Tsarin Fasahar Sadarwar Rediyo a Kimiyyance (4)

Na’urorin Gudanarwa

Akwai na’urori da tsare-tsare dake kunshe cikin aikin yada labarai ta amfani da fasahar rediyo.  Yin bayani a takaice kan wadannan na’urori da tsare-tsare da matakai zai taimaka wa mai karatu fahimtar abin a saukake.  Bayan wannan sashe zan labarta mana yadda abin yake ta hanyar matakai-matakai, a nazarce.

 

Na’urar “Transmitter”

Wannan ita ce jigo a dakin aikawa da shirye-shiryen gidan rediyo.  Domin ita ce, ta taimakon na’urar “Antenna” ke iya nade murya ko sautin masu gabatar da shirye-shirye, da dunkule shi zuwa yanayin da zai iya tafiya cikin tsari a sararin samaniya cikin titinsa.  Bayan nadewa da dunkule da sauya masa yanayi, tana sarrafa wannan sauti dake dauke a yanayin maganadisun lantarki ne ta hanyoyi daban-daban, dangane da maimaituwansa a halin tafiya (Frequency Rate), da gudunsa (Speed), da sauyawar ballinsa (Pulses), tare da aika shi ga makarbarsa.

 

Na’urar “Antenna”

Ita ce na’urar dake karban makamashin sauti ko murya daga na’urar “Transmitter”, ta mayar dashi zuwa siginar rediyo (Radio Signal), don cilla wa na’urar “Reciver” dake akwatin rediyo.  Wannan nau’i biyu ce.  Akwai wacce ke gine cikin wayoyin salula, da wadanda ke girke a jikin akwatunan rediyo.  Sannan ayyukanta uku ne.  Na farko shi ne karbar karba tare da sarrafa makamashin sauti zuwa siginar rediyo, don tafiyar dashi a sararin samaniya.  Na biyu shi ne daidai yanayin sauti wajen karbansa ga mai sauraro ta hanyar akwatin rediyonsa.  Wannan shi ne asalin aikinta, a al’adance.  Aikinta na uku shi ne warware sautin da ta cafko daga tashar sararin samaniya wanda ke yanayin siginar rediyo, zuwa yanayin da mai sauraro zai iya ji ya amfana dashi.

 

Tsarin “Propagation” ko “Radio Propagation”

Wannan tsari ya kunshi baiwa nadadden sautin da aka cilla cikin sararin samaniya kariya ta musamman, don samun isa ga akwatunan rediyon masu sauraro lami lafiya.  Aikinsa ya hada da daidaita sautin, a kwance, ko daidaita shi a tsaye, don kauce wa matsalolin ko kwamacalar dake kan titinsa a sararin samaniya.  Wadannan matsaloli sun hada da hazo mai kauri, da iska mai karfi wacce ta wuce kima, da cida, da walkiya dake samuwa a sararin samaniya.  Wadannan ana kiran su: “Natural Noise.”  A daya bangaren kuma akwai wasu siginonin wasu tashoshin da su ma suke shawagi a cikin sama, wanda ka iya cin karo da wannan sauti.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Artificial Noise.”

 

Tsarin “Electrical Resonance”/Na’urar “Tuned Circuits”

Wannan tsari yana gine ne a cikin wata na’ura dake cikin akwatin rediyo mai suna “Tuned Circuit”, wacce ke kamo tasha sannan ta killace tashar da mai akwatin rediyo ke sauraro.  Wannan ke hana shigar wata tashar cikin wacce ake sauraro; iya gwargwadon karfi da ingancin na’urar rediyon mai sauraro.

Na’urar “Receiver”

Wannan ita ce na’urar da ke karbar warwararren siginan rediyo daga na’urar “Antenna” kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama, don jiyar da mai akwatin rediyo hakikanin sauti ko muryar mai gabatar da shirye-shiryen da yake sauraro.   Wannan na’ura tana da mahimmanci matuka ga akwatin rediyo.  Domin idan ta lalace, to babu abin da za a iya sauraro daga gare ta.

