Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (7)

Tsarin Jirkita Dabi’un Halittar Irin Abinci

A yau za mu dubi wani bangare ne daga cikin bangarorin da wannan fanni mai fadi ke dauke dasu.  Wannan bangare kuwa shi ne bangaren da ke lura da kokarin masana kimiyyar dabi’ar halittar halittu wajen sauyawa ko jirkita dabi’un halittar irin abinci da muke shukawa a gonakinmu, don samar da wasu nau’ukan iri na abinci masu dauke da yanayi da dabi’un da suka sha bamban da na asali.  Me yasa malaman kimiyya ke yin haka?  Wasu irin abinci ne aka jirkita asalin dabi’unsu?  Wasu kasashe suka shahara da haka?  Meye alfanun da ke tattare da yin hakan a kimiyyance, da kuma fannin tattalin arzikin kasa?  Shin hakan na da wani cutarwa ne?  In eh, me da me ake tsoro?  Wannan bangare ne na musamman dake fannin Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta, kuma a turance shi ake kira: Genetic Modification of Crops, ko GMC a gajarce.

 

Ma’ana da Asali

Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama, wannan bangare da ake kira GMC shi ne yin amfani da kwarewar ilimin kimiyyar halittu wajen cirewa ko kara a kalla daya daga cikin kwayoyin dabi’un halitta (Genes) da ke cikin Tubalin Halittar (Cells) irin shuka na abinci (Crop Seed), don samar da wata fa’ida ta musamman.  Hanyar da ake amfani da ita wajen yin hakan kuwa ita ce hanyar Magance Tangardar Dabi’un Halitta, wato Genetic Engineering. Wannan ita ce sabuwar hanyar aiwatar da wannan tsari.  Ta sha bamban da hanyoyin da manoman da ke amfani, kamar hanyar aure tsakanin nau’uka mabanbanta daga cikin dabbobi ko irin shuka, wadanda aka fi sani da: Selective Breeding, da Somaclonal Variation.

 

Wannan sabon fanni ya samo asali ne daga kasar Amurka sama da shekaru ashirin da suka gabata.  An fara sayar da nau’ukan jirkitattun irin abinci a kasar ne cikin shekarar 1994.  Kafin wannan lokaci, masana sun fara gano wannan dabara ne tun cikin shekarar 1946, cewa ana iya daukan dabi’ar halittar wani irin shuki, a sanya wa wani.  Cikin shekarar 1988 aka samu shukin farko ta wannan sabuwar hanya. Wannan nau’in shuka kuwa shi ne na sabon nau’in shukan taba mai iya jure kwayoyin bateriya da ke kashe shuke-shuken abinci.

 

Ana shiga shekarar 1994 kuma sai ga sabon nau’in irin shuka na tumatur, jirkitacce, mai iya jure tsawon lokaci bayan an tsinko daga gona, ba tare da ya zama tubus ba balle ya zagwanye.  Wannan nau’in sabon iri bai jure tsawon lokaci ba saboda dan Karen tsada da kamfanin ya tsawwala masa.  A shekarar 1995 kuma sai ga sabon irin masara jirkitacce, da waken soya, da kuma tumatur dai har wa yau.  Ana shiga shekarar 2000 sai aka samar da nau’in shinkafa da suka kira Golden Rice, wanda aka jirkita shi don magance matsalolin ciwon ido ta hanyar shigar sinadaran Vitamin A a cikinsa. Zuwa shekarar 2011 an tabbatar da cewa kasar Amurka ce a gaba wajen samar da ire-iren wadannan jirkitattun nau’ukan irin shuka na abinci.  An kiyasta cewa akwai a kalla nau’ukan irin shuka guda 25 jirkitattu a kasar, kuma kashi 91 na waken soya da ke kasar duk jirkitaccen iri ne, kashi 81 na masarar kasan jirkitacce ne, haka kashi 88 na irin audugan kasar shi ma duk jirkitacce ne.

 

Tsarin Jirkitawa

Wannan sabon tsarin inganta irin shuka, kamar yadda masu goyon bayan tsarin suke cewa, yana aukuwa ne ta hanyar debo daya daga cikin dabi’’un halittar wata irin shuka, a sa shi cikin Madarar Dabi’ar Halitta (DNA) na irin shukan da ake son jirkitawa, don wata fa’ida ta musamman. Misali, masana kan iya daukan wani nau’in irin shuka na masarar wata kasa a Afirka, irin wanda ke jure zafin rana, da jure rashin noma na tsawon lokaci, sai a dauki daya daga cikin nau’in dabi’un halitta (Genes) da ke cikin wannan irin masara na Afirka, a shigar cikin Madarar Dabi’ar Halittar (DNA) masarar kasar Amurka da ba ya iya jure zafin rana ko rashin noma na tsawon lokaci.  Da zarar an shigar da wannan kwayar halitta, sai a ci gaba da renon wannan irin kwayar shuka da aka masa kari a dakin binciken kimiyya (Science Laboratory); daga tsira har girbewa.

 

A kasar Amurka misali, kamfanonin samar da amfanin gona ne ke tafiyar da wannan tsari. Kamfani zai nemi izini wajen hukuma don yin gwaji. Da zarar hukuma ta basu damar gwaji sai kama gwaji.  Idan kamfani ya gama gwajin nau’in irin shukan da ya samar, babu matsala, sai ya sake neman izini wajen hukuma kan nomawa tare da sayar da wannan nau’in irin shuka da ya samar a gonarsa.  A halin yanzu akwai kamfanoni sama da uku a kasar Amurka masu tafiyar da wannan aiki; a wajensu kadai ake iya sayan irin shuka jirkitattu.

 

Muhawara Tsakanin Masana

Tun sadda wannan tsari na jirkita dabi’un halittar irin shuka ya bayyana, babu shekarar da za ta shiga har ta kare ba tare da samun muhawara mai zafi a tsakanin masana kimiyyar halittu da dabbobi ba.  Wannan muhawara kuwa kan kankama ne tsakanin masu goyon bayan wannan tsari, don tabbatar da inganci ko alfanunsa, da kuma wadanda ke ganin tsari ne mummuna da nan gaba zai kawo cikas a rayuwar duniya baki dayanta, ba ma kasar Amurka ba.  Wannan muhawara ne ya raba kasashen duniya masu arzikin tattali zuwa biyu.  Kasar Amurka na bangaren masu goyon bayan wannan tsari, domin kashi 90 cikin 100 na nau’ukan abincin da ake sayarwa a shagunan abincin kasar Amurka duk daga jirkitattun nau’in irin shuka aka samar dasu.  A daya bangaren kuma akwai kasashen Nahiyar Turai da ke ganin wannan tsarin bincike ne mai hadari da bai kamata a danganta shi ga abincin mutane da dabbobi ba.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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