Zuwa Sararin Samaniya: Abu Mai Yiwuwa da Mara Yiwuwa (1)

Edward Teller

Edward Teller masani ne a fannin kimiyyar sararin samaniya da kimiyyar sinadarai (Physics and Chemistry), kuma ya samar da ka’idojin bincike da kere-keren kimiyya a duniya da dama.  Mutum ne mai wuyan sha’ani a lokacin rayuwarsa, kuma ya shahara wajen rajin kawo sauyin kere-kere a fannin kimiyyar sararin samaniya, inda ra’ayoyinsa suka bambanta matuka da ra’ayoyin abokan aikinsa a fannin ilimi.  Duk da haka, ya yi hasashen yiwuwan faruwa ko rashin yiwuwan faruwar abubuwa da yawa a fannin kimiyya; wasu sun tabbata haka, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani, wasu kuma basu tabbata ko ba, ana zaman jiransu. Wasu kuma, tarihi ya karyata shi a kansu.  A yau za mu karantu wasu daga cikin hasashensa, wanda daya daga cikin masu karatu, mai kwazo da kokarin bincike, wato MALAM SADIK TUKUR GWARZO (sadiqtukurgwarzo@gmail.com) ya kawo mana.  A sha karatu lafiya.


Gabatarwa

Fannin ilimin Sararin Samaniya (Astronomy) na daga cikin abubuwan da suka fi kayatar dani, da wasu dumbin jama’a da nake da yakinin hakan su ma yana  kayatar dasu.  Sai dai ba zai yiwu lokaci daya a gama fasaltawa mutum irin dumbin abubuwan mamaki da Allah Ta’ala ya taskance a cikin sararin samaniya ba.   Don haka, na hakaito mana wani dogon jawabi da wani shahararren masanin sararin samaniya mai suna Edward Tellar yayi, mai cike da abubuwa muhimmai a shekarar 1961, dangane da tafiya zuwa sararin samaniya.  A cikin jawabinsa ya fadi abin da yake ganin zai iya yiwuwa, da abin da yake ganin ba zai yiwu ba.

 

Da farko ya yi hasashen cewa daga shekarar da yayi bayanin a wancan lokaci, wato 1961, ba za’a kai shekara ta dubu biyu (2000) ba  har sai an samu damar zuwa duniyoyi dake makwabtaka da duniyarmu ta Earth kamar su Mars, da Venus da Jupiter da kuma duniyar wata.   Sai dai a cewarsa, `”Mene ne burin da muke son cin mawa idan mun ziyarci wadannan duniyoyi?  Shin, za mu koma duniyoyin ne mu ci gaba da rayuwa ko kuwa `ya`yayenmu ne za su mai da rayuwarsu zuwa can?’’

 

Sai yaci gaba da cewa “Za’a iya tunanin zuwa can domin samo abubuwa masu daraja kamar su zinare, da azurfa da yuraniyon, sai dai kuma zinare da azurfa ana kokarin lalubo su a nan duniyarmu, shi kuwa sinadarin yuraniyon, dauko shi daga wata duniyar zuwa wannan duniyar tamu abu ne mai matukar hadari.   Kawai dai abin da za mu so mu dauko shi ne abu mara nauyi, wanda mu anan muka rasa shi; wannan ba komai bane sai Ilimi.’’

 

Edward ya ci gaba da cewa, “Kasancewar Rana daya ce daga cikin Taurari kimanin guda biliyan dari dake cikin rukunin taurarin gungun taurari (Galaxy) wanda aka baiwa suna “Milky Way,” ba lalle ne ace duk cikin taurarin nan Tauraruwarmu (Rana) ita kadai ce ke da duniyoyin da ba wanda zai iya rayuwa a cikin su.  Haka kuma ba gungun taurarinmu (Galaxy) ne kadai ba; akwai wani gungun taurari (Galaxy) dake makwabtaka da mu mai suna “Andromeda Galaxy),” wanda aka yi hasashen nisansa da gungun taurarinmu ya kai nisan da idan ka tura  haske  zai yi shekaru miliyan biyu kafin ya isa wajen (2 million light years).  Bayan  gungun taurarin “Andromeda”,  akwai wasu miliyoyi irinsa.  Daga can gefe, daura da wannan gungun taurari iya nisan zangon tafiyar haske shekaru miliyan dari, akwai wasu gungun taurari (Galaxy) guda biyu da suka yi karo da juna, wanda hakan ya samar da wani kara mai tsanani tare da fitar wani rada (Radar), wanda a cewarsa sai da ya keto har cikin sararin samaniyar duniyarmu.

