Yadda Kasashe Ke Sanya Wa Fasahar Intanet Takunkumi (3)

Yaya Tasirin Takunkumin Yake?

Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a makonnin baya, akwai hanyoyi da dama da kasashe ko hukumomin kasashe suke ta bi don ganin sun dabaibaye wannan fasaha mai saurin yaduwa a duniya.  Duk da cewa hakan yana tasiri sosai wajen hana wadanda ake karewa daga samun bayanai, sai dai ga dukkan alamu da sauran rina a kaba.  Abinda wannan ke nufi shine, duk da karfin iko da doka da wasu kasashe ke amfani da ita, mai karatu zai yi mamakin jin cewa “sanya wa fasahar Intanet takunkumi, da kuma cin nasara wajen yin hakan, ba abu bane mai sauki, ko ma a gajarce, ba abu bane mai yiwuwa”.  Bayanin dalilai kan rashin yiwuwarsa kuwa shine abinda wannan kasida ta wannan mako za ta mayar da hankali a kai.

 

Kasashen duniya masu sanya wa fasahar Intanet takunkumi na yin hakan ne ta manyan hanyoyi guda biyu.  Hanya ta farko ita ce ta yin amfani da dokar kasa wajen haramta wa mutane amfani da fasahar gaba daya, ko wani bangare nashi, ko wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa na musamman – kamar yadda yake faruwa a kasashe irinsu Bama, da Kiuba, da Kasar Sin da ma sauran kasashe.  Hanya ta biyu kuma ita ce ta yin amfani da manhajojin kwamfuta da nau’ukan fasahar kwamfuta, wajen sanya wa fasahar takunkumi, a boye ko a bayyane.  Bayani kan nau’ukan da suke amfani da su kuwa ya gabata a makonnin da suka shige.  Sai dai kuma duk da wannan tsauri, har yanzu da sauran kalu-bale ga masu yin hakan.  Rashin samun natsuwarsu, sanadiyyar waskiyar da ake wa wadannan hanyoyin da suke amfani da ita, yafi natsuwar da suke samu na cewa sun dakufe tasirin fasahar.  Mu fara da hanyar farko mu gani.

 

