Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (5)

Muhimmanci Ga Al’umma

Fannin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta yana da fadi sosai, kuma yana da sarkakiya matuka.  Amma duk da haka, babu wani fanni mai ci sosai yanzu a duniya, daga cikin nau’ukan bangarorin ilimin da ke karkashin fannin likitanci, irin wannan fanni.  Wannan tasa yake da muhimmanci sosai, saboda tasirinsa kan kusan dukkan halittar da ke bayan kasa baki daya.  Wannan sashe zai dubi muhimmancin da wannan fanni yake da shi ne, da fa’idojin da yake samarwa ba ga likitoci kadai ba, wajen sawwake musu ayyukansu, har ga kowa da kowa.

 

Cututtuka “Marasa” Magani

Daga cikin ci gaban da aka samu da bayyanar wannan fannin ilimin likitanci shi ne, da yawa daga cikin cututtukan da a baya aka kasa samun waraka daga gare su sanadiyyar yanayinsu da tsaurinsu wajen karban magani, yanzu an gano cewa ba cututtuka bane wadanda ake iya warkar da su ta hanyoyin da aka bi a baya, saboda irin asali da yanayin da ke haddasa su. Cututtuka irin su cutar Asma, da Sankara (Cancer), da cutar Siga (Diabetes), da na Hauhawan jini (Hypertension), duk suna cikin cututtukan da aka ta bugawa da su a baya wajen magani, ba tare da samun wani natija mai fa’aida ba.  Amma sanadiyyar bunkasar wannan fannin ilimi, yanzu an gano cewa cututtuka ne masu alaka da dabi’u da siffofin halitta da mutum ke iya gadonsu daga wajen iyaye ko kakanninsa.  Wannan tasa aka sauya mahanga wajen magance su, daga amfani da kwayoyi ko canza tsarin rayuwa wajen rage damuwa da bakin ciki, zuwa la’akari da tsarin kwayoyin halitta da gwajinsu ga masu niyyar aure, don kauce wa haifar ‘ya’ya masu kamuwa da ire-iren wadannan cututtuka a gaba.

 

Wannan shi ne abu mafi muhimmanci na farko da wannan fanni ya gadar wa al’umma a yanzu. Da zarar an samu wata cuta da ta bayyana tana ta ta’asa cikin al’umma, an yi magani an kasa magance ta, nan take sai a debi kwayoyin halittar wadanda abin ya shafa a yi gwaji, daga nan ana iya gano asalinta, idan har ta danganci dabi’u da siffofin halitta ne.  Wannan ya dada taimakawa gaya wajen habaka bincike mai inganci a fannin likitanci, da zummar neman hanyoyin magancewa tare da hana yaduwar cututtuka da dama wadanda a baya suka gagari masana harkar lafiya.

 

Habaka Harkar Noma da Samar da Abinci

A zamanin baya manoma kan yi wasu ‘yan dabaru wajen kokarin samar da sabon irin shuka na abinci ta hanyar “hadin-aure”, wato “Crossbreeding,” tsakanin jinsin shuka guda daya ko daban-daban.  Wannan wata hanya ce da duk aka amince cewa ta sanadiyyarta an samu habaka tsarin noma da hanyar samar da sabon nau’in irin abinci.  Sai dai a yanzu an fi amfani da wannan hanya wajen aiwatar da hakan a saukake, musamman a kasashe masu ci gaban tattalin arzikin kasa.  Domin a yau akan dauki nau’in dabi’ar halittar wata shuka ko wata dabba, a sanya shi cikin kwayoyin halittar wani irin shuka daban, don gadar wa wannan irin shuka wasu dabi’un da ake bukata.

 

Misali, a kasashe masu fama da farin dango, ko kwari masu lalata shuke shuke, a kan yi amfani da kwayoyin halittar da ke dauke da samfurin sinadarin da ke kashe kwari ko wanda suka tsana, sai a shigar da shi cikin kwayoyin halittar irin shukan da ake bukata.  Da zarar an shuka ta tsiro, duk kwarin da suka nufaci wannan shuka nan take za su mutu.  Haka a kasashen da ke fama da tsananin sanyi, wanda hakan ke yin mummunan tasiri kan shuke-shuke, sai a dauki dabi’un halittar wani nau’in kifi da ke karkashin teku, a shigar da shi cikin kwayoyin halittar wannan irin shuka.  Da zarar shukar ta tsiro, duk yadda sanyi ya kai da kasaita, ba zai yi mummunar tasiri a kan ta ba.  Haka za su tsira, su yi girma, har su fitar da kwaya sannan a girbe.