“Radio Band”

Wannan ita ce tasha ko titin da siginar rediyon dake dauke da sautin masu gabatar da shirye-shirye yake gudanuwa a kai; daga ma’aikan zuwa makarba.  Wannan mahalli yana dauke ne da lambobi dake nuna Zangon da mai sauraro zai lalubo shirye-shiryen da yake son sauraro, ko tashar dake aiwatar dasu.  Na san mai karatu ya saba jin masu gabatar da shirye-shiryen rediyo suna cewa: “Za a iya lalubo mu a mita 90, ko mita 45, ko mita 25, ko mita 35 don sauraron shirye-shiryenmu,” misali.  Wadannan lambobi duk suna dauke ne a wannan tasha da ake kira da suna: “Radio Band.”  Bayani kan wannan tasha a mahangar kimiyya, yana nan tafe.

Tsarin Yada Sauti ta Hanyar Rediyo

A duk sadda mai karatu ya kunna akwatin rediyonsa, nan take zai murda maballin kamo tasha ne, idan ba a kan tashar da yake so take ba.  Da zarar ya kamo tashar da yake so, sai ya kara amon sautin akwatin rediyon, don jin sauti yadda ya kamata.  Idan bai ji tashar ta yi masa garau yadda yake so ba, sai ya ja eriya sama, in ma ta kama ya canza bigiren da yake, don samun saiti sosai.  A nasu bangaren, masu yada labarai a gidajen rediyo su ma da zarar sun tashi yada labarai ko shirye-shiryensu, suna gyatta na’urorin daukan sauti ne – irin su makirho, da tiransmita, a misali – don cillo wa masu sauraro shirye-shiryensu.  Wannan wani abu ne da a zahirin bayani za a ga da saukin fahimta da kuma saukin ganewa.  Watakila ma mai karatu ya dauka wani abu ne da zai iya yi shi ma nan take.  Sai dai lamarin ba haka yake ba.

 

Da zarar sauti ya bar bakin mai karanto labarai ko gabatar da shiri a gidan rediyo, na’urar “Transmitter” ce za ta karbi wannan sauti, sai ta yi amfani da wani tsari mai suna “Modulation” ko “Modulator”, don mayar da wannan danyen sauti ko murya da ya fito daga bakin mai ita, zuwa siginar maganadisun lantarki, ta harba shi zuwa cikin iska.  Tana cilla shi cikin sararin samaniya, akwai wani tsari dake aikin saiti wannan murya ko sauti, don tabbatar da cewa ya gudana a halin tafiyar cikin tsari da karfinsa.  Hakan ya zama dole, domin akwai nau’ukan kwamacala a sararin samaniya da sauti zai iya cin karo dasu.  Wadannan matsaloli su ake kira “Noise” a ilmin fasahar sadarwa.  Sun kasu kashi biyu.  Akwai mishkilar dake samuwa a mahallin sararin samaniya, irin su Cida, da Walkiya, da Hazo mai karfi, wadanda za su iya tasiri a kan wannan sauti dake hanyar tafiyarsa.  Wadannan su ake kira “Natural Noise.”

 

Bayan su akwai matsalolin da sauti ke iya cin karo dasu wadanda dan adam ne ya ajiye su ko harba su a kan titin da sautin ke bi.  Ire-iren wadannan sun hada da samuwar wasu tashoshi ko titunan sauti na wasu tashoshin daban, da zai iya cin karo dasu.  Wadannan su ake kira: “Artificial Noise.”  Shi yasa ake umurtan fasinjojin jiragen sama da su rika kashe wayarsu ta salula, don idan aka kira mutum alhalin matukin jirgin na aiwatar da sadarwa tsakaninsa da masu bashi umarni daga cibiyar sadarwa ta filin saukan jirgin, za a samu cin karo da yamutsin sadarwa sanadiyyar hakan.  Tsarin dake baiwa sauti ko murya kariya a wannan mahalli shi ake kira “Propagation.”  Yana iya daukan sautin a mike, a kwance; ya harba shi zuwa bigiren da ake so, don baiwa masu sauraro daman kama tashar cikin sauki.  Ko kuma ya dauke shi a mike, a tsaye, don kauce wa wadancan matsaloli da sautin zai iya cin karo dasu a hanyar tafiyarsa.

