Yadda Shafin “WikiLeaks” Ya Canza Tsarin Samar da Bayanai a Intanet (1)

Mabudin Kunnuwa

Fasahar Intanet na daya daga cikin hanyoyin yada labarai da neman bayanai ta yanayi da tsari masu ban al’ajabi a duniya.  Kasa da shekaru arba’in da kirkirar wannan fasaha, tasirinta wajen gamewa a duniya ya sha karfin hanyoyin sadarwar da aka kirkira shekaru kusan hamsin kafin bayyanarta. Hakan ba wani abin mamaki bane, musamman idan mai karatu ya yi la’akari da yadda wannan fasahar sadarwa ke habbaka kamar wutar daji a dukkan rana da lokaci.  Duk wanda yake nazarin halin ci gaban hanyoyin watsa labarai a duniya ya san haka.  Daga cikin hanyoyi masu tasiri wajen gamewa da wannan fasaha ta Intanet take takama da su, akwai hanyar samarwa ko yada labarai, wadda ta shafi kamfanonin jaridu da mujallu da talabijin da kuma na rediyo da ke aikinsu ta hanyar giza-gizan sadarwa ta Intanet.

 

Daga cikin kamfanonin yada labarari ta wannan hanya ne aka samu wani sabon shafin yada labarai da ya bayyana shekaru hudu da suka wuce mai suna WikiLeaks (www.wikileaks.org), wanda aikinsa a farko shi ne samar da labarai ko boyayyun bayanai na sirri da suka shafi gwamnatoci ko kamfanoni masu zaman kansu a duniya; irin labaran da ba a samunsu ta kafofin watsa labarai na yau da kullum.

 

Wannan sabuwar hanyar samar da bayanai ko labarai da shafin WikiLeaks ya kirkiro na cikin abin da ya dauki hankalin duniya cikin wannan shekara musamman, wanda kuma har yanzu tasirinsa na kan gamewa – daga kan bayanan sirrin da suka shafi yakin Afghanistan, da na Iraki, da kuma uwa uba, bayanan sirrin da shafin ya hankado kan kundin sadarwar diflomasiyya tsakanin kasar Amurka da sauran kasashen da take alaka da su.  Wannan badakala ca ta jefa siyasar duniya cikin rudani musamman cikin watan da ya gabata, domin dukkan bayanan sirrin da shafin ya hankado sun shafi kusan kowane nahiyar duniya baki daya, ciki har da kasarmu Najeriya.  Wannan dambarwa ne ya fito da shafin WikiLeaks a idon duniya, tare da sabon tsarin samar da bayanai da yake amfani da su.

 

Za mu yi nazari kan abubuwa biyu dangane da wannan shafin na WikiLeaks cikin wannan mako da makon da ke bi masa.  Abu na farko shi ne tsarin samar da bayanai da wannan shafi ke amfani da shi.  Shin, muhallin Intanet zai ci gaba da daukan wannan sabon tsari da salo irin na WikiLeaks, har ma wasu daban su sake fitowa masu manufa da tsari irin nasu don ci gaba da habaka wannan sabuwar hanya, ko kuwa daga kansu shikenan, sanadiyyar irin kiraye-kiraye da ‘yan siyasar kasar Amurka ke yi cewa a kama shugaban wannan shafi, ko ma a kashe shi – don ya tona wa kasar Amurka asiri da ma sauran kasashen da wannan badakala ta shafa?  Abu na biyu kuma shi ne, za mu yi nazari kan tasirin wannan tsari wajen samar da bayanai na musamman a Intanet; shin, mai neman bayanai musamman na sirri a Intanet, zai iya dogaro da ire-iren wadannan kafafe na shafin WikiLeaks, ko a a?  Amma kafin nan, ga ‘yar gajeriyar mukaddima kan asali da masu tafiyar da wannan shafi na WikiLeaks.

 

WikiLeaks: Daga Ina Kake?

An samar da shafin WikiLeaks ne a shekarar 2006, don samar da labarai ko bayanai na musamman, galibi na sirri, wadanda kuma suka shafi siyasa, da diflomasiyya, da kasuwanci, don ilmantar da jama’a kan wani abin da gwamnatoci ke boye musu dangane da yadda ake tafiyar da al’amuran mulkin kasarsu.  Daraktan wannan shafi shi ne Julian Assange, wani matashi ne dan shekara 39, dan kasar Ostiraliya, mai ra’ayin ‘yanta Fasahar Intanet daga dukkan wata kaidi da gwamnatoci ke sanyawa na doka, masu hana yada bayanai don a amfana da su; kowane irin bayani ne kuwa.  Bayan shi, akwai sauran ma’aikata da suka hada da Phillip Adams, da Wang Dan, da C. J. Hinke, da Ben Laurie, da Tashi Namgyal Khamsitsang, da Xiao Qiang, da Chico Whitaker, sai kuma Wang Youcai, wadanda masana kan fannin lissafi, da kwamfuta, kuma sun fito ne daga kasashen Sin, da Taiwan, da Afirka ta Kudu, da Turai.  Babbar manufar wannan shafi dai ita ce taimakawa wajen tona asirin gurbatattun gwamnatoci masu ci da gumin jama’arsu, ta hanyar hankado bayanan sirri da suka shafi yadda suke tafiyar da al’amuran mulki a kan talakawansu.