Hanyar Amfani da Dokar Kasa

Idan mai karatu bai mance ba, a kashin farko da muka faro mun yi bayani kan wasu dalilai guda uku da suka kebance fasahar Intanet, suka kuma bata tasiri ta kololuwa wajen mamaye duniya da tursasa wa mutane amfani da ita, suna so ko basu so, sama da sauran hanyoyin sadarwa.  Sanadiyyar wadannan dalilai ne ta sa a kasar Amurka da Ingila da wasu kasashen Turai, hukumomi suka fara tunanin sanya dokoki kan magance wasu matsaloli da a tunaninsu wannan fasaha ta samar a cikin al’umma. A kasar Amurka misali, an sha kawo kudurori a majalisar kasar da ke neman a mayar dasu doka don dasashe wa fasahar tasiri musamman kan kananan yara.  Amma da zarar an fara tafka muhawara, sai wadanda ke adawa da hakan su rinjaya, a watsar da lamarin.  Babban dalilin da a kullum masu adawa ke bayarwa kuwa shine: da wani mizani za ayi amfani wajen sanya wa wannan fasaha doka ta musamman?  Domin fasahar Intanet ta kunshi kafafen yada labaru da fadakarwa masu yawa?  Shin, da dokar masu aikin jarida za a yi mata hukunci ko da na kafaden rediyo da talabijin? Idan aka yarda da cewa fasahar Intanet kafa ce ta yada labarai ta hanyar jaridu, yaya za a yi da gidajen talabijin da ke da tashoshi bila-adadin a ciki?  Yaya za a yi da kafar sadarwa ta rediyo ita ma da ke da tashoshi a ciki?  Idan aka ce su ukun su dauki hukunci daya, to ai akwai kafar sadarwa ta hanyar tarho, ita kuma yaya za a yi da dokokinta? Sun daina amfani a kafar Intanet kenan? A wannan bangaren kenan.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, wasu suka ce mu sallama cewa dukkan kafofin yada labarai na rediyo da talabijin da jaridu da tarho doka daya suke rayuwa karkashinta, to ai a cikin Intanet akwai harkokin kasuwanci, da tallace-tallace, da rubuce-rubuce masu hakkin mallaka, da mu’amala a tsakanin kasashe, da kuma sirrin jama’a masu tafiyar da harkokin kansu da na jama’a, su kuma yaya za a yi da su? Domin dokokin da dillalan tallace-tallace (Advertisement Agencies) ke amfani dasu sun sha bamban nesa ba kusa ba, da wadanda kafafen yada labarai ke amfani dasu.  Sannan kuma a daya bangaren, marubuta da ke dora hajojinsu a kasuwannin Intanet ko a shagunan saye-da-sayarwa na Intanet yaya za a yi dasu?  Sannan Intanet ta zama wata kafa ce ke sawwake wa dillalan miyagun kwayoyi harkar kasuwanci da sadarwa a tsakaninsu, shin, a dauki Intanet a yi mata hukunci da dokokin kama masu wannan sana’a, sanadiyyar sadarwa kawai da suke yi a tsakaninsu, ba tare da shedar ganin hajojin da suke tallatawa a tsakaninsu ba?  Domin kowa ya san akwai bambancin tsakanin “dokar sadarwa” da “dokar hana yaduwar miyagun kwayoyi”; da wanne za a yi musu hukunci idan hakan ta taso?  Da dai sauran takaddamomi da aka ta yi kan wannan al’amari.  A karshe dai ba a samu wata matsaya amintacciya a tsakanin masu goyon bayan a sanya doka da masu adawa da yin hakan ba.  Abinda kawai yake bayyane a halin yanzu shine, ga dukkan alamu kowace kasa ta daukar wa kanta abinda ko hanyar da take ganin itace tafi dacewa da halin da al’ummarta ke ciki.  Wannan kuwa ita ce yin amfani da manhajojin kwamfuta ko wasu tsare-tsare masu taimaka musu wajen sanya kariya ga wannan dodo da ke hana su bacci.  Tunda hanyar amfani da doka taki ci, a dokance, to yaya ake fama da wadannan manhajojin kwamfuta da a yanzu kasashe suka shahara wajen amfani dasu, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a kasidar baya?

 

Hanyar Amfani da Manhajojin Kwamfuta

Wannan hanya ga dukkan alamu ita ce ta dan yi tasiri wajen hana mutane a wasu kasashe amfani da wannan fasaha gaba daya ko ta wasu bangarorin.  Amma duk da haka, masu amfani da ita na fuskantar matsaloli masu dimbin yawa.  Da farko dai, yin amfani da tsarin toshe wata kwamfuta ta hanyar adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa, watau IP Blocking abu ne da a farko yayi tasiri sosai wajen hana shiga wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa.  Amma kuma da tafiya tayi nisa sai ‘yan Dandatsa ko kwararru kan harkar kwamfuta suka sake bullo da wata dabara don waske wannan hanya.  Wannan hanya kuwa ita ce ta samar da wasu adireshin da ke iya isar da mai neman gidan yanar sadarwar kai tsaye zuwa gidan yanar ba tare da adireshin farko ba.  Misali, a wasu kasashe haramun ne shiga ko yin mu’amala da gidan yanar sadarwa ta Google.  Don haka idan ka shigar da adireshin gidan yanar sadarwar, manhajar da ke lura da kwamfutocin kasar zata toshe adireshin, ya zama ka kasa isa gidan yanar gaba daya.  Da kamfanin ya fahimci hakan, sai ya samar da wasu adireshin da ke iya isar da masu neman gidan yanar sadarwar a kasar da aka haramta, wanda kuma wannan manhaja da kasar ke amfani da ita bata sansu ba.

