Tsarin Tunani da Dabi’un ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers)

Matashiya

Cikin bayanan da muka fara kwararowa kan Kwayar Cutar Kwamfuta da nau’ukan ta da kuma yadda take haddasuwa, da masu kirkiran ta, mun tsaya ne a gabar da ke karantar da mu irin manufofin da masu wannan sana’a ke tinkaho dasu wajen yin dukkan wata ta’addanci da ta shafi cutar da kwamfutocin mutane a duniya.  A yau za mu ci gaba, in da mai karatu zai ji bayani kan ire-iren ayyukan da wadannan ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) suke yi wajen yada wadannan cututtuka da suke kirkira.  Bayan haka, za kuma muji irin tasirin da hakan ke yi a duniyar yau.  Kada mai karatu ya mance cewa a cikin kasidun da suka gabata, mun nuna cewa wannan sana’a ta Dandatsanci (Hacking), ta yadu sosai musamman cikin manyan kasashen da suka ci gaba wajen tsarin sadarwa ta zamani, irin su Amurka, Ingila, Awstiraliya, Sin, Jamus, Rasha da Jafan.  Ina mana wannan matashiya ne don mu dada fahimtar yadda tasirin ayyukan su na Dandatsanci ke cin karensa ba babbaka a yau, kamar yadda za mu karanta a yau.  Mu je zuwa, wai mahaukaci ya hau Kura.


Ayyukansu

Idan masu karatu basu mance ba mun faro wannan kasida ne da bayanin kwayar cutar kwamfuta da kuma nau’ukan ta, daga baya kuma muka sako bayani kan masu kirkiran wadannan kwayoyin cututtuka a duniyar kwamfuta.  Mun nuna cewa masu wannan ta’ada mummuna, mutane ne masana harkan kwamfuta da manhajojin ta ; kwararru masu kima a idon kwamfuta wajen sanin sirrin ta da yadda take tafiyar da rayuwarta.  Muka kuma nuna cewa jin dadin wannan kwarewa ne ta kai su ga gwaji don ganin tasirin ilimin da suka koyo.  Daga haka, sai alfahari da takama ta shige su, har daga baya wasun su suka dauki dabi’ar cutar da kwamfuta wajen shigan ta ba tare da ka’ida ba, da kuma kirkiran kwayoyin cutan da zasu iya cutar da ita.

 

Su wadannan mutane, dangane da kwarewar su wajen iya cutar da mutane ta hanyar kwamfutocin su, basu tsaya a kirkiran kwayoyin cututtukan kwamfuta kadai ba, a a, daga baya sun ci gaba da kirkiran manhajoji ne na musamman, wato Softwares, wadanda suke aika su cikin giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya, don yawo da sato musu bayanan da suke bukata, suna zaune a cikin falo ko dakin karatun su, ba tare da sun sha wata wahala ba.  Ire-iren wadannan manhajoji, masarrafai ne na leken asiri da a turancin kwamfuta ake kiran su Sniffers, wato manhajoji masu sunsuno musu bayanai daga wata kwamfuta zuwa wata, suna tarawa.  Idan sun gama, sai su aika ma uban gidan su.  A kasidar da ta gabata mun kawo bayanin wani saurayi mai suna Kevin Metrick, wanda muka ce ya kirkiri manhaja guda, wacce ya cilla ta cikin zangon kwamfutocin bankunan da ke Amurka cikin shekarar 1995, ta sato masa lambobin katin adashin bankin mutane (wato Credit Card Numbers) har wajen dubu ashirin.  Wannan bawan Allah yayi amfani ne da irin wannan masarrafa mai sunsuno bayanai a zangon sadarwa da ke dauke da kwamfutoci, a jone suke da Intanet ko a a, duk wannan bai hana shigan su.

 

Har wa yau, ire-iren wadannan masarrafai ne ake amfani da su wajen leken asiri a tsakanin kasashe.  An sha shiga manyan kwamfutocin Hukumar Tsaro ta Amurka, wato Pentagon, daga kasashe irin su Sin da wasun su.  Saboda tasirin wannan manhaja na sato bayanai, idan aka aike ta sato bayanai ko leken asiri, har zango tana iya yi, don samun hanyan da yafi mata sauki wajen gudanar da aikin ta.  A kwanakin baya wani bawan Allah yayi kokarin shiga kwamfutar Hukumar Tsaro ta Amurka dai har wa yau, daga kasar Sin (idan ban mance ba), amma ba kai-tsaye ya zo ba.  Ya aika da wannan ‘yar aike ne zuwa zangon wasu kwamfutoci da ke wata jami’a a kasar Mexico da ke nahiyar Turai, sai ya dasa ta a nan.

