Ayyukan Masu Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta

Ayyukan Magina Manhajar Kwamfuta

Magina manhaja suna aiwatar da hakan ne ta hanyar ayyuka masu dimbin yawa, ta amfani da kayayyakin aiki masu sawwake musu yin hakan.  Tsarin bai wa kwamfuta umarni abu ne mai girman gaske.  Shi yasa a halin yanzu ya zama wani fanni na musamman cikin fannonin da ake karantar dasu a jami’o’in duniya.  Ga kadan daga cikin ayyukansu nan.

 

Zana kwarangwal din manhajaAikin maginin manhaja ne kafin ya fara rubuta manhajar ya zauna don zana yadda manhajar za ta kasance.  Misali, idan kana son gina manhajar kwamfuta kan rabon gadon a musulunce, za ka zana hoton yadda manhajar za ta kasance ne a zahiri; kamar wurin shigar da bayanai, da inda mai amfani da ita zai zabi masu gado, da inda zai shigar da yawan kudade ko kimar abin gado, da inda za a latsa don manhajar ta lissafo kason kowanne daga cikin masu gadon.  Sannan a daya bangaren, za ka zana yadda bangaren manhajar zai kasance wajen abin da ya shafi rubuta umarni, da yadda za karkasa bangarorin aikin, da kuma fuskar da zai hade dukkan bangarorin don samar da tsari mai gamewa.  Wannan zane shi ake kira: “Software Architecture.”  Wannan shi ne mataki na farko kuma mafi mahimmanci.  Domin sauran ayyukan duk sun dogara ne gare shi.

 

Bibiyar ka’idojin gina manhajaWannan aiki ne mai matukar mahimmanci daga cikin ayyukan maginin manhajar kwamfuta.  Abin da wannan ke nufi kuwa shi ne, akwai tsare-tsare da ka’idoji da aka shimfida ga duk wanda zai gina manhajar kwamfuta da za ta amsa sunanta kuma kowa yayi amfani da ita a duniya.  Wadannan ka’idoji su ake kira: “Software Design Requirements.”  Ka’idoji ne da suka shafi kayan aiki, da tsarin manhajar, da manufarta, da mahangarta, da siffarta da duk abin da ya shafe ta.  Aikin maginin manhaja ne ya zauna ya bibiyi wadannan ka’idoji, don tabbatar da dacewarsu ga abin da yake yi wajen gina manhajar.  Yin haka, shi ake kira: “Requirement Analysis.”  Zai duba ya ga me da me ake bukata?  Wasu hanyoyi za a bi wajen samar dasu?  Shin, idan aka kasa samun wasu abubuwan, wace hanya za a bi wajen ganin an samu masu maye gurbinsu?  Kamar gida ne kake son ginawa; dole ka tanadi zanen gidan, sannan ka samu wanda zai yi nazari kan zanen gidan don fitar da abubuwan da zanen ya ayyana a matsayin kayan aiki ko ka’idojin da za a bi.  To, haka ma lamarin yake a fagen gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Wannan aiki da ya shafi nazarin zanen manhajar da ake son ginawa, shi ake kira: “Requirement Analysis.”

 

Tsara matakan gina manhajarWannan aiki ya kunshi rubuta hakikanin manhajar ne daga farko zuwa karshe, ta amfani da yare mai sauki, wanda dan adam ke iya fahimta.  Ma’ana, idan manhajar da kake son rubutawa ta kacici-kacici ce, za ka zauna ne ka rubuta umarnin a rubuce, cikin yare mai sauki, ba yaren da kwamfuta za ta sarrafa ba.  Shi wannan aiki za ka yi shi ne don amfanin kanka, a matsayin tuni ga abin da za ka rubuta na umarni a kowane mataki.  Misali, takaitaccen bayanin yadda za a gina manhaja karama don aiwatar da rabon gadon mutum daya tal, na iya kasancewa kamar haka:

 

  • shigar da bayanin mamaci (jinsi, nasaba dsr); (b) shigar da bayanin masu gado (jinsi, alaka da mamaci dsr); (c) shigar da kimar abin gado (yawan kudi ko kimar kadara dsr); (d) latsa alamar lissafi (don samun sakamako); ( e) bayyana masu gado da hakkin kowannensu.