 

Haka idan ana bukatar yabanya mai kyau, ko zaki daga wani irin shuka, ko kamshi, ko kuma dadi daga wani nau’in abinci da ake so, sai a debi dabi’un halittar wata shuka mai zaki makamanciyar wacce ake so, a shigar cikin shukar da ake son shukawa.  Da zarar ta isa girbi, dukkan siffofin halittar da ake son ta siffafu da su nan take za ta fito da su.  Haka abin yake a fannin dabbobi da kifaye ko dabbobin ruwa, da dai sauransu.  Dukkan wannan ya samu ne ta sanadiyyar inganta bincike kan fannin dabi’u da siffofin halitta a kimiyyance.

 

Inganta Fannin Tsaro

Fannin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta ya samar da hanya mafi sauki wajen gano masu laifi musamman a kasashen da suka ci gaba, inda aka fi aikata miyagun ayyuka sosai babu kakautawa.  Gwamnatoci, ta hadin gwiwa da likitoci suna amfani da wannan fanni wajen gano tambarin hannu da kuma kwayoyin halittar masu laifi, don kama su da gurfanar da su a gaban kuliya.  Idan aka yi sata ko kashe kashe a wasu wurare, a kan dauki abubuwan da aka samu a wurin, wadanda masu laifi suka bari ko suka taba.  A kan wadannan kayayyaki za a gudanar da bincike, a ciro kwayoyin halittar da aka samu a jikinsu.  Da wadannan kwayoyin halitta ne za a gano nau’in jini, da nau’in jinsi, da nau’in dabi’ar halittar wanda aka gano tambarin hannunsa.  Tunda suna da rumbun adana bayanan ‘yan kasa baki daya ta kwamfuta (National Database), nan take za a gano wanda ke da wadannan siffofi na halitta, sannan a nemi adireshin gidansa.  Da zarar an same shi a kamo shi.  Idan kuma wadanda aka kama ne misali, sai a musu gwajin dabi’ar halitta ko gwajin kwayoyin halitta, don tabbatar da dacewarsu da abin da aka samu a wajen aikata laifi.  Wannan hanya ce mai kyau kuma mai inganci wajen tantance wa ya aikata me, kuma a ina?

Tabbatar da Nasaba tsakanin Al’umma

Wannan abu ne mai muhimmanci da fannin dabi’u da siffofin halitta ya samar a duniya.  Tabbas a baya al’ummomi daban-daban sun samar da hanyoyin tabbatar da nasaba a tsakaninsu.  Wasu al’ummomin suna amfani ne da tsarin rubutu, da tantance duk wadanda aka haifa a kowace shekara, da nasabarsu, da danginsu.  A wasu al’ummomin kuma suna amfani da dattawa ne, wadanda Allah ya hore musu kaifin haddace abubuwa, don tabbatar da nasabar jama’a.  Sai dai wani abu sabo da wannan fanni ya kawo shi ne, idan rikici ya sarke tsakanin jama’a kan nasabar wani; wannan na cewa “da na ne”, wancan na cewa “nawa ne,” ta hanyar daukan samfurin kwayoyin halittarsu kadai ana iya gane waye ke da dan daga cikinsu. Wannan hanya ce mai sauki. Wanda in da a zamanin baya ne, sai an nemo masana kan sanin bambance-bambancen tsarin jiki, da murya, da fuska, da girman yatsun kafa da na hannaye, da dai sauransu.

 

Amma a yau sai dai kawai a debi jininka, ko yawunka, ko kuma numfashinka, da na wanda ake son riskar da nasabar gare shi, a yi gwaji.  Wannan ita ce hanya mafi inganci wajen tantance nasaba da dangantaka, kuma malaman musulunci sun yi amanna da wannan tsari.  Shi yasa Shehu Usmanu ibn Fodio, Mujaddadi, Allah rahamshe shi yake cewa, wajibi ne ga kowace gwamnati ta kafa hukumar lura da nasabar al’umma, don kada a samu cakuduwa, wanda hakan na iya haddasa rikici mai girman gaske, musamman wajen gado, da dangantaka, da suna, da kuma neman hakkin dan uwa.

Tabbatar da Kariya daga Cututtuka

Alkaluman bayanai sun tabbatar da cewa a yanzu akwai mutane miliyan 200 da suke fama da cututtuka masu alaka da dabi’u da siffofin halitta; ma’ana, sun gado wadannan cututtuka ne daga iyayensu, ko dangin iyayensu, ko kakanninsu, ta hanyar kwayoyin halitta a lokacin haihuwa.  Bayyana da bunkasar wannan fanni ya taimaka wajen samun kwararru masu baiwa jama’a shawarwari kan abin da ya kamata su yi kafin auratayya tsakaninsu da mata.  Ko kuma ga wadanda suka riga suka yi aure, akan shawarce su da aiwatar da gwajin kwayoyin halitta (Genetic Test), don tabbatar da cewa babu cin karo mai haifar da cututtuka ga ‘ya’ya idan an tashi haihuwa, a tsakanin kwayoyin halittar ma’auratan biyu.  Wannan yana da muhimmanci sosai, hatta malaman musulunci a wannan zamani suna kira da lallai ya kamata ga masu niyyar aure su yi wannan gwaji, don tantance tsari da kintsin kwayoyi da dabi’un halittar jikinsu.  Idan akwai cin karo, likitoci kan bayar da shawara kan abin da ya kamata su yi bayan auren ko kafin auren.  Idan rabuwa ce, su rabu shi yafi alheri, tunda ba a riga aka daura auren ba.  Idan kuma wasu magunguna ne za a basu, duk sai a basu a lokacin.

