Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (1)

Gabatarwa

Al-Fazaaree, daya ne daga cikin sahabban Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi), watarana ya dawo gida sai ya samu matarsa ta haifa masa jariri baki sitik!  Nan take hankalinsa ya tashi.  Domin balarabe ne shi, farin balarabe kuwa.  Haka ma matarsa.  Amma ta yaya aka yi ta haifa masa jariri baki sitik?  Nan take ya nannade wannan jariri a zanen goyo, ya kama hanya sai wajen Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi).  Yana zuwa ya tarar da shi cikin sahabbansa kamar galibin lokuta.  Yana isowa wajensa bayan ya masa sallama, sai ya nuna wa Manzon Allah wannan jariri, ya ce: “Dubi abin da ta haifa mini.”  Sai Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) ya fahimci inda ya dosa nan take.  Sai ya ce masa: “Kana da rakuma?” Sai ya ce: “Eh, ina da su.”  Sai Manzon Allah ya sake ce masa: “Meye launinsu?”  Sai ya ce: “Jajaye ne.”  Sai Manzon Allah ya sake ce masa: “Babu wani mai launin baki-baki daga cikinsu?” Sai wannan balarabe ya ce: “Akwai,”   sai Manzon Allah ya sake tambayarsa: “Daga ina ya samo wannan launi (bayan iyayensa jajaye ne)?”  Sai Al-Fazaaree ya ce: “Watakila wata jijiyar (dabi’ar) halitta ce ya jawo (daga kakanninsa).”  Sai Manzon Allah ya ce:  “Haka shi ma wannan, ta yiwu wata jijiya ce ya jawo (daga kakanninsa).”

 

Watarana Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) yana zaune sai ga wani daga cikin mutanen Madina ya riko matarsa, rike da jariri baki sitik su ma, a kidime.  Suna zuwa wajensa sai mutumin ya ce: “Ga abin da ta haifa.”  Sai matar ta yi caraf ta ce: “Na rantse da Wanda ya aiko ka da gaskiya, a matsayin cikakkiyar budurwa ya aure ni, kuma ban taba shigo da wani gidansa ya haye kan tabarmarsa ba.”  Fadin haka ke da wuya sai Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) ya nuna cewa lallai abin da ta fada gaskiya ne.  Domin daga ita har shi suna da dabi’un halitta wajen casa’in da tara ga kowanne, kuma kowanne daga cikinsu na yaduwa cikin jikinta ne a lokacin saduwa, yana rokon Allah da ya sa jaririn da za a haifa ya zo da kama irin nashi.

 

Ummu Sulaim ita ce mahaifiyar Anas dan Maalik (Allah kara musu yarda).  Watarana ta shigo inda Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) yake zaune tare da sahabbansa, sai ta ce: “Ya Manzon Allah, hakika Allah ba ya kunyar bayyana gaskiya.  Shin, wanka ya wajaba ga mace idan tayi mafarki (ana saduwa da ita)?”  Sai Manzon Allah nan take ya ce mata: “Na’ma, muddin ta ga ruwa.” (Ma’ana ruwan maniyya kenan).  Nan take sai Nana Aisha ta ce: “Shin mace ma na fitar da wani ruwa ne?”  Sai Manzon Allah ya ji, kuma ya bata amsa da cewa: “Kayya, Aisha! Ta yaya ake samun kamaiceceniya to, (tsakanin jariri da iyayensa)?”

 

Daidai lokacin da Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) ya shigo garin Madina lokacin hijira, sai Abdullahi ibn Salaam, daya daga cikin manyan Malaman Yahudawan Madina ya je ya same shi, ya ce masa: “Na zo ne in tambaye ka kan wasu abubuwa guda uku, wadanda babu wanda ya sansu sai Annabi…”  Daga cikin tambayoyin da ya masa akwai neman sanin dalilin da ke sa jariri ke yin kama da mahaifinsa ko mahaifiyarsa?  Sai Manzon Allah ya amsa masa cewa: “Idan ruwan (maniyyin) namiji ya riga na mace, to, (jaririn) zai yi kama da mahaifinsa.  Idan kuma ruwan (maniyyin) macen ne ya riga na namijin, to, (jaririn) zai yi kama da mahaifiyarsa.”  Daga nan sai Abdullahi ibn Salaam ya ce: “Na shaida hakika babu abin bautawa a bisa cancanta face Allah, kuma lallai kai Manzon Allah ne.”

