Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (4)

Rabe-Raben Fannin Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta

Kamar sauran fannonin ilimi da muke dasu a yau, Malamai sun kasa wannan fanni na binciken dabi’u da siffofin halitta zuwa kashi hudu.  Sun yi hakan ne ta la’akari da fadinsa, saboda fanni ne mai fadi sosai, musamman a wannan zamani mai dauke da ci gaba a fannin kimiyya da kere-kere, wanda kuma ya dada taimakawa wajen kawo irin ci gaban da ba a samu ba cikin shekaru 100 da suka gabata.  Dalili na biyu kuma shi ne, saboda sawwake tsarin daukan ilimin da kuma gudanar da bincike a cikinsa don fa’idantar da al’umma. Dalili na uku kuma shi ne, don bambance asalin wannan fanni, da irin nau’in binciken da ya gudana a zamani ko marhala ta farko, da irin binciken da yake gudana a wannan zamani ko marhala da muke ciki.  Wannan shi zai taimaka wa malaman tarihi kan tsarin bincike a fannin dabi’u da siffofin halitta, don bambacewa tsakanin abin da aka yi a baya da wanda ake yi a halin yanzu.  Ga takaitaccen bayani nan kan kowanne daga cikin wadannan rabe-rabe guda hudu da ake dasu a halin yanzu.

 

Fannin ‘Yan Mazan Jiya

Wannan shi ne bangaren binciken ilimin dabi’u da siffofin halitta mai lura da asalin fannin baki daya.  Shi ne bangaren da ke lura da dukkan al’amuran da suka faru a marhala ta farko, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a sashen baya.  Kuma shi ne bangaren da dukkan malamai suka yarda ya fi sauran inganci dangane da asali da kuma tasirinsa.  Wannan reshe ne ke bincike kan siffofin halitta na bayyane, wato Phenotype, da yadda kwayoyi halitta ke hayayyafa a tsakaninsu, wato Cell Division, don haifar da gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta daga iyaye zuwa ‘ya’ya ko zuriyarsu.  Daga cikin abin da wannan reshe na ilimi ya gano har wa yau, akwai dalilan da ke sa a samu bambancin jinsi wajen haihuwa sanadiyyar wasu dalilai na zahiri, kamar yanayin mahalli da tsarin jima’i a tsakanin jinsi biyu, da dai sauransu.

 

A wannan fanni ne aka gano tasirin mahalli wajen samar da jinsin halitta.  Misali, dabbobi irin su Kada, da Kunkuru, duk an gano cewa irin mahallin da suke yin kwai a cikinsa ne ke tabbatar da samuwar namiji za a haifa ko mace.  Sabanin jinsin dan adam, wanda hakan ke samuwa sanadiyyar dalilan dabi’ar halitta na boye da ke can cikin Madaukan Dabi’ar Halitta (Chromosome).  Bayan ‘yan adam hatta dabbobi da shuke-shuke, ta sanadiyyar wannan fanni ne aka gano irin tasirin mahalli da dabi’un halittar da ke cikin kwayar halittarsu wajen samar da yabanya, ko yawan hayayyafa da dai sauransu.

 

A wannan reshe ne har wa yau ake gudanar da bincike kan dalilan da ke haddasa samuwar cututtuka daga iyaye zuwa ‘ya’yansu, sanadiyyar bambanci ko tangardar da ake samu a tsakanin sinadaran dabi’un halitta.  Wannan fanni ne ke tabbatar da tsarin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta a zahiri, wato Genetic Inheritance kenan.  Kuma shi ne fannin farko da ake takama da shi a duniya baki daya.  Dukkan sauran fannonin suna dogaro ne a gare shi wajen gina abin da suke gudanar da bincike a kansa.  Shi yasa hatta a Jami’o’in da suke karantar da fannin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics), wannan shi ne reshen farko da ake fara karantar da dalibai kafin a haura zuwa wani reshe da ke dogaro kan tsarin binciken kimiyya da fasahar zamani.

 

Idan muka yi la’akari da hadisan da muka kawo a baya, inda Manzon Allah ke tabbatar da bambancin launin jiki, da bambancin jinsi wajen saduwa tsakanin namiji da mace, za mu fahimci cewa duk sun kunshi abubuwan da wannan reshe ne ke bincike a kansu.  Haka sakamakon binciken babban masanin kimiyyar nan mai suna Gregor Johann Mendel dan kasar Jamus da bayani ya zo kansa a baya, inda ya tabbatar da samuwar gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta a tsakanin kwayoyin halittar shuke-shuke da mutane, duk yana dogaro ne kan wannan reshe.  Haka sauran ra’ayoyin magabata kan fannin kimiyya da suka zo kafin rubutun tarihi, duk da cewa wasunsu a cike suke da kurakurai, amma galibi bayanansu na ishara ne zuwa ga abin da wannan reshe ke karantarwa.  Don haka ake kiran wannan reshe da suna “Classical Genetics” a Turance, wato “Fannin Ra’ayin Mazan Jiya.”  Wasu sunayen da ake kiransa da su sun hada da “Mendelian Genetics” da kuma “Transmission Genetics.”

 

Fannin Sinadaran Dabi’ar Halitta

Fanni na biyu shi ne wanda ke dogaro kai tsaye ga tsarin bincike kan yanayin sinadaran dabi’ar halitta, wato Molecules.”  Abu na farko da wannan reshe ke bincike kansa shi ne asalin “Dabi’ar Halitta” (Genes) da ke cikin kwayar halittar kowace rai.  Aikin wannan fanni ne gudanar da bincike kansa, da yanayinsa, da tsarinsa.  Shi yasa wasu ke danganta wannan reshe da ga tsarin binciken dabi’ar halitta na zamani, wato kishiyar reshen da ya gabata kenan.