 

To amma galibi musamman a kasashe masu tasowa, ba mu cika damuwa da hakan ba, saboda rashin wayar da kai daga wajen hukuma, ko kuma muna tsoron kada a samu tangarda, alhali ba za mu iya rabuwa da wacce muke so ba.  A nan, fannin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta ya samar da kariya mai muhimmanci wajen kare ma’aurata gadar wa ‘ya’yan da za su haifa wasu cututtuka, wadanda da a ce an yi auren ba tare da gwaji ba, suna iya afkawa cikin lalura mai girman gaske.  Domin lura da ‘ya’ya masu ire-iren wadannan cututtuka (kamar Sicklers misali), abu ne mai matukar wahala wajen kudi, da lokaci, da juriya, da hakuri.  Akwai baiwar Allah da na sani da Allah ya jarrabe  ta da nau’in cuta mai alaka da dabi’a da siffofin halitta.  Sai ka tausaya mata.  Idan a makaranta take, ba a mako uku mai kyau sai an dawo da ita gida.  Wasu lokuta ta sume, wasu lokuta a kasa gane kanta.  A takaice dai ba ta da iko kan sarrafa lokutanta. A kowane lokaci tana iya kamuwa da rashin lafiya.

 

Tantance Asali da Tarihin Al’ummomi

Ta hanyar fannin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta an tantance al’ummomi da dama, an kuma gano asalin wasu da dama.  Sannan an fahimci dalilan da suka sa ake samun wasu launukan jiki masu sabanin na jama’a, ga wadanda suke zaune a wuri daya.  Misali, akwai wasu kabilu a kasar Amurka da ake kira “Hopi,” can wajen jihar Arizona.  Mutane ne masu bakin gashin kai, da bakin fatar jiki, da bakin gudan idanu.  Suna cikin rayuwa sai kawai suka fara haifar wasu ‘ya’ya masu fararen fatan jiki sal, masu fararen gashin kai sal, masu launin idanu sabanin irin na iyayensu.  Masu irin wannan nau’in halitta su ake kira “Zabya” ko kuma “Albinos” a turance.  Ana fara haka sai masana tarin kasar Amurka suka ce ai wata al’umma ce daban.  Amma da fannin ilimin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta ya bayyana, sai aka gano cewa ba wai wata al’umma bace daban, tangardar dabi’un halitta aka samu (Genetic Disorder) tsakaninsu da iyayensu wajen halitta.  Abin da ke faruwa shi ne, daga cikin sinadaran halitta da ke samar da dan adam akwai sindarin da ake kira “Melanin,” wanda ke samar da launin fatar jiki, da launin idanu, da launin gashin kai da na jiki, da duk inda wani launi yake a jiki.  To amma idan aka samu matsala wajen halitta ya zama akwai rashin dacewa tsakanin dabi’un halitar uba da na uwa a bangaren wannan sinadarin Melanin, sai a haifi yaro fari sal, komai na jikinsa fari, babu wani launi da zai danganta shi da mahaifinsa ko mahaifiyarsa.  Wannan sakamakon bincike ya samu ne ta hanyar bunkasar fannon gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta.

 

Fahimtar Gamewa da Karfin Kudurar Ubangiji

A karshe, bayyanar wannan fanni da irin tasirinsa wajen bunkasa bincike don fahimtar tsarin halitta ya dada taimaka wa musulmi musamman wajen fahimtar gamewa da karfin kudurar Allah madaukakin sarki.  Domin idan aka nuna maka kwayar halitta za ka yi mamakin yadda za a ce maka ta haka ne dan adam ke samuwa.  Daga launin idanunsa, zuwa tsawon yatsunsa, da gajartar jikinsa, da kaurin hancinsa, da laushin fatar jikinsa, da tsawon gashin jikinsa, da tsarin hakoransa, da tsarin lebbansa, da yanayin tafiyarsa, da yanayin fahimtarsa, da yanayin natsuwarsa, da kimar hankalinsa, da fadin iliminsa, da fahimtar muhallinsa, da nau’in farin cikinsa, da saurin fushinsa, da jinkirin fahimtarsa, da dai sauransu.  Wannan duk yana nuna mana iya girma da fadin kudurar Allah ne, wajen kwarewa da halitta, da hikima, da kuma tassarafi cikin halittarsa baki daya.  Albarkokin Allah sun yawaita, wanda shi ne mafi kyawon masu halitta.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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