 

Wasu kasashe kuma na amfani ne da tsarin tace adireshin kwamfutar da ke isar da mutane zuwa wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira DNS Filtering.  Da tafiya tayi nisa sai masana kan harkar kwamfuta da ‘yan Dandatsa suka nemo wata hanyar kuma. Wannan hanya kuwa ita ce ta hanyar shigar da adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa a siffarsa ta asali.  Ma’ana, kowane adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa asalinsa lambobi ne na kwamfutar da ke dauke da gidan yanar sadarwar, kamar haka misali: 890.32.9.21. Sai a juya wadannan lambobi zuwa adireshi kamar haka, misali: www.adireshina.com, saboda saukin ganewa da haddacewa.  Domin idan aka barsu a yadda suke, ba kowa bane zai iya hardace lambobin gidajen yanar sadarwa da yawa.  Su kuma wadannan manhajojin kwamfuta masu tace adireshin gidajen yanar sadarwa suna amfani ne da adireshi mai dauke da haruffa, ba mai dauke da lambobi ba.  To su kuma masu son waske wadannan manhajoji sai su rika shigar da lambar gidan yanar kawai kai-tsaye.  Domin ko ka shigar kai-tsaye a siffar lambobi, ko ka shigar a siffar haruffa, duk daya ne a wajen kwamfutar da ka shigar mata; nan take zata nemo maka gidan yanar sadarwar.  Amma manhajojin da ke tace adireshin basu iya sanin haka, don haka sai a waske su ta wannan hanya.

 

Wasu kuma suka rika amfani da tsarin tace rariyar likau, watau Uniform Resource Locator Filtering, ko URL Filtering, a Turancin kwamfuta, don tabbatar da cewa ba a kai ga wasu kasidu ko nau’ukan bayanai da ke cikin wani gidan yanar sadarwar ba.  Bambancin wannan tsari da wadanda suka gabace shi shine, a wannan tsarin wasu kan shigar da rariyar likau din kasida ko bayanai ne kai tsaye, misali: http://www.garageman.com/mechanic, ko kuma http://mini.opera.com.  Idan ka shigar da adireshin rariyar likau makamancin wannan, ba nufinka bane shiga zauren gidan yanar.  Kai tsaye za a zarce da kai shafi mai suna “Mechanic”, ko kuma “Opera Mini”, a gidan yanar sadarwar.  Hukumomi masu amfani da wannan tsarin taciya suna adawa ne da wasu kasidu da ke wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa ko shafuka, amma ba gidan yanar ba gaba daya. Ta wani bangaren sai mu ga kamar sunyi wa mutane adalci, ta hanyar sanya wa shafin da suke nufi kadai takunkumi.  Ka ga wannan zai ba duk wanda ke son ziyartar gidan yanar damar yin hakan, muddin ba wancan shafin zai je ba.  To amma duk da haka su ma basu tsira da waskiya ba.  Nan take masana suka bullo da tsarin amfani da wasu haruffa ko kuramen bakake masu suna Escape Characters, don shiga wadannan shafuka haramtattu kai-tsaye ba tare da wasu matsaloli ba.

 

