Ayyukan Babbar Manhajar Kwamfuta (2)

Samar da Hanyoyin Mu’amala da Kwamfuta

Babban aikin babbar manhajar kwamfuta na uku shi ne samar da hanyoyin mu’amala da kwamfutar, tsakaninta da mai mu’amala kenan.  Wannan shi ake kira “User Interface.”  Duk lalacewar babbar manhaja bai kamata a ce ba ta dauke da hanyar mu’amala tsakanin kwamfuta da mai kwamfutar ba.  In kuwa haka ta kasance, to gwamma babu da ita.  Wannan na daga cikin tsare-tsare masu mahimmanci a tare da kwamfuta; daga kwamfutocin zamanin baya zuwa na zamanin yau.   Kowace Babbar manhajar kwamfuta a zamanin yau na dauke ne da hanyoyin mu’amala tsakanin kwamfuta da mai kwamfutar, nau’uka biyu.  Nau’in farko shi ake kira “Command Line Interface” ko “CLI” a gajarce.  Nau’i na biyu kuma ana kiransa “Graphical User Interface” ko “GUI” a gajarce.  Ga takaitattun bayanai nan kan kowannensu.

 

Tsarin “Command Line Interface”

Tsarin farko da ake kira “Command Line Interface” ko “CLI,” hanyar mu’amala da kwamfuta ce da ta kunshi baiwa kwamfuta umarni ta hanyar wata ‘yar karamar masarrafa da tafi saurin isar da sako ga kwamfuta nan take.  Wannan masarrafa ko manhaja kashi-kashi ce; ya danganci babbar manhaja.  Kowace Babbar manhaja na da nata masarrafa na musamman mai dauke da wannan tsari mai suna “Command Line Interface.”  Misali, na Babbar manhajar “Windows” ita ce “Command Prompt.”  Idan kana son ganin wannan masarrafa ka matsa “Start”, sai ka rubuta cmd, sannan ka matsa “Enter” a jikin allon shigar da bayananka.  Nan take wannan masarrafa za ta budo.  Baka ce, mai bakin shafi, dauke da rubutu masu farin launi.

 

Asalin wannan masarrafa ta “Command Prompt” dake dauke a babbar manhajar Windows a yau, ta fara samuwa ne a tare da Babbar manhajar kamfanin Microsoft na farko mai suna “Microsoft Disk Operating System,” wato “MS-DOS.”  Don haka, duk wanda ya taba amfani ko mu’amala da wancan tsohuwar Babbar manhaja mai suna MS-DOS, zai iya mu’amala da manhajar Command Prompt dake cikin Windows na yau. Duk tsarin daya ne.  Ba ma wannan ba, wancan Babbar manhaja ta MS-DOS tsarin mu’amala da mai kwamfuta daya kawai take dauke dashi, shi ne wannan tsari na “Command Prompt.”  Shi yasa da zarar ka kunna kwamfuta mai dauke da MS-DOS, wannan bakin shafi za ka fara cin karo dashi; ta nan za ka ta baiwa kwamfutar umarni, hatta kashewa.

 

Babbar manhajar kwamfuta nau’in LINUX, da UNIX, da MAC OS X su kuma suna amfani ne da masarrafa mai suna “Terminal” (akwai LINUX Terminal, da UNIX Terminal da MAC OS Terminal) wacce kusan kashi tamanin cikin dari na masu amfani da ire-iren wadannan nau’in Babbar manhaja na amfani ne da ita.   Wannan ya faru ne saboda tun asali, wannan masarrafa ita ce abin dogaro wajen mu’amala tsakanin kwamfuta da mai kwamfutar.  Bayan wadannan guda biyu akwai wadanda wasu suka gina wadanda suka dace da Babbar manhajar LINUX da UNIX da kuma MAC OS X na kamfanin Apple kenan.

 

Kamfanonin da suka samar da wadannan hanyoyin mu’amala na “Command Line Interface” sun kuma samar da kalmomi ko yaren da ake amfani dasu wajen baiwa kwamfutar umarni ta hanyar Babbar manhajar da ke dauke a cikinta.   Misali, idan ka shiga masarrafar “Command Prompt” na Windows za ka samu kanka ne tsundum a cikin huruminka.  Misali, idan sunan huruminka (User Account Name) “Baban Sadik” ne, da zarar ka budo za ka ga: C:\user\Babansadik>  Wannan ke nuna cewa kana hurumin “Baban Sadik” kenan.  Idan kana son komawa asalin babbar ma’adanar kwamfuta gaba daya, wato “Drive C:” sai ka rubuta: cd /  wannan umarnin zai kai ka babbar ma’adana kai tsaye.  Idan kuma a tsakanin huruminka ne kake son shiga wani wuri na musamman, misali jakar da ke dauke da hotunanka, wato “Pictures,” sai ka rubuta: dir Pictures  nan take za a budo maka sunayen dukkan hotunan da ke cikin burganin.

 

Idan kana son ganin dukkan bayanan dake shafin kwamfutarka ne, ka rubuta dir Desktop.  Idan kuma so kake ka koma farkon shafin ne gaba daya, ka rubuta: cd Desktop.  Duk wadannan kalmomi ne na umarni. Akwai karin wasu masu dimbin yawa wadanda ke taimaka wa mai mu’amala da kwamfuta yayi zirga-zirgansa daga nan zuwa can.  Haka ma abin yake a bangaren masarrafar “LINUX Terminal” ko “UNIX Terminal” ko “MAC OS X Terminal.”  Darasi ne mai zaman kansa.

