Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (6)

Tallafi Daga Fannin Kwamfuta da Sadarwa

Kamar yadda mai karatu ya karanta a baya, wannan fanni na Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta, wato Genetics, fanni ne da ke saurin habaka, duk da tsauri da tsananin tsadar bincike da fannin ya siffantu da su.  Daga cikin dalilan da suka haddasa wannan ci gaba a cikin shekarun da basu wuce ashirin da biyar ba, akwai ci gaba a fannin sadarwa da kwamfuta, ko kuma fannin sarrafa bayanai dai a takaice, wato Information Technology kenan.  Wannan a fili yake.  Domin duk wanda ya dubi tsarin gudanar da bincike a wannan fanni, ya san kwarin idanu, da kaifin gani kadai ba su isa su taimaka wa fannin ci gaba ba, sai da tallafin ci gaban kimiyyar sadarwa da kere-kere.  Domin dukkan sinadaran da ake gudanar da bincike a kansu ba abubuwa bane da ake iya gani da kwayar idanu, nan take.  Galibinsu sai ta hanyar na’urar kambama abubuwa (Microscope) ake iya hangarsu, a fahimci yanayinsu, a yi nazarin tsarinsu da abin da suka kunsa, kafin a gano duk abin da ake son ganowa don taskance su a rubuce ko a zane.

 

Wannan sashe zai yi dubi ne zuwa ga wasu daga cikin shahararrun masarrafai ko manhajojin kwamfuta da kwararru kan wannan fanni suke amfani da su wajen tantance tsarin bincike a wannan fanni na Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics).  Akwai bangarori shahararru da wadannan masarrafai suka shafa, kuma za mu dubi nau’ukan manhajojin kwamfuta da aka gina a cikinsu, masu amfani a babbar manhajar Windows na kamfanin Microsoft Inc.  Na farko, kwai manhajoji na musamman a bangaren nazari da tantance yanayin Madarar Dabi’un Halitta, wato: “Deoxyribonucleic Acid” ko “DNA” a takaice.  A bangare na biyu kuma, akwai manhajoji ko masarrafan kwamfuta da aka gina don nazarin mahallin DNA, da sauran sinadaran da suka dangance shi, wajen fahimtar tsarinsu da gudanar da bincike kansu.  Na uku akwai manhajoji na musamman kan nazarin sinadaran kara kuzari da ke cikin kwayar halitta, wato: Cell Protein Analysis. Na hudu kuma sai manhajoji da aka gina kan nazarin fannin alakar da ke tsakanin kwayoyin halitta wajen bunkasa da habaka, ba bangaren kamaiceceniya wajen dabi’u ba kadai.  Wannan fanni kuwa shi ake kira Phylogenetics.  Duk da cewa a farko ba mu tabo wannan fanni ba, amma ganin cewa muna nazarin manhajojin ne a jumlace, shi yasa na kawo mana.  Bayan wadannan fanno akwai wasu fannonin dai daban.

 

Kafin mu ci gaba, zai dace mai karatu ya fahimci cewa, su wadannan manhajoji na kwamfuta aikin su shi ne tantance bayanan da aka shigar musu a rubuce, ko a tsarin hotuna, ko kuma a tsari ko yanayin zane.  Sannan bayanan na iya kasancewa ta hanyar tsarin shigar da bayanai ne, wato a rubuta da hannu ta hanyar allon shigar da bayanai na kwamfuta, wato: Keyboard, ko kuma ta tsarin wasu manhajoji ko na’urorin sadarwa, irin su na’urar daukan hotuna, wato Scanning Machine, ko na’urarorin tantance zafi ko adadin sinadarai da ake amfani da su irin su: PCR Machine (wato Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis) da aka saba amfani dasu a dakunan binciken kimiyyar sinadarai tun sama da shekaru ashirin da suka gabata.  Ta wadanan hanyoyi ne ake samun bayanan da wadannan manhajojin kwamfuta da za mu yi magana a kansu yanzu ke sarrafawa, don taimaka wa likitoci ko masu bincike a wannan fanni fahimtar alaka, da kamaiceceniya, ko bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin nau’ukan kwayoyin halitta da siiffofi da kuma dabi’unsu.