 

Bayan asalin dabi’ar halitta, wannan reshe na gudanar da bincike kan Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar (DNA), da Sinadaran Kara Kuzari da ke cikin kwayar halitta (Cell Protein), wadanda ke sana’anta kowane kwayar dabi’a da siffar halitta a cikin kowane mai rai.  Wannan reshe ne ke bayanin yadda dan adam ke samuwa daga kwayar halitta (Cell) zuwa yadda yake a halin yanzu.  Reshen ne ke lura da tsarin gudanuwar jijiyoyi da kiftawar idanu da kuma dabi’ar jure cututtuka, duk a mahangar dabi’ar halitta.

 

Daga cikin aikin wannan reshe har wa yau akwai bincike kan yadda dabi’un halitta ke bayyana kansu da siffofinsu ga kowace halitta, wato “Genes Expression.”  Sannan yana bincken dalilan samuwar cututtuka irinsu Sankara (Cancer) ta hanyar gamayyar dabi’un halitta, da yadda ake magance mantsalolin tangardar dabi’ar halitta (Genes Therapy) da kuma kwaskwariman dabi’ar halitta ta hanyar kimiyya da fasahar zamani (Genetic Engineering).

 

Wannan reshe, a takaice, shi ake kira “Molecular Genetics” saboda tsananin dogaronsa kan asalin sinadaran da ke samar da dabi’un halitta, da kuma amfani da tsari ko hanyoyin binciken zamani don tantance al’amuran da suka danganci fannin baki daya.

 

Fannin Bambancin Dabi’u

Reshe na uku shi ne fannin Bambancin Dabi’u.  Wannan fanni ko reshe yana bincike ne kan bambance-bambancen da ake samu tsakanin nau’ukan halittu sanadiyyar kebantuwarsu, ko yanayin mahallinsu, ko yanayin jima’i a tsakanin jinsinsu, ko kuma dabi’un rayuwarsu.  Ba nan kadai ba, fannin na lura da wadannan abubuwa ne tare da karkasa nau’ukan da suka danganci junansu a mahangar binciken ilimin dabi’un halitta.

 

Wannan reshe ne ke taimakawa wajen gano kamaiceceniya tsakanin nau’ukan dabi’un halittar mutane ko dabbobi, da yadda za a samar da magungunu ko hanyoyin waraka a likitance, don magance sauyin dabi’un halitta (Gene Mutation) da ke faruwa ko samuwa a cikin Ma’adanar Dabi’ar Halitta, wato DNA.  Bayan gano wadannan bambance-bambance, sai a rarraba su rukuni-rukuni, don tantance abin da ke hada alaka a tsakaninsu.  Idan aka samu wasu matsaloli da suka danganci kebantuwarsu, sai a yi tunanin yadda za a samar da waraka.

 

Don tabbatar da fahimta a kwakwalwar mai karatu, sun kawo misali da daya daga cikin dabbobin dajin Afirka mai da aka si sani da suna “Cheetah”, wacce Allah ya hore mata kudurar gaugawa, da zafin nama, da juriyar gudu na tsawon lokaci, da kaifin basira wajen fahimtar abin da zai cutar da ita.  Da malaman ilimin dabi’a da siffofin halitta suka gudanar da wani bincike na musamman kan Dabi’ar Halittar wannan dabba don fahimtar abin da ke kebance ta daga sauran dabbobi masu dabi’a irin nata.  Sakamakon binciken ya nuna cewa jinsin wannan dabba ta “Cheetah” dabi’un halittarsu duka iri daya ne.  Sabanin sauran dabbobi da ake samun bambancin dabi’un halitta a tsakanin jinsi daya.  Da wannan malaman ilimin fannin dabi’ar halitta suka tabbatar da cewa akwai barazanar karewa da ke fuskantar jinsin wannan dabba.  Suka ce da zarar an samu wata cuta wacce ke iya kashe su nan take, ba za a iya samun hanyar ceto jinsin nasu daga karewa ba.  Saboda babu inda za a samu dabi’ar halitta irin tasu da za ta dace da dabi’unsu na zafin nama, da kuzari, da kuru, da kaifin basira wajen kaucewa daga abokin gaba, sannan da hikimar nemo abinci da sauransu.  Wannan fanni dai a yanzu shi ake kira da suna “Population Genetics.”

 

Fannin Alaka Tsakanin Dabi’ar Halitta da Siffofi

Wannan shi ne fanni ko reshe na karshe, wanda aikinsa shi ne gudanar da bincike kan alakar da ke tsakanin dabi’ar halitta (Genes) da kuma siffofin halitta na bayyane.  A wannan fanni ne ake fahimtar da alakar da ke tsakanin siffar halitta – misali, saurin tafiya ga mutane, ko dabar iya nemo inda abu yake ga karnuka, ko yawan kwai ga tsuntsaye da jinsinsu, ko kuma dabi’ar yawan yado da yabanya ga shuke-shuke ko tsirrai da bishiyoyi.  Wadannan dukkansu dabi’u ne da siffofin halitta da suke kebance wasu jinsin halittu, ta wannan reshe ake gano alakar da ke tsakanin wadannan dabi’u na halitta da siffofinsu.

 

Masana a wannan fanni ko reshe ne amfani ne da ka’idar “Quantitative Trait Loci”, wato “TQL” a gajarce.  Da wannan ka’ida ne suke amfani wajen fahimtar wannan alaka, musamman wajen gano yabanya a shuke-shuke da bishiyoyi, da kuma yawan ‘ya’ya ko ingancin rayuwa ga dabbobi.  Wannan fanni shi ake kira “Quantitative Genetics,” kuma fanni ne mai cike da sarkakiyar lissafi da hasashe a fannin kimiyyar lissafi.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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