Yadda Aka Kera Jirgin Ruwan “RMS Titanic” (2)

Kyale-kyale da Kayan Sadarwa

Wannan jirgi na dauke da kayayyakin alatu fiye da tunanin mai karatu.  Wadannan kayayyakin alatu kuwa, har a yanzu ana ji da su wajen kyau da tsada.   Da farko dai akwai bangori guda uku da jirgin ke dauke da su.
Akwai bangaren masu hannu da shuni, wato First Class kenan.  Wannan bangare na dauke ne da wurin wanka na kasaita, wato Swimming Pool, da wurin motsa jiki, wato Gymnasium, da bangaren buga kwallon bango, wato Squash, da bangaren wanka na kasaita irin na mutanen kasar Turkiyya da ake ji da su a wancan lokaci, wato Turkish Bath, da bangaren wankan ruwan zafi na wutan lantarki, wato Electric Bath, da bangaren shagunan aski, wato Barber Shops, da bangaren bukkar shan shayi da sauran shaye-shaye kusa da gabar ruwa, wato Veranda Café, sai kuma dakin karatu ga duk mai bukata.  Bayan haka, akwai bangaren da ke biye da na farko, wato Second Class kenan.  Da kuma matsayin karshe ko na kasa, wato Third Class, kamar dai yadda muke da su a jiragen ruwa a yau.

 

Bayan wadannan bangarori, wannan tafkeken jirgin ruwa na RMS Titanic dai yana da babban janareto mai bayar da wutar lantarki guda daya, wanda ke amfani da tsarin bayar da wutar lantarki da ruwan zafi, wato Steam Engine.  Mizaninsa ya kai wat dubu daya da dari biyar (1,500 watts).  Sannan akwai injinan lifta guda uku masu daukan mutane daga dakunansu ko barandar da suke, zuwa hawa na sama ko can saman jirgin don su shakata.  Wadannan injinan lifta duk suna amfani ne da wutar lantarki daga wannan janareto da bayaninsa ya gabata.  Sannan akwai babbar masarrafar sadarwar rediyo mai amfani da tsarin sadarwa ta wayar-iska irin na wancan zamani, wato Marconi Radio.  Wannan babbar cibiya ce da ke sadar da kira a tsakanin dukkan wadanda ke cikin jirgin, da masu tuka jirgin, da masu kula da jirgin, da kuma fasinjojin jirgin.  Har wa yau, sadarwar bata takaitu garesu kadai ba, wannan cibiya ta rediyo na iya daukan murya zuwa sauran kasashen da ke makwabtaka da jirgin, ko wani jirgin da ke gab da su, ko kuma kasar da suka baro a baya.  Cibiyar na amfani ne da fasahar sadar da bayanai na rediyo nau’in Spark-Gap Transmitter.  An kuma gama kera wannan jirgi ne a ranar 31 ga watan Maris na shekarar 1912, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata.

 

Gwaji

Bayan an gama kera wannan jirgi, kamfanin White Star Line ya yi kokarin gwada tafiya da wannan jirgi a cikin teku don ganin yadda abubuwa za su kasance, kafin a sanya ranar wannan bulaguro mai dimbin tarihi da ba a ga karshenta ba.  Wannan gwaji kuwa an yi shi ne kwananki goma kafin tafiyar, wato ranar 1 ga watan Afrailun shekarar 1912.  Ba a dauki fasinja ko daya a ciki ba, daga masu lura da jirgin sai ma’aikatanta kawai.  Akwai ma’aikata guda 78 da aka dauka, tsakanin masu kara wa injin makamashin kol (Stokers), da masu sanya man giris (Greasers), da kuma ‘yan kwana-kwana, wato Firefighters.  Bayan wadannan ma’aikata, akwai matuka jirgi guda 41 da suka shigo, sannan da wasu mutane biyu wadanda suke lura da cibiyar sadarwar rediyo, wato Merconi Radio.  Wadannan mutane dai su ne Jack Phillips, da kuma Harold Bride.  Bayan an yi gwaji babu wata matsala, daga nan aka fara shirye-shiryen tafiya, wacce a karshe aka kasa isa garin da za a je.

