Tsaunuka Masu Aman Wuta (1)

Laraba, 14 ga Watan Afrilu, 2010

Cikin makonni biyun karshe na watan Afrilun da ya gabata ne wani sashen sararin samaniyan duniya ya shiga wani yanayi mai ban mamaki da rudani, inda jirage suka lazimci tashoshinsu, matafiya suka shafe sama da kwanaki goma a filayen jirgin sama suna kwana a tsakanin jakunkunansu, sanadiyyar gurbatan yanayi da ya samo asali daga wasu sinadarai masu guba da cutarwa da suka killace tafarkin hanyan jirage a sararin samaniyan nahiyar Arewaci da Yammacin Turai, da ma wani bangare na nahiyar Gabashin Amurka.  Wannan sinadari mai kama da toka yayi ta tuttudowa ne daga aman wutar da wani babban tsaunin kasar Iceland ya fara yi tun daga ranar Laraba, 14 ga watan Afrilu, har zuwa kusan karshen watan.  Daga baya an samu yaduwar wannan toka har zuwa kasar Turkiyya, inda ya toshe sararin samaniyar kasar, da wasu cikin kasashen Arewacin Afirka, kamar Maroko da sauransu.  Wannan toka mai hadari a farko ya toshe sararin samaniyan wannan kasa ta Iceland, daga nan iska ta kada shi zuwa Arewa maso Yammacin Turai, inda ya toshe wa kasashe har wajen ashirin sararin samaniya su ma, ya hana jirage tashi tsawon wannan lokaci.  A tarihin safaran jiragen sama a duniya, ba a taba samun yanayin da ya tayar da hankali, ya haifar da hasara mafi girma, ya kuma shafi kasashe da dama irin wannan ba.

 

Kasancewar kasar Iceland na tsakanin manyan nahiyoyi ne guda uku musamman, kuma masu karfin tattalin arzikin kasa a duniya, tasa wannan lamari ya haifar da hasarar dukiya mai dimbin yawa cikin wadannan kwanakin da basu kai wata guda ba. Nan take kallo ya koma sama.  Kamfanonin jiragen sama suka yi zugum.  Fasinjoji suka kama zaman dirshan; ga tikiti amma babu damar tafiya.  Harkoki suka tsaya cak.  An kiyasta cewa kamfanonin jiragen sama sunyi hasarar sama da dala miliyan dari biyu a duk rana guda.  Kafin sararin samaniya ya gama kwaranyewa har jirage su fara tashi kuwa, kamfanonin safarar jiragen sun yi hasarar kudi sama da dalar Amurka miliyan dubu dari da dubu saba’in.  Wato Biliyan daya da digo bakwai kenan ($1.7 billion). Bayan tarin tikitin da aka soke saboda lokacinsu ya wuce, wadanda kuma a ka’idar safaran jiragen sama na kasuwanci, ba su da Inshora balle a fanshe haushi da hasaransu, da dama cikin kasashe da kamfanoni daban-daban sun tafka hasara mai dimbin yawa sanadiyyar wannan toka da Allah Ya aiko.  Jiragen kaya da dama sun yi kwantai, dauke da kayayyakin abinci, ko magunguna; ko dauke da wasiku, ko man jirgin sama, ko man gas na injina da za a kai wasu kasashen ko biranen, ko kayan alatu, da dai sauran abubuwa masu amfani da suka kasa kaiwa masaukinsu cikin lokaci.  Wadansu sun lalace a cikin jiragen, wasu kuma sun yi kwantai.  Abu na karshe kuma shi ne, nan take farashin hannayen jarin wadannan kamfanonin jirage ya fadi warwas a kasuwannin hannayen jari da ke kasashen Turai da Amurka da Asiya.

 

Duk wannan hasara ta samo asali ne sanadiyyar aman wuta (Volcanic Eruption) da wani tsauni yayi a kasar Iceland, kamar yadda na tabbata masu karatu sun sha labarun tuni.  Wannan amai ne ya haifar da samuwar wannan sinadari a yanayin toka, wanda kuma sanadiyyar hadarinsa ga jirage da masu tuka su ne aka samu tsaikon da ya haifar da wancan hasara.  Da dama cikin masu karatu sun dauka cewa babban dalilin da ya hana jirage tashi shi ne don watakila direbobin ba za su ga hanya da kyau ba, sanadiyyar kura ko tokar da ta hada duhu mai tsanani a nahiyar da abin ya shafa.  Wannan ko kadan ba haka bane.  Wannan tasa ma muka ga dacewar gabatar da bayanai gamsassu a kimiyyance, don nuna muni da kuma tasirin wannan lamari da na sauran bayanai masu nasaba da tsaunuka masu aman wuta, wato Volcanic Mountains, da kuma abin da ire-iren wadannan tsaunuka ke fitarwa idan hakan ta kasance.  Amma kafin nan, ga mukaddima nan kan ma’ana da nau’ukan tsaunukan da muke dasu, da kuma yadda suke samuwa a duniya baki daya – duk a mahangar kimiyyar kasa.  Don sai mun san wadannan sannan za mu iya fahimtar tasirin wannan toka ta aman wuta da tsaunin yayi, wato Ash Plume, ko Volcanic Ash, a Kimiyyance.

