Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (9)

Babbar Muhawara – “The Nature-Nurture Debate”

Dubi ga babbar alakar da ke haddasa samuwar Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri (Phenotype) ne ya kawo mu ga babbar muhawara, wacce aka dade ana gwagwagwa kanta tsakanin masana Fannin Zamantakewa (Sociologists) da masana fannin ilimin halitta da dabi’a (Psychologists). Dalilin kawo wannan muhawara kuwa shi ne, don a baya ko ince a farkon zamani, masana kimiyyar zamani basu amince cewa mahalli na da wata alaka kan sauyin dabi’u da siffofin halitta ba ga dan adam ko wata halitta daban.  Suka ce abin da ke dauke cikin Kwayar Dabi’ar Halitta (Gene) din nan, su ne kadai ke bayyana kansu ba tare da la’akari da wasu sabubba na mahalli ba.  Wannan ra’ayi an dauki tsawon lokaci ana kansa, ana kuma kare shi.

 

Masu kare wannan ra’ayi suka ce duk wani wanda ka gani da hazaka ta ilimi ko kwazo na aiki ko basira da hikima kan mahangar rayuwa, to daman can haka ya gado daga iyaye ko kakanninsa. Tasirin zamantakewa ko tarbiyyar iyaye ba su da wani sababi wajen canza wannan hazaka ko hikima ko kwazo da wannan yaro ya gado daga iyaye ko kakanni.

 

Wannan bayani ko jawabi nasu ne ya sake haifar da wata muhawara mai karfi wacce ta shahara a fagen ilimi, mai kokarin fahimtar tasirin mahalli wajen gyaruwa ko bacin tarbiyya; wajen karuwa ko raguwar hazaka; wajen karuwa ko raguwar basira; wajen karuwa ko raguwar hikima ga yaro sanadiyyar zamansa a wani mahalli na musamman, inda ake da abubuwan da ke iya sabbaba karuwa ko raguwar wadannan dabi’u.  Bayyanar wannan muhawara ya dada fito da abubu fili karara a gare su, musamman ganin cewa a ka’idar binciken kimiyya addini ba ya tasiri ko kadan.  Ma’ana ba a la’akari da abin da dan adam ke imani dashi kawai ba tare da wani bincike na zahiri don kokarin tabbatar da samuwar abin ko rashin samuwarsa ba.  In ba haka ba, ai duk wani musulmi ya san cewa bayan tsarin kaddara da Allah ya rubuta wa halitta baki daya, akwai sabubba da ke haddasa faruwar kaddarar, ko zartar dasu.

 

Wannan muhawara dai, kada mu sha’afa, ita ce Muhawarar Dabi’a da Mahalli, wato: Nature-Nurture Debate.  Tambayoyin da wannan muhawara ke yi su ne: shin, barawo, daman can haka Allah ya kaddare a matsayin barawo cikin kwayoyin halitta da dabi’unsa, ko kuma bayan zuwansa duniya ne yaci karo da matsalolin rayuwa ko abokan banza suka jefa shi cikin wannan mummunar sana’a?  Shin, mashayin giya, daman can a cikin kwayoyin dabi’u da siffofin halittarsa haka Allah ya tsara shi ya zama mashayin giya, ko dai zuwansa duniya ne aka yi rashin sa’a ya harbu sanadiyyar zama da abokan banza mashaya?  Shin, dan kwaya, daman can haka Allah ya tsara a kwayoyin dabi’u da siffofin halittarsa akwai nau’ukan dabi’un shan kwaya, ko dai zuwansa duniya ne aka yi rashin sa’a da mahalli har ya zama dan kwaya?  Tambayoyi makamantan wadannan suna nan da yawa.  Ga musulmi, amsoshin wadannan tambayoyi ba abu bane mai wahala.  Amsar kuwa ita ce: Eh, duk wani mashayi, ko barawo, ko dan kwaya, duk Allah ya kaddara za su zama mashaya ko ‘yan kwaya ko barayi, amma hakan ba zai kasance ba sai da wasu sabubbu  na zahiri, na zamantakewa.

 

Wadannan sabubba dole sai sun samu kafin wannan barawo ya kama sata, ko wancan mashayi ya kama shan giya ko wancan dan kwaya ya kama hambadar kwayoyi.