 

Tafiyar Farko, Kuma ta Karshe

Ranar 10 ga watan Afrailu ne dai jirgin RMS Titanic ya tashi daga babbar tashar jirgin ruwan birnin Southampton na kasar Ingila, zuwa birnin New York da ke kasar Amurka. Da ya dauko hanya sai yayi zango a tashar jirgin ruwa na Cherbourg da ke kasar Faransa, inda ya kara daukan wasu fasinjoji.  Bayan wannan tasha, ya sake dakatawa a tashar Queens Town ta kasar Ailand, nan ma ya kara wasu fasinjojin.  Duk da cewa ba kai tsaye ya dauki mutane a wannan tasha ba, saboda nauyin jirgin da girmansa sun sha karfin gabar tekun.  Don haka da yazo daidai tashar, sai aka saukar da kananan kwale-kwale, aka kwaso fasinjojin da suke son tafiya.  Daga wannan tasha ta Queens Town, jirgin bai kara dakatawa a kowace tasha ba.  Sai tafiya babu kama hannun yaro.  A wannan lokaci jirgin ya dauki mutane 2,227 ne; tsakanin matuka jirgin, da ma’aikata, da injiniyoyi da kuma fasinjoji.  Shugaban  matuka jirgin gaba daya shi ne Captain  Edward J. Smith.

 

Bayan haka, akwai babban daraktan kamfanin White Star Line a cikin tafiyar, wato J. Bruce Ismay, sai kuma wanda ya shugabanci kera jirgin baki daya, wato Thomas Andrews. Daga cikin fasinjojin da ke cikin wannan jirgi, akwai ‘yan kasuwa, da shahararrun ma’aikatan banki, da kuma kasaitattun masu kudin kasar Ingila da Amurka da kasar Ailand.  Kudin fasinjan da ke matakin farko, wato First Class, shi ne dala 4,350 ($4,350), wanda aka kiyasta kimarsa da kimar dala a shekarar 2008 ya kai dala 95,860 ($95,860).  Idan muka juya kimar wannan kudi a nairan Nijeriya a yau, ya kai naira miliyan goma sha goma sha takwas da dubu dari takwas da tamanin da hudu da dari hudu da ashirin (=N=18,884,420).  Ga lissafin nan gwari-gwari: 98,860 x 197  =  18,884,420.  Duk wannan kudin fasinja daya ne.  Tirkashi!

 

Bayan ya kwashe kwanaki hudu yana tafiya dare da rana safe da yamma, a daren kwana na biyar ne Captain Edwards ya fara samun sakonni daga hanyar sadarwa ta rediyo dake jirgin, cewa akwai curin tsaunin kankara a gabansu, wato Iceberg.  Amma sai bai damu ba.  Ana cikin tafiya, sai ma’aikatan da aka wakilta su rika lura da tafarkin da jirgin ke bi, wato Lookouts, suka hango wannan tarin kankara a gabansu.  Nan take suka sanar da masu lura da cibiyar sadarwa, inda su kuma suka fara watsa sakonni kan wannan lamari.

 

Captain Edwards na jin haka, sai ya bayar da umarnin cewa a rage tafiya, sannan a juya akala zuwa bangaren hagu.  To amma wannan bayani bai zo da wuri ba.  Kafin su gama juya akala, nan take wannan tsaunin kankara ya gurji mazaunin jirgin daga kasa, wata Hull kenan.  Hakan ne ya sabular da karafan da ke rike da mazunin jikin jirgin, inda ruwa ya fara shiga nan take babu kakkautawa.  Lokacin da Captain Edwards ya ga haka, sai ya sa aka fara rufe farfajiyar kasan jirgin, wato wurin da aka tanada don zuba kayayyaki kenan.  Amma saboda tasiri da karfin wannan ruwa da ya fara shigowa, kafin a rufe sauran, guda hudu daga cikinsu sun fara cikewa da ruwa.