 

Daga nan sai wannan masarrafa ta kalli sunayen kwamfutocin da ke mu’amala da kwamfutocin wannan jami’a, in da ta samu adireshin wasu kwamfutocin da ke Amurka, nan ta tsallaka cikin su.  Daga nan kuma ta kalli masu mu’amala da su, inda ta samu adireshin da Ubangidan ta ya gaya mata cewa na Hukumar Tsaron Amurka ne.  Tana ganin su, sai ta bi, tiryan-tiryan har zuwa cikin su. Ire-iren wadannan labarai suna nan tinjim, masu ban al’ajabi.  Za mu kawo su nan gaba.  A takaice dai ‘yan Dandatsa kan yi amfani da kirkirarrun masarrafai wasu lokuta, bayan kwayoyin cututtukan kwamfuta da suke aikowa, dangane da nau’in manufar su.  Idan na leken asirin satowa ko sunsuno bayanai ne, to da masarrafan sunsuno bayanai (Sniffing Softwares) suke amfani.

 

Idan kuma samartakan shakiyanci suke ji, sai su kirkiri kwayoyin cututtuka zalla, wato Virus programs, ko kuma Worms, kamar yadda ake kiran su wasu lokuta.  Wadannan ne bayanan su ya gabata kwanakin baya.  Kuma mun nuna cewa akwai hanyoyi wajen uku da suke bi wajen aiko su; ko dai ta hanyar tsofa su cikin manhajan kwamfuta da ake bayar dasu kyauta ta Intanet, wato Freeware ko Shareware Programs.  Irin wadannan kwayoyin cuta su ake kira Spyware, kuma galibi da manufofin kasuwanci ake turo su.  Cikin su har wa yau akwai Malware, wadanda su kuma na cutarwa ne.  Sai kuma wadanda galibi ake aiko su ta hanyar jakunkunan bayanai ta akwatin Imel, wato Email Attachments.  Su wadannan a kan yi amfani ne da wata masarrafa kuma mai suna Spamware, wajen cillo su zuwa adireshin Imel na mutane.

 

Ita Spamware masarrafa ce da ke iya aiko da sakonnin bogi (Spam Mails) kusan miliyan daya, cikin kasa da dakiku goma. Musamman aka gina ta don ta rinka cillo ma mutane sakonnin bogi ; na kasuwanci ko na shashanci ko kuma na cutarwa, wato masu dauke da kwayoyin cuta kenan.  Idan mai karatu bai mance ba, mun yi bayani kan ire-iren wadannan sakonni cikin kasidar mu mai taken Spam : Don Kawar da Bakin Haure, cikin shekarar da ta gabata.  Nau’ukan kwayoyin cutar da ake aikowa ta wannan masarrafa, galibi, Trojans ne, wato kwayoyin cutan kwamfuta masu wahalar sha’ani, wadanda galibi idan suka auri kwamfutar ka, to sai dai kuyi hakuri da juna.  Ka kai ta wajen likitan ta don ya canza mata wani ruhin kawai, don samun natsuwa. Idan mun fahimci wannan tsari da ‘Yan Dandatsa ke bi wajen tafiyar da ayyukan su, sai mu dawo don yin nazari kan tasirin wannan aiki.  Wannan zai nuna mana irin yadda suka shahara har basu iya boye kan su a wasu lokuta.

 

Tasirin Ayyukansu

Bayan wadannan miyagun ayyuka da suke gabatarwa munana, wannan bai sa an tsane su gaba daya ba.  Da farko dai, kusan a dukkan shekara akan samu kwamfutoci wajen miliyan goma da ke rasa rayuwakan su saboda kamuwa da cututtuka masu tsanani masu kai su makabarta.  Wannan ta bangaren kwayoyin cuta kenan zalla.  Allah kadai ya san bayanai biliyoyi nawa ake sacewa daga kwamfutocin jama’a a duk shekara.  Har wa yau, akwai hasaran kudi da mutane kan yi musamman a kasashen turai, saboda ‘Yan Dandatsa masu shiga kwamfutocin bankuna suna sace lambobin katin adashin bankin mutane (credit card numbers), suna debe kudaden su ba gaira-ba-dalili.