 

Manhajojin

A fannin nazarin Madarar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta, wato DNA, akwai manhajar MyRAST wacce ke taimakawa wajen tantance nau’ukan kwayoyin halittar dabbobin da kwayar halittarsu bata kai ta dan adam ba wajen bunkasa. A baya abu ne mai wahala a iya tantace wadannan kwayoyin halitta a bangare daya, tare da sanya musu rubutacciyar alama, cikin tsibin bayanan da ake dasu kan nau’ukan kwayoyin halitta.  Amma samuwar wannan manhaja ta taimaka matuka, inda a rana daya, bayan tara dukkan bayanan da ake dasu kan kwayoyin halitta, da wannan manhaja sai a tantance kowane irin kwayar halitta daban, tare da alamar kowanne, don sawwake ayyuka da tsarin bincke.  Sai manhaja mai suna Gene Designer, wadda ke taimakawa wajen tattaro bayanan sinadaran Amino Acid da ke kwayar halitta, da kuma sinadaran Madarar Dabi’ar Halitta a daya bangaren, don fahimtar yadda wadannan sinadarai ke haduwa wajen samar da kamaiceceniya tsakanin halittu ko zuri’o’i.

 

Sai manhajar CLC Free Workbench, wadda ke taimakawa wajen hado bayanan da suka shafi Madarar Dabi’ar Halitta (DNA) da sinadaran kara kuzari na kwayar halitta (Cell Protein), tare da tsara su a reshe daya, don taimaka wa masu bincike yin fashin-baki kan alakokin da ke tsakaninsu.  Mai nazari na iya samun wadannan bayanai cikin shafi guda, ta hanyar wannan masarrafa.  Sai masarrafa mai suna Geneious, wadda kamfanin Alexei Drummond Biomatters Ltd da ke birnin Auckland na kasar New Zealand ya gina.  Amfanin wannan masarrafa dai shi ne taskance bayanan da suka shafi dukkan Taswirar Dabi’ar Halittar dan adam baki daya, wato Human Genome, a cikin kwamfuta, tare da sawwake hanyoyin mu’amala da bayanan cikin sauki.  A takaice dai wannan masarrafa ko manhaja kamar “Rumbun Bayanan Kwayoyin Halitta” ne, mai dauke da kafofin karawa, ko ragewa, ko nemowa, ko adanawa, ko kuma tasarrafi da su baki daya.

 

Akwai kuma manhajar ganin taswira da hotuna da bayanan da suka shafi kwayoyin halitta da dukkan abin da ya dangance su, cikin sauki.  Wannan manhaja kuwa ita ce: Genome2D, wacce aikinta shi ne budo bayanan kawai, a kowane irin siffa ko yanayi suke.  Sannan kana iya aikawa da bayanan da kake bukata cikin sauki, zuwa wani mahallin don sarrafa su.  Sai manhajar PHIRE, wanda aka gina da tsarin gina manhajar kwamfuta mai suna Visual Bacic na kamfanin Microsoft.  Wannan manhaja dai aikinta shi ne taimakawa wajen binciko (ta hanyar tambaya – search) nau’ukan kwayoyin halitta masu dauke da cututtuka (Bacteriophage) da ke jerin bayanan Taswirar Dabi’ar Halitta, tare da tare da tantance su ta yanayi da tsari mai kayatarwa ga masu bincike ko nazari.  Su wadannan kwayoyin dabi’un halitta da suka harbu da cututtuka, ana amfani ne dasu wajen yin kwaskwariman wasu kwayoyin halittar, don haka ake taskance bayanansu don amfanin gaba.

 

Akwai kuma manhajar MB DNA Analysis, wadda Mista Oleg Simakov ya gina.  Wannan manhaja dai kyauta ce, kuma amfaninta shi ne iya tantace bayanan siffofin sinadaran kwayar halitta da ake bukata don yanke hukunci kansu.  Hakan kuwa ya hada da yanayin alakokin da ke tsakaninsu, da girman yanayinsu, da kuma lissafin madaukan da ke cikinsu, don tantance hakikaninsu, da dai sauran abubuwa masu gamsarwa wajen nazari da bincike.  Sai manhajar GenePalette, wacce ake amfani da ita wajen iya tsakuro bayanan taswirar dabi’ar halitta daga rumbun adana wadannan bayanai na kasar Amurka (GenBank Database), kan nau’ukan kwayoyin halittar dabbobi daban-daban, tare da jero su ta yadda mai nazari zai iya ganinsu tsaf, har ya gudanar da nau’in nazarin da yake son gudanarwa a kansu.  Akwai kuma manhajar UniPro DPview wadda kamfanin UniPro Bioinformatics Groups da ke kasar Rasha ya gina.  Wannan manhaja na da muhimmanci ne wajen iya nemo bayanan taswirar dabi’ar halitta, tare da tantance kamaiceceniyar da ke tsakaninsu, sannan ta taimaka wa mai bincike wajen tsara alaka a tsakanin bayanan, ta hanyar wasu ka’idoji da zai iya ginawa.