 

Wadancan bututu guda takwas da aka tanada don amayar da ruwa sai suka fara aikinsu, inda suka ta amayar da ruwan zuwa waje, ta baya.  Sai dai kuma kash, saboda girman jirgin, da kuma yawan ruwan da ke tudadowa daga gaba inda aka samu huji, wadannan bututun amayar da ruwa sun kasa amayar da ruwan cikin lokaci guda.  Nan take kasan jirgi ya fara cikewa, sai cikin dakunan mutane, sai hawa na sama.  Ana cikin haka sai jirgi ya fara nutsewa ta baya, saboda tasirin ruwan da ke makare a kasansa.  Wannan tasa sai kan jirgin ya daga sama, inda a karshe ya tsage ko ya karye a tsakiya; bangaren bayan yayi kasa cikin teku, kan kuma ya zauna a sama.

 

Kafin lamarin ya kazamce haka, nan take sun fara aikawa da sakonnin neman agaji.  Ana cikin haka sai ga wasu jirage suka kawo dauki.  To amma saboda kananan kwale-kwalen ceto (wato Lifeboats) da jirgin ya ke dauke dasu basu kai yawan mutanen da ke cikin jirgin ba, haka wasu suka nutse cikin ruwa, suka mace.  Wasu kuma aka ceto su da kyar.  Bayan an gama tsamo wadanda suka mutu da masu rai, a karshe dai mutun 1,517 ne suka mutu.  Hakan ya faru ne a daren 15 ga watan Afrailu, 1912.

 

Wannan shi ne mafi munin hadarin jirgin ruwa da aka yi a shekarar, kuma yana cikin hadarurrukan da aka yi da suka haddasa sauye-sauye a dokokin tafiyar da jiragen ruwa na duniya, wato International Maritime Laws.

 

Dalilai

A karshe dai, hukumomi sun sa an gunadar da bincike kan dalilan da suka haddasa wannan hadari.  Da farko dai, sabanin yadda wasu ke riyawa cewa wai kamfanin da ya kera wannan jirgi ya yi alfahari cewa babu abin da zai iya tarwatsawa ko lahanta wannan jirgi saboda kwarewar da aka yi amfani da ita wajen ginawa, wannan karya ce.  Kawai surutai ne na mutane, da kuma hasashe irin na kwakwalwarsu.  Daga cikin dalilan da aka ta cewa sun haddasa wannan hadari dai akwai yawan gudu.  Wannan shi ne sakamakon da gungun masu bincike da kasar Ingila ta kafa ya tabbatar.  Cewa jirgin na gudu ne fiye da kima, don haka ya samu matsala wajen juyawa a lokacin da aka hango wancan tsauni na kankara.

 

Wasu masu binciken kuma suka ce ruhin jirgin ne ke da matsala, wato Rudder kenan a turance.  Shi wannan ruhi dai shi ne mai nuna wa jirgin ruwa inda zai dosa; kamar dai kwakwalwarsa kenan.  Don haka a lokacin da aka hango wannan tsauni na kankara, jirgin ya kasa juyawa ne yadda ya kamata saboda ba a kera wannan ruhi da irin ka’idojin da suka kamata ba a yau.  Wasu kuma a karshe suka ce babban dalili shi ne karafan da aka yi amfani dasu wajen gina mazaunin jirgin, wato Hull kenan, ba su da kauri sosai.  In kuwa ba haka ba, ba abin da zai sa wannan tsauni na kankara ya iya bangale karafan da ke jikinsa.  Sabanin yadda aka zata da farko cewa wannan tsaunin kankara ya huda jikin jirgin ne, masu wannan ra’ayi sun gudanar da bincike na musamman, inda a karshe suka nuna cewa kwabe karafunan da ke jikin mazaunin jirgin ne yayi, daga nan kuma ruwa ya samu hanyar shiga.  Ba wai hujewa kasan jirgi yayi ba, kamar yadda yake a fim din “Titanic,” a cewarsu.

 

Ko ma dai mene ne, wanann jirgi na RMS Titanic ya kwanta dama, duk da kwarewa, da kayan alatu, da kuma girman da yake da shi.  Shi ne jirgin ruwa mafi girma da aka kera shi, mai tsada, wanda yayi tafiya guda daya, wacce har zuwa yau bai isa inda ya nufa ba, balle a yi maganar dawowa.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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