 

Wannan aiki nasu ne yayi tasiri wajen samun kamfanonin masarrafan ganowa da kuma tace kwayoyin cututtukan kwamfuta, wato Antivirus Software Companies, irin su Semantics mai masarrafan Norton Antivirus, Kerpesky mai masarrafan Kerpesky da ke kasar Rasha, da kuma kamfanoni irin su MacAfee.  Duk kamfanoni ne masu manhajojin tacewa da kuma gano kwayoyin cututtukan kwamfuta da magance su. Bayan duk mun ji wannan, watakil mai karatu yaji mamaki idan aka ce masa a halin yanzu an fara samun yaki tsakanin manyan kasashen duniya ta hanyar amfani da ‘Yan Dandatsa kwararru da ke aiwatar da aikin leken asiri don manufofi irin na siyasar duniya, duk ta hanyar kwamfuta.  Kusan kowace kasa cikin manyan kasashen duniya na da sojojin gona masu aiwatar musu da ire-iren wadannan haramtattun ayyuka ta bayan fage.

 

Yakin cacan-baki da aka yi na baya-bayan nan tsakanin kasar Amurka ne da kasar Sin, kan wasu samari da shekarun su bai shige ashirin da biyar ba.  Shahararrun ‘Yan Dandatsa ne da suka yi ikirarin kai samame cikin kwamfutocin Hukumar Tsaro ta Amurka, wato Pentagon, suka sato bayanai muhimmai.  Sun aiwatar da wannan aiki ne a wani tsibiri da ke dauke da sojojin ruwan kasar Sin, cikin watan Maris da ta gabata.   Daidai wannan lokaci ne wannan hukuma ta bayar da sanarwan cewa wasu ‘yan Dandatsa da bata fadi ko daga ina suke ba, sun kai samame cikin kwamfutocin ta, tare da sace bayanai masu muhimmanci.  Daga karshe hukumar ta furta cewa wadannan samari ‘yan kasar Sin ne, kuma sunai ma gwamnatin kasar ne aiki ta bayan fage.

 

Wannan al’amari ya haifar da kace-nace na tsawon kwanaki a tsakanin kasashen biyu, wanda a karshe kasar Amurka ta dage kan cewa lallai kasar Sin na da hannu wajen kai mata wannan samame.  Bayan wannan ma, a cewar Amurka, kasar Sin na nan tana kirkiro wasu manhajoji ko masarrafan kwamfuta da zasu tsare mata sararin samaniyan ta, ta yadda duk wani makami da za a iya aiko shi, muddin na’urar lantarki ne ke sarrafa shi, to wannan manhaja na iya gano shi, har ya tarwatsa shi ko hana shi isowa sararin samaniyar ma, balle yayi wani tasiri na azo-a-gani.  Babban magana, wai dan sanda ya hangi gawar soja !  Wannan ke dada nuna mana karfin tasirin aikin wadannan mutane masu gurguwar fasaha.

 

Kammalawa

Daga karshe dai, bayyane yake cewa wadannan ‘Yan Dandatsa (Hackers) na da tasiri mai karfi wajen kada guguwar fasahar sadarwa da tsarin sa a duniya.  Idan Allah Ya kai mu mako mai zuwa, mai karatu zai ci gaba da samun bayanai kan wadannan mutane, inda zan rubuto irin hanyoyin da suke bi wajen shiga kwamfutocin mutane, a nesa ne ko a kusa.  Wadannan hanyoyi duk basu wuce guda uku ba, amma suna bukatar bayanai filla-filla don fahimtar yadda tsarin su yake.  Kada dai a gaji da mu.

 

A ci gaba da rubuto tambayoyi in akwai, ta 08034592444.  Ko kuma a aiko sakon Imel ta fasaha2007@yahoo.comIdan hali tasa an shiga giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya, a ziyarce mu a http://fasahar-intanet.blogspot.comIna kuma mika sakon gaisuwata ga dukkan masu karatu, musamman Malam Muntaka Abdulhadi Dabo da ke Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello a Zariya, da Malam Is’haq, tare da abokin sa Malam Hassan Abdullahi da ke Zariya, da kuma Malam Sani Na ‘Yan Katsare da ke Jas, tare da dukkan abokan sa.  Ina mika gaisuwata dai har wa yau ga masu karatu da ke jihar Jigawa, musamman Malam Shazali Lawan Gumel da ke Zaburan Quarters a Gumel, tare da abokan sa.  Allah Ya tabbatar mana da alkhairin sa gaba daya, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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