 

Bayan wadannan har wa yau, akwai manhaja mai suna SEQtools, ita ma manhaja ce ta musamman da ake amfani da ita wajen gudanar da nazari kan madarar bayanan dabi’ar halitta, tare da sinadaran kara kuzarin kwayar halitta (Cell Protein), tare da jera su, da tantance bayanan da suka shafi sinadaran Enzymes da dai sauransu.  Akwai kuma manhajar GENtle mai taimakawa wajen gyara bayanan da suka shafi Madarar Dabi’ar Halitta (DNA), da sinadaran Amino Acid, da lura da rumbun bayanan kwayoyin halitta, da dai sauransu makamantansu.  Sai manhaja ta karshe da za mu dakata a kanta a bangaren nazarin madarar bayanan dabi’ar halitta (DNA) mai suna DNA Club.  Wannan manhaja aikinta shi ne yin amfani da tsarin zanen hotuna mai inganci (Vector Graphics) wajen nazarin bayanan da suka shafi dukkan sinadaran kwayar halitta (Cell Properties).

 

A bangaren nazarin zane ko hotunan da suka shafi sinadaran mahallin Ma’adanar Dabi’ar Halitta (Plasmid Graphics), akwai manhajoji masu mahimmanci sosai.  Da farko akwai manhajar Ape Plasmid Editor, wadda Mista Wayne Davis da ke Jami’ar Utah ta kasar Amurka ya gina.  Wannan masarrafa aikinta shi ne zanen hotunan bayanan kwayoyin halitta da take daukowa daga Babbar Rumbun Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta (GenBank) don nazarinsu, da kuma tsara taswira na musamman da ake iya amfani da masarrafar BLAST don tantance su.  Wannan masarrafa na amfani da launuka wajen tsara wadannan zane don kayatarwa. Manhaja ta gaba a wannan fanni ita ce: pDRAW32 wadda ake amfani da ita wajen shigar da sunayen sinadaran madarar dabi’ar halitta (DNA), tare da tantance kusurwarsu a zanen taswirar mahallinsu. Kamfanin da gina wannan manhaja shi ne AcaClone Software Inc.

 

Sai manhaja ta musamman mai suna Plasmid Processor, wadda ake amfani da ita wajen bayyana hoton sinadaran da ke mahallin madarar dabi’ar halitta (DNA) don yin nazarinsa a makarantun jami’o’i da sauran cibiyoyin binciken kimiyyar sinadaran jikin dan adam.  Akwai kuma manhajar BVTch Plasmid wadda ake amfani dai ita wajen zanen hoton taswirar sinadaran mahallin dabi’ar halitta (Plasmid Map), a siffar tagwaye ko tilo (Double or Single Strand).  Da wannan masarrafar za ka iya yin zanen, tare da lika wa kowane bangaren sinadarin suna ko alamar rubutu da ke nuna yanayi ko hakikaninsa.  Sai masarrafa ta karshe a wannan fanni mai suna PlasmaDNA, wadda ta masu koyon nazari ne a wannan fanni.  Tana taimakawa ne wajen gwama nau’ukan dabi’un halitta daban-daban don samun kamaiceceniya, wato Gene Cloning kenan. Sai kuma bayar da dama wajen taskance bayanan da suka shafi ayyukan da mai nazari yayi kan wadannan nau’ukan dabi’un halitta. Wannan manhaja ce mai sauki wajen ta’ammali ga dukkan mai nazari.

 

Wadannan su ne shahararrun manhajoji da aka gina masu taimaka wa masu nazarin sinadaran kwayoyin halitta a kimiyyance, tare da tsara su, don kokarin samar da waraka ga galibin matsalolin da ake dasu na cututtuka masu alaka da Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta a tsakanin jinsin mutane, da wuraren da suka fito, da kuma yanayin jikinsu.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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