 

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Daga cikin nau’ukan ilmin kimiyyar halitta da rai a duniyar yau, akwai fannin da ke bincike kan dalilan samun kamaiceceniya tsakanin ‘ya’ya da iyayensu ko kakanninsu, na kusa ne ko na nesa.  Da kuma kamaiceceniya ta dabi’ar jiki, da dabi’ar tunani, da dabi’ar juriya ko ragwanci, da dabi’ar kirar jiki, da dabi’ar tsawo da gajarta, da dabi’ar zati ko mutuntaka, da dabi’ar sanyi ko zafin zuciya, da dabi’ar karfi ko kudurar zuciya, da dabi’ar taushi ko kaushin hali da yanayi, da dabi’ar bambancin launin fata, ko launin gashin kai, ko yanayin farata da dai sauransu.  Har wa yau, me yasa wasu ‘ya’ya ke gadon cututtuka daga iyayensu?  Me yasa wasu ke yin kama da dangin iyayensu ba da asalin iyayensu ba?  Me yasa ake haifan ‘ya’ya masu dauke da cututtukan da iyayensu ba su da su?  Me yasa musamman a yau likitoci da ma Malaman addinin musulunci ke shawartar samari da ‘yan mata masu niyyar aure da su je don gunadar da binciken jini da kwayoyin halittar jikinsu kafin su yi aure?  Me yasa jaririn da ake haifa wani ke zuwa namiji, wani kuma mace?  Dukkan wadannan nau’ukan al’amuran halitta ana binciken yanayinsu ne karkashin wani sabon fannin ilmin likitanci mai suna “Genetics”, ko “Heredity” ko kuma “Genetic Inheritance”, a turancin kimiyyar halitta da rai.

 

Hadisin farko da ke sama Bukhari da Muslim ne suka ruwaito shi, tare da sauran malaman sunan, wato Abu Daud, da Tirmidhi, da Nasaa’i, da Ibn Majah.  Hadisi ne ingantacce. Hadisi na biyu kuma mursal ne, ba hadisi bane ingantacce, amma ma’anar da ke cikinsa daya ne da wanda ke cikin hadisin da ya gabace shi.  Wato hadisin farko ya karfafe shi wajen ma’ana kenan.  Hadisi na uku ingantacce ne, domin Muslim ne ya ruwaito shi.  Sai hadisi na hudu, wato hadisin Abdullahi ibn Salaam, shi ma ingantacce ne, domin Bukhaari ne ya ruwaito shi. Dukkan al’amuran halitta da ke dunkule cikin wadannan hadisai da suka zo a sama, abubuwa ne masu ban mamaki da suka faru, wadanda a lokacin faruwarsu babu wanda zai iya gudanar da wani bincike a likitance don gano sababin faruwarsu, sai dai kawai a yi imani.  Amma a yau Allah ya kawo mu lokaci da zamani mai cike da yalwa wajen samuwar kayayyaki da fasahar binciken kimiyya da likitanci, cikin sauki.  Ganin irin tasirin da wannan tsarin bincike ke yi a sauran kasashen Turai na yau, musamman kasar Amurka, yasa na ga dacewar gudanar da bincike na musamman don kosar da masu karatu, da yardar Allah, dangane da wannan sabon fannin bincike.  Duk da cewa dadadden ilmi ne, amma Malaman kimiyyar zamani basu fara gudanar da bincike a cikinsa ba sai cikin shekarar 1981.