 

A wajen malaman kimiyya wannan ba dalili bane karbabbe, har sai an yi gwaji na zahiri, an tabbatar da hakan sannan ake amincewa.  Hatta wajen amincewar ma, sai dai a alakanta maka faruwar abubuwan da zahirin sabubba, amma ba ga Allah ba.  Haka abin ya kasance a bangaren wannan muhawara.  An aiwatar da gwaje-gwaje tsakanin jarirai tagwaye, uwa-daya-uba-daya.  Aka raba musu wurin zama da muhalli.  A karshe aka gano bambancin hazaka a tsakaninsu, duk kuwa da cewa nau’in dabi’u da siffofin halittar da ke jikinsu iri daya ne; daga uwa daya uba daya.  Amma an gano cewa tasirin mahallin da kowannensu ya zauna a ciki ya taimaka wajen siffata shi da wata dabi’a da dan uwansa bai samu ba sanadiyyar rashin wannan yanayi a mahallin da ya zauna.  Ire-iren wadannan gwaje-gwajen kimiyya da aka gudanar ne suka dada jawo hankalin masana a bangaren halitta tare da yarda da tasirin mahalli wajen tabbatar da siffofi da dabi’un da kowane dan adam ya gado daga iyaye ko kakanninsa.

 

Wannan babbar muhawara mai take: Nature-Nurture Debate na cikin dalilan da suka dada canza tunani da tsarin binciken Malaman kimiyya kan tasirin mahalli ga siffofi da dabi’un halittar rayuka.  Wannan karbuwa ce ta kai ga inganta wannan fanni na Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri, wanda kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata, alakar da ke samuwa tsakanin Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta da Tasirin Mahalli ne suka haifar da samuwar wata siffa da dabi’a bayyananniya da ake iya gani.  Akwai misalai masu yawa da za su iya kara gamsar da fahimtar mai karatu kan wannan fanni.

 

Misalai

A darasin farko da muka fara kawo, cikin gabatarwa da muka yi kan samuwa da dadewar wannan fannin ilimi a tsakanin halitta, mun kawo wasu hadisai masu nuni ga samuwar wadannan abubuwa.  Hadisin farko shi ne wanda ke magana kan wani abu da ya faru tsakanin wani Sahabin Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su kara tabbata a gare shi) mai suna Al-Fazaaree, da matarsa, wacce ta haifa masa jariri baki sitik.  Wannan bawan Allah dai Balarabe ne, haka ma matarsa.   Don haka sai nan take hankalinsa ya tashi.  Kenan, a tunaninsa ta sadu da wani bakin fata kenan ko bakin bawa, sanadiyyar haka ya mata ciki.  Nan take ya dauki wannan jariri a zanen goyo ya je wajen Manzon Allah don ya nuna masa.

 

Sadda ya iso Manzon Allah na zaune cikin sahabbansa ne kamar yadda aka saba.  Sai yace masa: “Dubi abin da ta haifa.”  Yana nufin matarsa kenan.  Sai Manzon Allah yace masa: “Kana da rakuma?” Yace eh.  Yace babu wani mai launin ja da baki a cikinsu?  Yace akwai.  Yace masa ta yaya aka yi ya samu launin ja da baki, bayan iyayensa jajaye ne?  Yace watakila ya jawo wata jijiya ce (daga asalin kakanninsa).  Yana fadin haka sai Manzon Allah yace masa, “Hakan wannan – jariri – shi ma; ya jawo wata jijiya ce (daga asalin kakanninsa).

 

Abin da za mu iya fahimta a wannan lamari, bayan tabbatar da cewa lallai kowane dan adam zuriyarsa na kama ne da shi ta kowane bangare sanadiyyar dacewar kwayar dabi’ar halittarsa (Gene) da na matarsa, har wa yau, wasu lokuta kuma zuri’a na iya daukar dabi’ar halittar wani daga cikin kakanni ko dangin uba ko uwa.  Hakan na samuwa ne idan aka samu haduwar Rinjayayyiyar dabi’ar halitta (Dominant Trait) kan Nakasasshiyar dabi’ar halitta (Recessive Trait).  A yanayi irin wannan kuwa, dabi’ar halitta mafi rinjaye ita ce ke bayyana a zahirin halittar wanda aka haifa.  Wannan shi ne abin da ya faru ga jaririn wannan sahabi.  Ta yiwu a cikin kakanninsa (bangaren Uwa ko Uba) ko kakannin ita matar, akwai bakin fata.  To amma wannan yanayi bai tashi bayyana ga zuri’ar wannan sahabi ba sai da aka samu Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta, wato Gene Mutation.  Wannan wani yanayi ne da ke canja yanayin siffar halitta daga abin da aka sani zuwa wani launi ko yanayi daban, lokaci guda.