 

A cikin bincikensa, Edward Teller ya tabbatar da cewa a duniyar Mars akwai wasu launuka masu wulkitawa a duk sadda aka kalli duniyar ta amfani da madubin hangen nesa mai suna “Spectroscope”.   Mutum zai ga wasu alamomi da suke nuna alamun wanzuwar wasu hade-haden sinadarai da suke tabbatar da cewa akwai rayuwa a duk inda aka same su, wato sinadaran “Carbon-Hydrogen Bond,” irin sinadaran da ake samu a cikin man fetur.   Malaman kimiyyar man fetur kuma sun tabbatar da cewa abin da ke samar da man fetur shi ne rubewar matattun abubuwa kamar su halittun ruwa da sauransu.  Don haka, ta yiwu samun wadancan sinadarai a wurin na da nasaba da samun rayuwar halittu a can, sai dai zai yi wahala a samu mutane kamar mu masu rayuwa a can duk da dai muna da burin zuwa can kuma zamu je.

 

Wani abin kuma shi ne, a kimiyar ilimin sinadarai (Chemistry) mun sani cewa dukkan wani abu mai rayuwa a nan duniya tushensa daya ne, domin muna da tabbacin irin kwayoyin halittar dake jikin mutum; akwai wasu a jikin biri, da kifi, cututtuka masu rai dadai sauransu.  Abin tambayar ana shi ne; shin, idan akwai halittu masu rayuwa a duniyar Mars tunda ga sinadaran da aka gano a can kuma da akwai irinsu a jikin mutum dama sauran halittun dake nan duniya, shin, tsatsonmu daya dasu kenan ko kuwa kowa tsatsonsa daban? Ina da tabbacin dai ba mu kadai ne ke rayuwa ba a cikin sararin wannan duniya.   Amma kuma wani abu mai rikitarwa shi ne; a hasashen da aka yi, wannan duniya tamu ta yi shekaru biliyan goma da wanzuwa.   Rayuwar mutane kuma a duniyarmu ta wanzu kimanin shekaru rabin miliyan zuwa milkiyan, ai kuwa za’a samu masu rai da suka rayu tun farkon duniyoyin nan kafin wanzuwarmu, lalle zan so naji ina wadanncan mutane da suka rayu gabaninmu suka tafi?

 

Sai yace zuwanmu duniyar wata ne zai ba da damar hango nisan zangon da a nan duniyar ba zamu iya hangowa ba, har daga bisani a tabbatar da cewa duniyar gungun taurari ba ta da iyaka, ko kuma watakila a hango iyakarta da ma wasu biliyoyin irinta.  Da akwai wani abu mai launin ja da ya taba bayyana a duniyar Jupiter tun a karnin da ya wuce, wanda zuwa yanzu ba’a san ko menene ba kuma ana ganinshi kadan-kadan har zuwa yau.   Don haka, zuwanmu daya daga cikin duniyoyi masu makwabtaka damu ne zai sa mu samu ilimin sauran duniyoyin da ma na wasu abubuwan.

 

Sai dai a cewarsa, duk wadannan ba sune manyan muhimman abubuwan ba.   A matsayinmu na mutane masu numfashi, babban abin da muka fi so mu sani shi ne amsar tambayar nan da wasunmu suka sha yi: shin,  akwai abu mai rai a duniyar wata da sauran duniyoyi?  Domin ni ban yarda da fadar mutane cewa halittun dake rayuwa a sauran duniyoyi (Martians) wai kamu daya bane, kuma kalarsu koriya bace.  Bayan haka kuma za mu so muji cewa shin, a cikin Sararin samaniya akwai duniyoyi masu dauke da mutane irinmu?  Daga nan sai mu kara bincike akan karankanmu. Haka kuma, munce muna so kafin karshen karnin nan mu zagaye duniyoyin Rana (planets), shin, yaushe zamu fara tafiya zuwa sauran taurari?  Tauraruwa dai mafi kusanci da Tauraruwarmu (Rana) itace PROXIMA CENTAURI, ba kamar yadda wasu ke cewa “Alpha centauri” ba, kuma nisan dake tsakanin Tauraruwa Rana da “Tauraruwa Proxima,” nisan tafiyar haske ne a shekaru hudu, (4 light years).  Ga shi kuma kamar yadda masanin nan Einstein ya fada, babu wani mahaluki da zai iya yin gudu a wani abin hawa dai-dai da saurin haske matukar yana da nauyi, sai dai idan zai zamo ba shi da nauyi ko kadan.

 

To amma duk da haka, ko da zamu iya tafiya dai-dai da gudun haske, tazarar shekaru hudu ba karamar tafiya bace, ga shi kuma lalle munaso sai mun je “Proxima Centauri.”   Sannan alal misali, idan yanzu nayi amfani da kayayyaki na wannan zamani, na’urar Rocket din da zan iya kerawa zai yi gudu dai-dai daya bisa ashirin na gudu da saurin haske (1/20),  kenan idan muka durfafi “Proxima,”  ba za mu iya kaiwa gare ta ba sai nan da shekaru tamanin!   Wannan lokaci ne mai tsawon gaske.

 

Ba so nake ince abin bazai yiwu ba.   Domin idan muka juya baya shekaru dari uku da suka gabata, abin da ake yi a yanzu (1961) idan aka fada musu zai yiwu a wancan lokacin, cewa za su yi ba zai yiwu ba.  Don haka wannan tafiyar za ta iya yiwuwa nan da shekaru dari masu zuwa.”

 

Za mu ci gaba mako mai zuwa

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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