 

Wannan kasida za ta gudanar da bincike ne kan asali da dalilan da ke haddasa wadancan al’amura.  Da farko bayanai za su zo kan ma’anonin kalmomin turanci masu alaka da wannan bincike, wadanda mai karatu zai ta cin karo dasu a halin karatunsa.  Sannan bayanai kan “Kwayar Halitta” ko “Tubalin Halitta”, wato “Cell” su biyo baya.  A nan ne za mu fahimci tsarin wannan sinadari mai matukar muhimmanci, da yanayinsa, da muhallinsa, da adadinsa, da kuma abubuwan da ke kunshe a cikinsa, musamman irinsu “Tantanin Kwayar Kalitta” ko ganuwarta, wato “Cell Membrane”, da “Ruwan Rayuwa”, wato “Cytoplasm”, da kuma “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta”, wato “Nucleus.”  A cikin sinadarin halitta ne al’amuran da suka shafi bincikenmu suke kunshe.

 

Abu na farko shi ne “Madarar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta,” wato “DNA” ko “Deoxyribonucleic Acid”, a warware.  Sai kuma babbar kundi, wato “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta,” ko “Chromosome” a turance.  Bayan mun yi bayani kan wannan babban kundi, sai mu zarce kan sauran abubuwan da ke da alaka da wannan babban kundi mai dauke da dukkan bayanai kan dabi’un da ‘ya’ya ke gadonsu daga iyayensu, irinsu “Dabi’ar Halitta,” wato “Gene”.  Da “Dabi’ar Halitta ta Musamman,” wato “Allele.”  Sai kuma “Kebantacciyar Dabi’ar Halitta,” wato “Trait” ko “Genetic Trait”, wadda ita kuma ta kasu kashi biyu ne; akwai “Dabi’a Mafi Rinjaye,” wato “Dominant Trait,” da kuma “Dabi’a Nakasasshiya,” wato “Recessive Trait.”

 

Wadannan su ne damuwanmu cikin binciken baki daya.  Kuma Fannin gudanar da bincike kansu shi ake kira “Genetics.”  “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halittar” mutum kuma shi ake kira “Genotype”.  Wannan wani abu ne da ba a iya gani, kamar yadda bayanai za su nuna mana nan kusa. Amma “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta na Zahiri” (irinsu kama, da launin jiki, da launin idanu, da tsawo da sauransu) shi ake kira “Phenotype.”  “Gadon Dabi’ar Halitta” daga iyaye ko kakanni kuma, shi ake kira “Heredity” ko “Genetic Inheritance.”  Dan adam ba ya rayuwa sai da matsaloli na abin da ya shafi lafiyar jiki.  Wannan ka’ida ce gamammiya da Allah ya sunnata wa dan adam, hatta kan abin da ya shafi “Gadon Dabi’ar Halitta” akwai shi.  Idan aka samu matsala wajen gadon wata dabi’a ta halitta, har abin yayi mummanar tasiri ga rayuwar mai gadon, a kimiyyance an samu abin da ake kira “Genetic Disorder” kenan.  To, shi dan adam a duk sadda ya samu kansa cikin matsala, duk tsawon zamani, sai yayi kokarin neman magani; ta hanyar halal ko ta hanyar haram.  Ya danganci irin tarbiyya ko lalurar da ya samu kansa a ciki.  Don haka, “Fannin Ilmin Magance Tangardar Dabi’ar Halitta” shi ake kira “Genetic Engineering.”  A karshe wannan kasida za ta dubi hukuncin halacci ko haramci a Musulunci, dangane da abin da ya shafi tsarin da Malaman Kimiyyar likitanci ke bi a yau, wajen gyara dabi’ar halittar da ta samu tangarda, sanadiyyar nakasu daga dayan iyayen mai gado.

 

Wadannan su ne shahararrun kalmomin da mai karatu zai ta cin karo dasu.  A sashen da ke tafe cikakken bayani zai zo kan kowannensu, don a fahimci abin da kowanne yake nufi.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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