 

Misalai kan haka na nan birjik.  Akwai mutumin da za ka samu ‘ya’yansa duk sunyi kama ne dashi, sai guda daya kadai.  Ko a samu yara duk sunyi kama da iyayensu biyun, amma ga wani shi kadai, bai yi kama da kowa a gidan ba.  Idan aka je aka yi gwajin Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta (Genotype Test), za a samu na shi ya dace da na ‘yan uwansa da na mahaifansa gaba daya, amma a zahirin halitta ya sha bamban dasu ta kowane bangare.  Hakan ya faru ne sanadiyyar samuwar Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta (Gene Mutation) a bangaren Uwa ko Uba.  Duk da cewa ba dukkan yanayi irin wannan bane ke dacewa da canjin dabi’ar halitta. Akwai wanda tabbas za a samu asali ba dan gidan bane.  Shi yanayi irin wannan kuwa akan gane hakikanin gaskiya ne ta hanyar yin gwajin Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta (Genotype Test).  Wannan ita ce kadai hanyar da ke iya tantance gaskiya.  Amma muddin aka gano iri daya ne da na mahaifinsa, to sai a fahimci cewa dalilin samuwar hakan shi ne Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta a tsakanin ma’aurata.

 

Shi yasa, kuskure ne yin gaggawar kore samuwar da ga mutum don kawai abin da aka haifa bai yi kama ta zahiri da mahaifinsa ko dayan mahaifansa ba.  Wannan ke nuna mana cewa ashe ko an samu dacewa tsakanin Kwayar Dabi’ar Halittar mahaifi (Paternal Gene) da Kwayar Dabi’ar Halittar jariri ko zuri’a (Child Gene), wannan bai hana bayan an haifi jaririn, ya zo da wata kama ta halitta da ta sha bamban da na mahaifinsa.  Samuwar hakan kuwa na ta’allaka ne ga yanayin mahallin da aka haifi wannan jariri, da kuma irin abin da Allah ya kaddara bawa ya kasance a cikinsa ko a kansa.

 

Misali na gaba kan binciken da masana suka gudanar ne.  Sun nuna cewa, tagwayen jarirai masu kamaiceceniya da juna ta kowane bangare na Dabi’ar Halitta (Monozygous twins), sanadiyyar samuwarsu daga kwan halitta guda daya (Single Cell), idan aka musu gwaji za a samu Nau’in Dabi’ar Halittarsu duk iri daya ne, saboda tsabar kamaiceceniya.  Haka idan aka haife su ma, ba kowa ke iya gane su ba.  Wasu tagwayen ma za ka samu hatta mahaifinsu bai cika iya bambance su ba ta dadi.  Wadda ke iya bambance su, in ji masana, sai Uwarsu wacce ta haife su. Me yasa?  Suka ce saboda dole ne, duk yadda suka kai da kamaiceceniya, sai an samu wani bambanci a tsakaninsu.

 

Daga cikin misalan da suka bayar akwai bambancin zane ko tambarin hannu; ba za su taba zama iri daya ba.  Haka kuma yanayin alakarsu da Uwarsu ba bazai taba zama iri daya ma.  Musamman wajen bukatuwar nono, da son jiki, da saurin kuka ko rashinsa, da yanayin kallo.  Wadannan ba za su taba zama daya ba.  Amma ba kowa ke iya bambance su ta wadannan hanyoyi ba sai mahaifiyarsu.  Me yasa?  Saboda ita ce tafi kowa kusanci da su.  Masana suka ce wadannan bambance-bambance da ake samu, babban abin da ke haddasa samuwarsu shi ne yanayi ko tasirin mahalli.  Wanda kuma shi ne abin da wannan fanni na Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri (Phenotype) ke magana a kai.  Fannin ilimin da ke lura da yadda Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta (Genotype) ke samar da Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri (Phenotype) shi ake kira Genotype-Phenotype Map.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

2 thoughts on “Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u Da Siffofin Halitta (Genetics) (9)

  • December 3, 2017 at 6:59 pm
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    Allaah ya saka da alheri Malam baban sadik

    Reply

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