Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (2)

Ma’anonin Kalmomi a Warware

Fannin bincike kan yadda ake samun bambance-bambancen dabi’a da siffofin halitta yana da fadi matuka.  Don haka dole ne mu shata wa kanmu inda za mu faro da inda za mu tsaya, musamman ganin cewa wannan ita ce kasidar farko.  Akwai kalmomi masu dimbin yawa da ke ishara zuwa ga muhimman al’amuran da muke son fahimtarsu kan wannann nau’in ilmi.  Amma za mu dubi shahararru daga cikinsu ne kadai, don kada mu fadada bayani a karshe mai karatu ya bace, ya rasa inda aka kwana balle inda za a tashi.  Wannan sashen bincike yana da muhimmanci, domin ya kunshi matakin farko ne da za su taimaka wa mai karatu fahimtar sauran abubuwan da ke tafe.  A takaice dai ma iya kiransa “Tubalin Fahimta.”

 

Kalmar farko ita ce: “Kwayar Halitta” wacce a harshen turancin Malaman Kimiyya suke kira da suna “Cell”.  Wannan ita ce asalin rayuwa da duk wani halitta mai rai baki daya; daga dabbobi zuwa mutane da bishiyoyi. Duk wani abu mai rai a tare da shi, to asalinsa daga wannan kawayar halitta ne, wato “Cell”.  Wannan kwayar halitta ido ba ya iya riskanta, kuma Allah ya watsa ire-irensu da yawa a cikin jikin dan adam, misali.  Duk bayanan da za su zo kan tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta suna dogaro ne kacokam kan wannan tubali, wato kwayar halitta.  Sai kalmar “Cell Membrane”, wato “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” kenan na can ciki.  Wannan tantani aikinshi ne bayar da kariya ga dukkan madaukan da ke cikin Kwayar Halitta.  Kuma shi ne ganuwa na biyu daga cikin kwayar halitta, bayan ganuwar waje mai suna “Cell Wall.” Sai kalmar “Cytoplasm”, wanda a harshen Hausa na kira “Ruwan Rayuwa.”  Wannan ruwa yana cikin kwayar halitta ne, a cikin ganuwar “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” da bayaninsa ya gabata, kuma yana daga cikin abubuwa masu matukar mahimmanci da ke dauke a cikin Kwayar Halitta baki daya.  Wasu malaman musulunci masu kokarin fahimtar tsarin halitta ta nassoshin Kur’ani ma suna ganin wannan ruwa ne Allah ke ishara zuwa gare shi, da ya ce ya halicci kowace dabba ne daga ruwa.

 

Bayan “Ruwan Rayuwa” (Cytoplasm), sai abu mai mahimmanci na gaba, wato “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” wanda a harshen Turanci ake kira “Nucleus”.  “Nucleus” yana  cikin harabar tantanin kwayar halitta ne shi ma, kuma shi ne jigo a fannin binciken sanin tsarin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta a kimiyyance.  Domin shi ne yake dauke da dukkan abubuwan da bincikenmu ke dogaro a kansu wajen sanin tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta.  A cikin wannan “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” (Nucleus) ne ake samun “Chromosome”, wato “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta”.  Kowace kwayar halitta na dauke da tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta” guda 23 ne.  Wannan ke nuna cewa a cikin kowanne, za a samu guda 46 kenan (23 x 2 = 46).  Dukkan wadannan ma’adanar bayanan dabi’ar halitta iri daya ne, a jikin mutum daya, duk da yake kowane dan adam na shi sun sha bamban da na waninsa.  Kowane dayan tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’a” kuma yana dauke ne da zaren “Madarar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta” da ake kira “Deoxyribonucleic Acid” ko “DNA” a takaice.  Wannan zare a siffar sarka yake, mai harde da juna. Kuma a jikin layin wannan sakakken zare ne ake da “Kwayoyin Dabi’ar Halittar” kowane dan adam.  Wadannan kwayoyin dabi’un halitta su ake kira “Genes”.  Kowane dan adam yana kebantuwa ne da kwayoyin dabi’un halitta daban da suka sha bamban da na wani, wadanda ya gado su daga wajen iyayensa ko kakanninsa ko kakannin kakanninsa, har dai abin ya kai ga Annabi Adamu da Hauwa’u, amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare su.

 