 

Da farko dai shafin WikiLeaks na dauke ne da masarrafa wacce za ka shiga, ka yi rajistar sunanka, idan kana da bayanai na sirri, sai ka aika musu.  Bayan haka, dukkan abin da jama’a suka aiko na bayanai, kana iya karantawa, har ma ka budo, tare da canza wasu bayanai wadanda kake ganin ba haka suke ba.  Dukkan wani shafi a Intanet mai dauke da wannan masarrafa tare da wannan tsarin sarrafa bayanai, shi ake kira “Wiki Site”, kuma wacce tafi kowanne shahara cikin ire-iren wadannan shafuka dai ita ce shafin Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org), wacce taska ce ta ilmi mai zaman kanta, wanda masu karatu ko ziyara ke ginawa da kansu.  To, da haka wannan shafi na WikiLeaks ya faro.  To amma daga baya sai ya canza salo, ya zama sai dai ka karanta bayanan sirrin da aka zuba a shafin kadai, amma ba za ka iya canza wani bayani ba. A karshe kuma sai abin ya zama cewa masu shafin ne ke zuwa su yi farautar bayanan sirri da kwarewarsu (dukkansu masana harkar kwamfuta ne na kololuwa), don baiwa mutane daman karantawa a shafin.

 

Masu wannan shafi dai na dogaro ne kan tallafin da jama’a ke taimaka musu da shi ta shafin, don gudanar da ayyukan da suke bukata baki daya.  Duk cikinsu babu wadanda ake biya ko kwabo, domin aiki ne na kashin kai, kuma kusan kowanne daga cikinsu na da aikin yi.  Bayan wadannan shugabanni da sunayensu suka gabata a sama, akwai kuma masu agaza musu wajen sama da mutum 80 a warwatse a sauran kasashen duniya, kuma dukkansu kwararru ne kan tsarin sadarwa ta kwamfuta. Kuma duk ta hanyar Imel suke aiwatar da galibin ayyuka  a tsakaninsu.  Shugaban wannan shafi dai ya bar kasarsa ta asali, saboda tuhuma da hukuma ke masa.  Daga nan ya zarce kasar Suwidin, wacce kasa ke mai tsauraran dokokin da ke hana bincike kan asalin da kafafen yada labarai ke dogaro da su wajen samo labaransu.  Lokacin da shafin WikiLeaks ya fara tasiri a duniya, sai hukumar kasar ta fara tuhumarsa da laifin tirsasa wa wasu mata guda biyu da tace ya yi don saduwa da su.  Wannan tasa ya baro kasar zuwa kasar Ingila a boye.  A halin yanzu dai hukumar kasar Burtaniya ta kama shugaban wannan shafi na WikiLeaks, wato Julian Assange, inda tace ta samu wasikar sammaci ne daga kasar Suwidin cewa a kama shi, kuma tuni ta gurfanar da shi a gaban kuliya kan tuhumar da kasar Suwidin tace tana masa na lamarin wadannan mata biyu, inda a karon farko kotu ta hana shi beli.  Amma bayan sauraron kara karo na biyu a ranar 14 ga wannan wata, sai ta bayar da belinsa.

 

A daya bangaren kuma, da yawa cikin masu lura da al’amuran yau da kullum, da kuma magoya bayan wannan shafi na WikiLeaks, sun ce sam karya ne hukumar kasar Suwidin take yi, kawai dai tana rabewa ne da guzuma don ta harbi karsana.  Abin nufi a nan shi ne, tana kokarin kama shi ne don mika shi ga kasar Amurka da ke nemansa ruwa a jallo kan batun bayanan sirri da  shafinsa ya yada cikin makon karshe na watan Nuwamba na wannan shekara. Don haka suke cewa bai ma kamata tun farko a kama shi ba, domin manufar ba wai na tirsasa wa wadansu mata bane kamar yadda ake riyawa, a a, don wasu manufofi ne na siyasa da kasar Amurka ke son cin musu.  Idan ba a mance ba, tun sa’adda wannan shafi na WikiLeaks ya fara yada bayanan sirri mai take Kundin Yakin Afghanistan (The Afghan War Diary) cikin watan Yuli, da kuma bayanan sirri na baya-bayan nan kan kasar Iraki, mai take Kundin Yakin Iraki (The Iraq War Logs), tare da wani bidiyo da ke nuna yadda sojin kasar Amurka suke kashe mutane a kasar Iraki, kasar Amurka ke neman wannan matashi don huce fushinta.   Wannan ta sa ya daina kai ziyara kasar Amurka, don kauce wa fushin hukuma.  Lokacin da suke shirye-shiryen gudanar da taronsu na shekara-shekara mai take Hackers On Planate Earth (HOPE) Conference, kungiyar ‘yan dandatsa ta duniya ta bayar da sanarwar cewa Assange na daga cikin wadanda za su gabatar da jawabi na musamman a wajen taron.

 

Jin haka ke da wuya sai hukumar Amurka ta fara sa ido.  Wannan tasa ya ki halartar taron, sai wani mataimakinsa ne ya gabatar da jawabin a madadinsa. Shi kanshi bai tsira ba, domin bayan dawowarsa daga wata bulaguro da yaje a kasar Holand, jami’an tsaron kasar Amurka sun tsare a shi filin jirgin sama, inda suka kama masa tambayoyi, shi kuma ya ki amsawa, yace sai a gaban lauya zai amsa tambayoyin da suka masa.  Wannan tasa suka kyale shi, amma sun kwace masa dukkan wayoyin salularsa guda uku, tare da gudanar da bincike na kwakwa kan kwamfutarsa.  Wannan ke tabbatar da cewa, ba ma Assange kadai ba, duk wanda aka san yana da alaka da wannan shafi na WikiLeaks, to, kasar Amurka musamman tana dakonsa ne.  A halin yanzu dai an bayar da belin Julian Assange.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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