 

Wannan tsarin mu’amala da mai kwamfuta na farko kenan da Babbar manhajar kwamfuta na zamani ke dauke dashi.  Ga bayani kan tsari na biyu nan, wato “Graphical User Interface,” wato “GUI.”

 

Tsarin “Graphical User Interface”

A tsarin “Graphical User Interface,” Babbar manhajar kwamfuta na baiwa mai mu’amala da kwamfuta damar ba ta umarni ne ta hanyoyi masu sauki fiye da tsarin “Command Line Interface.”  A wannan tsari za ka matsa wata alama ce (icon), sai kwamfuta ta zartar maka da abin da kake bukata.  Wadannan alamomi (Icons) suna nan da yawa; da zarar ka kunna kwamfutar ta zamani mai dauke da Babbar manhaja irin na zamani, a shafin farko (Desktop) ba abin da za ka ta cin karo dasu sai wadannan alamomi.  Kowanne za ka same shi da sunansa.  Duk wata alama da ka gani a shafin kwamfuta, daga sama ne ko kasa, daga gefen dama ko hagu (ya danganci tsarin Babbar manhajar) da zarar ka matsa, ko ka latsa, ko ka zungure ta, nan take kwamfuta za ta zartar da umarnin da ka bata.  Idan manhaja ce ka matsa, manhajar za ta budo; idan jakar bayani ce ka matsa (File), nan take jakar da ke dauke da bayanin za ta budo maka bayanin – in hotuna ne nan take za ka gansu, in kasidu ne ko makaloli, za ka gansu, in kuma bayanai ne masu dauke da sauti ko hoton bidiyo, nan take sai manhajar sarrafa su ta budo ta kama aiki.

 

Wannan tsari na “Graphical User Interface” na cikin manyan dalilan da suka kara wa kwamfuta shahara, da saukin mu’amala, da kuma inganci wajen sarrafa bayanai.  Wannan tsari ke gudanuwa ne ta hanyar alamomi ko hotunan ishara (icons or graphical windows). Wadannan alamomi ko “Icons” nau’i biyu ne. Akwai na hakikanin manhaja ko jakar bayanai.  Sannan akwai alamu masu wakiltar manhaja ko jakar bayanai, su ake kira “Shortcut Icons.”  Kowanne daga ciki idan ka matsa zai budo maka manhajar ce ko jakar bayanin da yake wakilta.

 

Kamfanin Apple ne ya fara amfani da wannan tsari a kwamfutarsa ta MACINTOSH nau’in farko mai suna “Mac 128k.”  Daga nan sauran kamfanonin gina Babbar manhajar kwamfuta irin su Microsoft suka ara, har zuwa wannan zamani da muke ciki.

 

Akwai matakai biyar da wannan tsari ke dauke dasu, tsakanin mai mu’amala da kwamfuta da kwamfutar kanta.  Matakin farko shi ne mai mu’amala da kwamfutar, wato “User” kenan.  Kai kenan ko duk wanda ke mu’amala da kwamfutar.  Mataki na biyu shi ne hoton ishara ko alamar da za ka matsa don baiwa kwamfutar umarni.  Wannan shi ake kira “Graphical Interface” kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.  Sai mataki na uku, wato “Ma’adanar bayanan hotunan ishara,” wato “Display Server,” wadda wata ma’adana ce da Babbar manhaja ke dauke da ita, wacce ke taskance dukkan wasu alamomi da ke tsayawa a matsayin adireshin manhaja ko jakar wasu bayanai da mai kwamfutar zai yi mu’amala dasu.

 

Mataki na hudu ita ce “Madarar babbar manhaja,” ko “Operating System Kernel” kamar yadda bayani ya gabata. Wannan shi ne bangaren babbar manhaja wanda mai mu’amala da kwamfuta ba ya iya ganinsa kai tsaye, kuma shi ne ke da alhakin sadar da umarnin da kake baiwa kwamfuta ga gangar-jikin kwamfuta (Hardware), don zartarwa.  Mataki na karshe shi ne gangar-jikin kwamfutar, wanda bayani ya gabata kansa.

 

Da zarar ka matsa wata alama da ke dauke da umarni don aiwatar da wani aiki na musamman a kwamfuta, nan take sakon da ke dauke a cikin ma’adanar hotunan ishara (Display Server) za su aiwatar da wannan umarni naka zuwa ga bangaren babbar manhajar kwamfuta da ke sadar da bayanai ga gangar-jiki, wato “Operating System Kernel.”  Wannan bangare ne zai dauki wannan umarni naka takanas ta kano zuwa ga cibiyar sarrafa bayanai dake kundun kwamfuta, wato “Central Processing Unit” ko “CPU,” don zartarwa kai tsaye.  Duk wannan aiki ko ayyuka na samuwa ne cikin kasa da dakika guda bayan ka matsa alamar dake dauke da umarnin, saboda kudurar karfin sarrafa bayanai da kwamfuta ke dauke dashi.

 

Wadannan su ne hanyoyi biyu da Babbar manhaja ke bi wajen baiwa mai mu’amala da kwamfuta damar bata umarni da sarrafa bayanan da ke kai-komo tsakaninsu.  Kuma kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a farko, wannan shi ne aiki muhimmi na uku da Babbar manhaja ke aiwatarwa.  A mako mai zuwa za muyi bayani kan aiki na hudu muhimmi, wanda shi ne aiki na karshe da suka kamaci kowace irin Babbar manhaja ce.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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