 

Tsaunuka da Nau’ukansu a Kimiyyance

A fannin Kimiyyar Kasa (wato Geology ko Earth Science ko Geography), Tsauni – ko Mountain a harshen Turanci –  wani tarin kasa ne a doron kasar da muke takawa, mai cakude da dutse ko duwatsu, wanda ke samuwa sanadiyyar hargitsin da ke faruwa tsakanin farantai ko fallayen kasa masu tsauri da ke can karkashin kasar da muke rayuwa a kai.  Wadannan farantai – ko Plates a Kimiyyance – wasu nau’ukan shimfidun kasa ne da ke karkashin wannan kasar da muke takawa.  Hargitsin da ake samu a tsakaninsu lokaci-lokaci ne ke haifar da samuwar nau’ukan tsaunukan da muke gani a doron wannan kasa tamu.  Wannan “hargitsi” kuma da ke faruwa a tsakaninsu, shi ake kira Plates Tectonics, a turancin Kimiyyar Kasa. Bigiren da wannan hargitsi ke faruwa kuma shi ake kira Fault Lines, a Kimiyyance.

 

Duk sadda aka samu wani hargitsi – na gocewa, ko karyewa ko riftawa – a tsakanin wadannan shimfidun kasa da ke karkashinmu, dayan abubuwa uku ne ke samuwa ko faruwa.  Akan samu ninkewar wani farantin kasa a saman wani.  Ko kuma a samu burmawar wata shimfidar da ke gefen wani farantin.  Ko kuma, a karo na karshe, a samu kaucewa ko gocewar wani farantin daga wani.  Hakan shi zai samar da kogo a tsakanin farantan biyu; abin da ke nuna akwai rauni a wannan muhalli kenan.  Wannan ya kawo mu ga na’ukan tsaunuka guda uku a duniya, kamar yadda ake da dalilai guda uku masu haddasa hargitsi a tsakanin farantan da ke karkashin wannan kasar tamu.

 

Nau’in tsauni na farko shi ne wanda ke samuwa sanadiyyar gocewar wani faranti daga wani farantin, wanda kuma ke haifar da samuwar kogo a tsakanin farantan biyu masu makwabtaka da juna.  Idan haka ta faru, dole za a samu rauni a tsakanin farantan, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama.  Wannan raunin ne ke samar da wani “tafasasshe kuma damammen kunun dutse”, wato Molten Magma a Kimiyyance.  Idan tafiya tayi nisa, sai wannan tafasasshe kuma damammen kunun dutse ya feso waje, tare da iska mai tsanani, mai kuma dauke da guba.  Fetsowarsa waje ke da wuya, sai ya daskare, yayi tudu.  A haka zai yi ta yi har sai ya samar da tsauni mai zaman kansa.  Nau’in tsaunin da ke samuwa sanadiyyar wannan rauni da ke samar da wannan fitinannen kunun dutse, shi ake kira Volcanic Mountain, a turance. Ko kuma kace ‘Tsauni Mai Aman Wuta’, a Hausar zamani.  Irin wannan tsaunin ne ke bulbulo da wannan toka da ta mamaye sasannin nahiyar turai kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata.  Basu takaita ga doron kasa kadai ba, har a cikin teku ana samun ire-iren wadannan tsaunuka; da na tudun kasa, da kuma na kankara.  Babban misali kan na teku shi ne irin bala’in da ya samu a shekarar 2004 a nahiyar Asiya, sanadiyyar mahaukaciyar guguwar da ta taso daga cikin teku ta tafka barna mai dimbin yawa.   Wannan mahaukaciyar guguwa da ake kira Tsunami, ta samo asali ne sanadiyyar irin wannann aman wuta da ya faru a karkashin tekunan da ke wadannan kasashen Asiya.  Akwai nau’in tsaunuka masu aman wuta a warwatse a dukkan nahiyoyin duniya.

 

GODIYA DA BAN-GAJIYA

Shafin Kimiyya da Kere-kere na mika godiyarsa ga daya cikin manyan dalibansa, wato Malam Aliyu Mukhtar Sa’idu (IT) da ke Kano, sanadiyyar dawainiya da jigilar da yayi ta yi da ni lokacin da naje ziyarar aiki a Kano, daga ranar talata, 11 zuwa laraba, 12 ga watan Mayu.  Allah saka da alheri, ya kuma jikan mahaifa, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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