A wasu lokuta kuma sai suka bullo da tsarin da ke lura da kalmomin da mai ziyara ke ta’ammali dasu a matsayinsa na wanda ya fito daga wata kasa, a shafin da ya shiga.  Da zarar manhajar ta cafke wasu cikin kalmomin da aka ce mata ta toshe daga kwamfutocin da suke neman bayanai ta hanyarta daga wasu kasashe, to sai ta yanke hanyar sadarwar da ke tsakaninta da kwamfutar da take mika wadancan bayanai gareta, nan take.  Wannan tsari, wanda a turance ake kira Packet Filtering shi ma bai kai gaci ba; nan take aka bullo da hanyar waske shi.  Wannan hanya kuwa ita ce tsarin Virtual Private Network, ko VPN a gajarce.  Wannan tsari asalinta hanya ce ta sadarwa a tsakanin kwamfutoci da ke baiwa mai neman hanyar sadarwa a cikinta wani irin matsayi na musamman, tayi masa “dodorido”.  Misali, idan wasu ‘yan kasar Sin na son shiga wani gidan yanar sadarwa wanda a kasarsu haramtacce ne, kuma gwamnati ta-kasa-ta-tsare ta hanyar wadannan manhajoji na tacewa, sai suyi amfani da wannan tsari ta VPN.  Aikinta shine sauya adireshin kwamfutarka mai nuna daga kasar da ka fito, ta mayar da kai bako, mai ziyartar shafin daga wata kasa daban ba wacce kake ciki ba.  Idan shafin a kasar yake kuma haramun ne ga ‘yan kasar, sai tsarin ya nuna cewa kai daga kasar Ingila kake  ko Jamus ko wata kasar Afirka, wadda kuma nan take za a bata hanya zuwa shafin.

 

Matsalar Rarrabewa Tsakanin Kalmomi

Idan muka koma kan kalmomin da wadannan kasashe ko hukumomi ke amfani dasu wajen “gane sawun” wanda suke son kamawa kuwa, nan ma zamu ga akwai matsala, babba kuwa ba karama ba.  Wannan yafi faruwa a kasashen da ke amfani da harshen turanci, ko masu son tace bayanan da ke dauke cikin harshen turanci.  Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a kai, akan shigar da kalmomi ne ga wadannan manhajoji na tacewa, don su yi amfani da kalmomin wajen sanya tarko da cafke duk wanda ya sanya kalmomi irinsu.  To a wasu lokuta a kan samu wasu kalmomi da a zahiri suna cikin jerin wadanda aka haramta nema ko ta’ammali dasu, amma kuma a daya bangaren sai a ga sun dace da sunayen wasu kamfanoni ko hukumomin gwamnati ko sunayen wasu shahararrun mutane masu mutunci ko wadanda basu ji ba basu gani ba.  Wannan matsala tafi aukuwa wajen tace kalmomin batsa a Turai.  Misali, galibin lokuta an sha sanya wa Kalmar “Penis” takunkumi, saboda an dauka  kalma ce da ta kunshi batsa ko abinda ya shafe shi kadai.  Amma kuma da tafiya tayi  nisa, sai ya bayyana cewa hakan yana tasiri wajen toshe bayanan da ke makare cikin gidan yanar sadarwar wani kamfani da ke birnin Yorkshire mai suna Penistone, saboda Kalmar “Penis” da ta zo a farkon sunan kamfanin.  Haka gidan yanar sadarwa na Yahoo! ya dade yana toshe haruffan “CP” a matsayin sunan da wani zai iya sanyawa a Majalisun Tattaunawa na Yahoo (watau Yahoo Groups), wadanda tuni a Turance an san suna ishara ne zuwa ga kalmomin Child Pornography, watau harkar batsa da ta shafi kananan yara.  Amma kuma hakan yayi tasiri wajen toshe majalisar Kungiyar ‘Yan Jaridar Kasar Kanada, watau Canadian Press, wanda suka killace da haruffan “CP”.  A duk shekara an kan toshe gidajen yanar sadarwa da basu-ji-ba-basu-gani-ba, cikin kuskure, ta wannan hanya.  Wannan, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani, ba karamar matsala bace ga masu neman sanya wa wannan fasaha takunkumi.