 

Da zarar wannan tsari na “Propagation” ya gyatta tafiya da gudanuwar sakon sauti daga mafitarsa, cikin yanayin da na’urar “Transmitter” ta cilla shi, sai masu sauraro su samu damar “kama tashar” cikin sauki.  Na’urar dake taimaka musu wajen yin hakan kuwa ita ce na’urar karbar siginar rediyo da ake kira “Antenna” ko “Aerial” (ko kuma “eriya”, kamar yadda muke kiranta a harshen Hausa.  Wannan na’ura tana aiki ne nau’i uku; lokacin da sauti ke fita daga na’urar “Transmitter”, akwai na’urar “Antenna” da ke dunkule cikinta, don taimakawa wajen nadewa da cilla ta.  Wannan shi ne aikinta na farko, kuma mun yi wannan bayani wajen tsarin “Modulation” da “Modulator,” a baya.  Don haka, da zarar na’urar “Antenna” dake akwatin rediyon mai sauraro ta cafko wannan sigina na sauti dake sararin samaniya a tashar da tashar rediyon take, sai ta daidaita shi, don baiwa na’urar da za ta rike tashar ta samu damar rikewa, saboda baiwa mai sauraro damar sauraro idan komai ya daidaita.  Wannan shi ne aikinta na biyu, wato daidaita siginar rediyo, abin da masana harkar sadarwa ke kira “Reception.”  Aikinta na uku na gaba.

 

Idan na’urar “Antenna” ta gama wannan aiki sai ta cillo shi cikin akwatin rediyon, inda na’urar daidaita tasha ke jira.  Wannan na’ura ta daidaita tasha mai suna “Tuned Circuit,” ita ce ke rike tashar da aka cafko, kankam, sannan ta hana wasu tashoshin dake kan kadadar sadarwar da tashar akwatin rediyon ke kai, yin katsalandan ga mai sauraro.  Tana aiwatar da wannan aiki ne ta hanyar wani tsari mai suna: “Electrical Resonance.”

 

Daga nan sai na’urar “Antenna” ta warware bayanan sautin dake cikin wannan sigina da ta cafko daga sararin samaniya, don baiwa mai sauraro damar jin abin dake dauke cikin sautin, a yanayin murya.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Demodulation,” kuma na’urar dake gine cikin “Antenna” dake taimakawa wajen aiwatar da hakan ita ake kira “Demodulator.”   Da babu wannan tsari, to, bazai taba yiwuwa muji sautin dake dauke cikin akwatunan rediyonmu ba, domin ba a hakikanin yanayinsa yake ba; sai an warware shi, tare da narkar dashi zuwa yanayinsa na asali.   Wannan shi ne aikin na’urar “Antenna” na uku.

 

Daga nan sai na’urar “Receiver” ta karbi wannan siginar rediyo kai tsaye ta amfani da tsarin “Demodulation,” kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, don jiyar da mai sauraro hakikanin sautin da aka dauko masa daga dakin yada labarai ko gabatar da shirye-shirye, kai tsaye.

 

Wannan tsari ne da a yanzu mai karatu zai ga abin da saukin fahimta, amma abu ne mai sarkakiyar gaske, a aikace.  Wadannan bayanai dake bayyana hakikanin matakai da tsarin tafiyar sauti ko murya daga ma’aika zuwa makarba, an yi su ne a nazarce, don amfani da fahimtar mai sauraro.  Sauran bayanai kuma sai yaje nakaltar ilmin zai gansu a aikace.

 

Zan ci gaba in sha Allah!

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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