”   Duk da cewa wannan masani mai suna Heinrich Hertz shi ne wanda yafi sauran malaman kimiyya shahara da tasiri wajen samarwa da bunkasa fasahar rediyo a tarihance.  Domin da sunansa ne ake amfani wajen tantance tazara da lambar tashoshi.  Za ka ji ana cewa: “30 Megahertz,” ko “50 Megahertz,” misali.  Duk sun samo asali ne daga nau’ukan bincikensa.

 

A shekarar 1890 kuma sai ga Edouard Branly, wani malamin kimiyya dan kasar Faransa – masanin fannin Fiziya (Physicist) –  wanda ya samar da wata na’ura da ya sanya wa suna “Radio Conducteur.”  A cewar malaman tarihin fasahar rediyo, wannan masani ne ya fara amfani da kalmar “Radio” don alakanta ta da fannin maganadisun hasken lantarki.  Kafin shi, kalmar ba’a gushe ba ana amfani ne da ita a bangaren haske, a sake.   Shekaru takwas bayan wannan na’ura, sai aka ci gaba da gwama kalmar “Radio” tare da wasu kalmomi a fannin sadarwar telegiram, wanda fannin da yafi shahara kenan a lokacin.  Tagwayen sunayen da suka shahara a shekarar 1898 sun hada da: “Radiotelegraph,” da “Radiotelegraphy.”  Wadannan kalmomi sun shahara musamman a kasar Ingila, inda ake yawan amfani dasu a wata mujallar kimiyya da kere-kere mai suna: “The Practical Engineer.”

 

Tsakanin shekarun 1903 da 1906 wadannan tagwayen suna sun tsallaka sauran kasashen nahiyar Turai na wancan lokaci, musamman kasashen Faransa da Jamus.  Hakan ya fito fili ne karara cikin rahotannin bayan taron koli na kungiyar bunkasa sadarwar Telegiram dake birnin Berlin, wato: “Berlin Radiotelegraphic Conventions.”  A cikin kundin bayan taro da aka rubuta cikin harshen Faransanci, kalmomin da suka bayyana masu alaka da “Radio” su ne: “Radiotelepgraphique,” da kuma “Radiotelegrammes.”  Dukkansu kalmomi ne cikin harshen Faransanci, masu ma’ana iri daya da wadancan kalmomi na Turanci da suka bayyana a mujallar “The Practical Engineer” ta kasar Ingila.

 

A hukumance kalmar “Radio” ta samu karbuwa ne a taron kungiyar “Berlin Radiotelegraphic Convention” da aka gudanar a shekarar 1906, inda aka maye gurbin tagwayen kalmomin “Radiotelegrammes” da kalmar “Radio” kadai.  Hakan ne ya sawwake yaduwar wannan kalma a fannin sadarwar rediyo a duniya.  Inda aka daina amfani da kalmomi irin su: “Wireless Radio”, ko “Radiotelegraphic” ko “Radiotelegrammes” da dai sauran kalmomi makamancin hakan.  Kasar da tafi kowacce kokarin yada kalmar a cikinta dai ita ce kasar Amurka.

 

Lee de Forest wani dan kasuwa ne mai sha’awar yada labarai a fannin rediyo.  Yana daga cikin wadanda suka taimaka wajen yaduwar kalmar “Radio” a kasar Amurka.  Ya bude kamfanin yada labarai mai suna: “DeForest Radio Telephone Company,” a shekarar 1907.  Wannan kamfani nasa ya taimaka wajen killace amfani da kalmar tare da yada shi.  Haka ma Hukumar Sojin Ruwan kasar Amurka, wato: “American Naval Force”, ita ma ta taimaka gaya.  Ta yi hakan ne ta hanyar fassara sakamakon taron koli na kungiyar “Berlin Radiotelegraphic Conventions,” a shekarar 1912.  A cikin wannan fassara nata, duk inda kalmar “Radiotelegrammes” take, a misali, a maye gurbinta da kalmar “Radio” kadai, ba tare da tagwaita sunan ba.

 

A bangaren gwamnatin kasar Burtaniya ma an samu yunkuri mai tasiri da ya taimaka wajen yada wannan kalma ta “Radio” da nufin wani fanni na musamman na yada labarai ta amfani da sinadaran maganadisun lantarki don daukar sauti ga masu sauraro.  A cikin shekarar 1920 me kasar Ingila ta kafa kamfanin yada labara na BBC, wato:  “British Broadcasting Corporation.”  Ita ce dai gidan rediyo da talabijin BBC da mai karatu ya sani a yau.  Duk a da cewa a kasar Burtaniya an dade ana amfani da kalmar “Wireless Radio” na tsawon lokaci (har zuwa shekarun 1920s), da kuma kalmar “Broadcasting,” amma hakan bai hana a dayan bangaren an yayata kalmar “Radio” ba.  Wannan ya fito karara, inda kamfanin BBC ya samar da mujalla ta musamman, wacce ke yada labarai kan fannin sadarwa.  Sunan wannan mujalla dai shi ne: “Radio Times.”  Kalmar “Radio” ta shahara matuka sanadiyyar shaharar wannan mujalla da kamfanin BBC ya samar.   Sannan su suka yada kalmar “Broadcasting” da nufin “Yada labarai” ta hanyar fasahar rediyo.  Asali kalmar “Broadcasting” dai a Turanci ta danganci fannin noma (Agriculture), inda ake nufin: “Warwatsa irin shuki, ta ko ina filin noma.”  Sai kamfanin BBC yayi amfani da wannan ibara a fannin sadarwar fasahar rediyo; don nuna yadda manomi ke yada irin shuki a gonarsa, haka kafafen yada labaran rediyo ke yada labaran ga masu sauraro, birjik.

 

Wannan, a takaice, shi ne bayani kan asali da samuwar kalmar “Radio”, da kuma bunkasar shahararta, don bata wani matsayi a fannin yada labarai ta amfani da fasahar rediyo.  Kafin wannan lokaci, wannan kalma ta yi ta gwagwarmaya ne da kalmar “Wireless Radio” musamman a kasar Burtaniya.  Amma a karshe kalmar “Radio” ta rinjayi kalmar “Wireless” a harsunan jama’a da ma cibiyoyin bincike a jami’o’i da makarantun kasa da jami’a.  Sai dai kuma ga dukkan alamu, sanadiyyar samuwar fasahar Intanet da ci gaba a fannin kere-kere da fasahar sadarwa, kalmar “Wireless” na kokarin kwato ‘yancinta, ta hanyar Wayar Salula.

 

Kalmomi irin su: “Wireless Frequency,” da “Wireless Network,” da “Wireless Communication,” da sauran makamantansu, sun fara cika duniya a halin yanzu.  Wa ya sani, watakila lokacin daina amfani da kalmar “Radio” ne ya kusan zuwa karshe.  Ko kuma zamanin cin gashin kai; inda kowace kalma za ta wakilci kanta da abin da take takama dashi.   Ko ma dai mene ne, muna nan muna saurare, tare da nazarin binciken malaman kimiyyar sadarwa a wannan bangare, don ganin yadda lamarin zai kaya.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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