 

Wasu Hanyoyin

Bayan haka, yadda wasu kamfanoni suka gina manhajojin kwamfuta na musamman masu taimakawa wajen tace adireshin gidajen yanar sadarwa ko makamancin haka, to su ma ‘yan Dandatsa da sauran masu kishin ganin an sakar wa fasahar Intanet mara tayi walwala yadda take so, sun gina manhajoji masu taimakawa wajen wannan waskiya, ba tare da mai yin hakan ya sha wata wahala ba. Wani abin sha’awa ma shine wadannan manhajoji da suka gina ko kirkira, kyauta ake bayar dasu.  Abinda kawai ake bukata shine ya zama kana da kwamfuta wacce zaka sanya mata; ka huta da hayaniyar hukumomin taciya da takunkumi.  Manhajar farko ita wacce ake kira Java Anan Proxy (JAP), wacce aikinta shine taimaka maka shiga kowane irin shafin yanar sadarwa ne ba tare da wata matsala ba.  Idan ka shigar da adireshin gidan yanar da kake son shiga, kana zuwa kaga an toshe, to manhajar da kanta zata karkatar da akalar kwamfutarka zuwa ga wanda ke amfani da irin wannan manhaja a Intanet, a ko ina yake, tayi amfani da manhajar da ke kwamfutarsa, don taimaka maka shiga shafin, karfi da yaji.  Akwai ire-iren su, irinsu: Virtual Private Network, da Psiphon, duk garken su daya.

 

Bayan manhajar JAP da dangoginta, akwai wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa kuma masu amfani da kwarewa irin ta kwamfuta da tsarin sadarwa don zama dillalai ga duk wanda ke son shiga wani shafin da aka haramta ko samun wani littafin da asali sayar dashi ake yi ba kyauta ake bayar dashi ba, ko kuma kaiwa ga wata kasida mai muhimmanci da yake nema.  Duk wata manhajar kwamfuta da ka san ana sayar da ita, komai tsaurin masu ita, ana iya samunta ta wadannan gidajen yanar sadarwa da ake kira Proxy Sites.  Galibinsu na ‘yan Dandatsa ne masu ganin haramun ne ace wai bayanan da ke Intanet sai mai kudi ko sai “wane-da-wane” kadai zasu iya isa garesu ko mallakarsu.  A cewarsu ya kamata ace komai kyauta ne. A ire-iren wadannan gidajen yanar sadarwa baka bukatar sai ka san adireshin gidan yanar da kake son shiga, a a, ka shigar da kalma kawai mai siffata abinda kake so, za a binciko maka shi nan take, ka saukar da shi zuwa kwamfutarka ba tare da wata matsala ba. A wasu gidajen kuma kana iya shigar da lambobin kwamfutar da ke dauke da gidan yanar da kake so, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.  Domin manhajar tacewar bata gane ire-iren wadannan lambobi.  Watakila kace ai baka san lambar adireshin kwamfutar ba, adireshinta mai dauke da haruffa kadai ka sani. Duk ba matsala.  Akwai gidajen yanar sadarwa na musamman a Intanet wadanda aikinsu shine su taimaka maka wajen juya adireshin da kake son shiga, daga haruffa zuwa lambobi. Komai kake so dai, a takaice, akwai yadda za a yi ka same shi a Intanet.

 

Wadannan su ne irin kalu-balen da hukumomin gwamnatoci masu son sanya wa wannan fasaha takunkumi ke bi a takaice.  Kuma kamar yadda mai karatu ya gani, ba abu bane mai sauki.  Wannan ke nuna mana cewa shi dan Adam tarbiyyarsa ake fara yi, kafin a hana shi kaiwa ga abinda ba a so ya taba ko gani.  Amma idan aka ce an barshi da tunaninsa ne kadai, amma a hana a shi a aikace, to zai sake sauye tafarkin tunani, tunda ba a canza masa ita ba tun wuri.  Hakan zai bashi damar waske duk abinda aka hana shi a farko, don aikata abinda yake ganin shine daidai a gareshi.  Mai karatu zai ga haka a aikace cikin kasidar karshe da ke tafe, inda zamu kawo bayanai na misalai kan kasashe daban-daban da irin yadda suke shan kashi a hannun jama’a masu waske dabarunsu.  A dakace mu!

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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