Sai kalmar “Allele”, wato “Dabi’ar Halitta ta Musamman.”  Misali, daga cikin dabi’ar halitta akwai tsawo, da gajarta, da saurin fushi, da fara’a, da sanyin zuciya, da zafin rai da sai sauransu.  Wadannan dukkansu “Dabi’un halitta ne na musamman,” wato “Allele.  Sai kalmar “Trait”, wato “Kebantacciyar Dabi’ar Halitta” wajen rinjaye ko rauni ake nufi.  Idan mutum yana da wata dabi’a ta halitta mai rinjaye, wacce ke bayyana a jikin ‘ya’yansa, wannan ita ake kira “Dominant Trait”, wato “Dabi’a Mai Rinjaye.”  Idan kuma dabi’ar halittarsa ba ta iya bayyana a fili, saboda rinjayar da dabi’ar halittar matarsa ko na mahaifinsa suka yi a kan nashi, sai a kira wannan da suna “Recessive Trait”, wato “Dabi’a Nakasasshiya” kenan.  Sai kalmar “Genotype” wato “Nau’in dabi’ar halitta” na wani mutum da ake iya gane shi da shi. Kowane dan adam idan aka gudanar da gwajin dabi’ar halitta (DNA test) daga kwayoyin halittarsa za a samu yana da kebantacciyar dabi’a ta musamman wanda babu mai irinta, kuma duk wanda ya dangance shi daga cikin ‘ya’yansa, za a iya gane dangantakarsu ta wannan hanya. Wannan shi ne kokarin da Gwamnatin Jigar Legas take ta yi a halin yanzu kan gawawwakin wadanda suka rasa rayukansu a hadarin jirgin Dana Air da ya auku makon jiya. Ana amfani da wannan hanya ne wajen kokarin gane waye wane? Kuma wa ke da alaka da wane? Wadannan al’amura ne da ke boye cikin kwayoyin halittar dan adam, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.  Sai kalmar “Genetic Code,” wato “Tambarin Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Jerin haruffa ne da ke wakilatar bayanan dabi’un halittar kowane dan adam, wadanda ke da alhakin haifar da gadon dabi’a daga maihaifi a misali, zuwa kan ‘ya’ya ko jikokinsa.

 

Kalma ta gaba ita ce kalmar “Phenotype”, wato “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta na Zahiri.”  Kamar yadda ake amfani da “Genotype” don gano alaka da dangantaka ta hanyar kwayoyin dabi’ar halitta da ke boye a kwayar halittar jikin mutum, to, haka tsarin “Phenotype” yake wajen gano dangantakar halitta, amma na zahiri; tsawo ne, gajarta ne, fadi ne, sirantaka ne, fari ne, baki ne, da dai sauransu.  A takaice dai, “Phenotype” shi ne “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta na Zahiri” da ake iya gani.  Domin akwai dalilai guda biyu da ke haddasa tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta a tsakanin halittu.  Dalilin farko shi ne bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin kwayoyin halitta, wato “Cell” kenan, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama. Dalili na biyu kuma shi ne tasirin mahallin da halittu ke zama a cikinsa  ko a harabarsa, wajen sauya dabi’ar halitta daga wanda ake gado zuwa mai gado.

 

Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Mutation,” wato “Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Wannan kan faru ne idan aka samu kari ko ragi ko jirkicewar yanayin dabi’un halitta, daga cikin kwayoyin halittar mutum.  Misali, mutum na iya rayuwa shekaru goman farkon rayuwar aurensa yana haifan ‘ya’ya masu kama iri daya na dabi’ar halitta, sai a gaba ya samu wasu ‘ya’ya masu bambancin dabi’ar halitta daban da wacce ‘ya’yansa na farko suke da ita, sanadiyyar wancan dalili.  Idan haka ta faru, to, an samu “Sauyin Dabi’ar Halitta” kenan daga kwayoyin halittar da ke jikinsa ko na matarsa. Wannan shi ake kira “Gene Mutation.”  Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Genetic Disorder,” wacce ke nufin “Tangardar Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Wannan tangarda na haifar da cuta ne na musamman, misali kamar su cutar sankara da sauransu, kuma hakan na faruwa ne sanadiyyar canji ko sauyin dabi’un halitta da ke cikin kwayoyin halittar Uba ko Uwa, mai dauke da dabi’ar halitta mafi rinjaye, wato “Recessive Trait.”  Wasu cututtukan kan samu ne ta hanyar gado daga Uba ko Uwa masu dauke da cutar, wasu kuma kan samu ne sanadiyyar “Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta” (Gene Mutation) da ya faru daga baya, a kwayoyin halittar mai gadar da dabi’ar.

 

Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Therapy,” wato “Magance Tangardar Halitta.”  Ana kuma yin hakan ne ta hanyar maye gurbin dabi’un halittar da suka lalace ko masu haddasa tangarda ta hanyar gadar wa ‘ya’ya cututtuka na musamman, da wasu dabi’un halitta (Genes) masu kyau, wadanda suke lafiyayyu.  Fannin “Gene Therapy” ne ke magance matsalolin “Genetic Disorder”, wato “Tangardar Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Sai kalma ta gaba, wato “Heredity.”  Abin da wannan kalma ke nufi shi ne, tsarin “Gadon Dabi’un Halitta” daga mai gadarwa (Uba ko Uwa) zuwa mai gado (‘Ya’ya ko Jikoki). Wadannan dabi’un halitta dai sun hada da launin fatan jiki, da launin idanu, da launin gashin kai, da dai sauransu.  A wasu lokuta a kan yi amfani da kalmar “Inheritance” a maimakon “Heredity.”  Duk ma’anarsu daya ne a wannan fanni. Sai kalmar “Genetics”, wadda ke nufin “Ilmin Gadon Dabi’un Halitta.”  Wannan shi ne sunan da wannan fanni ke tutiya da shi.  Suna ne gamamme.  Sai kalma ta karshe, mai suna “Genetic Engineering,” wato “Fannin Kwaskwariman Dabi’ar Halitta” ta hanyar kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani.  Wannan fanni ne mai hadari, kuma nan gaba bayanai za su zo kan muhawarar masana kimiyya, da masana al’adu, da masana tarihi, da Malaman addini, kan dacewa ko rashin dacewar wannan tsari na kwaskwariman dabi’ar halittar dan adam, musamman.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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