 

Wadannan matakai biyar da na zayyana a sama, suna wakiltar tsarin manhajar ne gaba daya, amma cikin yaren da mutane ke iya fahimta ne, ba yaren kwamfuta ba.  Wannan aiki ana yinsa ne don tsara dukkan hanyoyi da dabi’un manhajar, daga farko zuwa karshe.  Idan aka gama, sai a dauko a ajiye a gefe, a fara rubuta shi cikin harshen da kwamfuta ke iya fahimta, don gina manhajar.  Wannan aiki shi ake kira: “Algorithm.”  Kuma kana iya rubuta shi da kowane harshe; Turanci ko Larabci ko Hausa.  Fanni ne na musamman a ilimin gina manhajar kwamfuta, kuma aiki ne mai mahimmanci daga cikin ayyukan Magina manhajar kwamfuta.  Shi ake fara yi kafin aje matakin dake tafe, wato: rubuta umarni cikin harshen kwamfuta.

 

Rubuta umarni cikin harshen kwamfutaWannan shi ake kira: “Coding” a harshen gina manhajar kwamfuta.  Zallar rubutattun umarnin kuma su ake kira: “Codes.”  Idan an gama rubuta su har suka zama rubutacciyar manhaja, sai a kira su: “Source Code.”  Magina manhaja na amfani da wannan tsari ne wajen bai wa kwamfuta umarnin abin da ake son ta aiwatar, da yadda ake son ta aiwatar, da kuma tsarin da ake son ta bi wajen aiwatarwa.

 

Wannan na daga cikin ayyukan Magina manhajar kwamfuta mafi mahimmanci, mafi daukan lokaci, mafi tsada, sannan mafi alfanu ga rayuwar masarrafar da ake ginawa.  Mafi karancinsa bai wuce layi ko sadara daya.  Mafi girma ko yawansa kuma ba shi da haddi.  Kana iya samun manhajar kwamfuta daya mai dauke da sadaran umarni sama da miliyan daya!  Maginin manhajar ya san kowane digo ko baki harafi dake cikin umarnin, da irin aikin da zai yi.  Kada wannan ya baka mamaki.  Suna amfani ne da wani tsari mai suna “Program Modulation,” wanda ya kunshi rarraba bangarorin manhaja daban-daban, da samar “fuska” guda dake hade su duka, don aiwatar da aikin da aka rubuta su don su aiwatar.  Idan har yanzu baka fahimta ba, kada ka damu.  Idan muka fara aiwatar da wannan aiki a aikace za ka gane, in sha Allah.

 

Dubawa da gyara kura-kuraiA yayin da maginin manhajar kwamfuta ke ta hankoron rubuta umarni sadara-sadara don tsara abin da yake son tsarawa, akan samu kura-kurai sosai.  Watakila ya mance wani harafi guda, ko ishara guda daya, ko wani digo da ya kamata a ce ya diga a gefen wani harafi, wanda ka’ida ce dole sai da wannan digo.  Wannan ke sa manhajar ta kasa aiwatar da abin da ake son ta aiwatar.  Ko dai tun wajen motsata ta ruguje (crashing), ko kuma ta motsa, amma ta kasa karasa sauran ayyukan.  Ko kuma, a karon karshe in ba a sa’a ba, ta aiwatar da wani umarnin daban-daban wand aba shi ake so ba.  Ya danganci nau’in dabarar gina manhajar da maginin ke amfani dashi.

 

Ire-iren wadannan kura-kurai su ake kira: “Bugs” a harshen turancin kimiyyar sadarwa.  To, yana daga cikin ayyukan maginin manhajar kwamfuta ya gano wadannan kura-kurai, tare da gyara su.  Wannan aiki shi ake kira: “Debugging.”  Akwai manhaja ta musamman da ake amfani da ita wajen gano ire-iren wadannan kura-kurai.  Ana kiran wannan manhaja da suna: “Debugger.”  Bayani kan wannan manhaja yana tafe.

 

Gwajin manhaja: Aikin maginin manhaja ne ya aiwatar da gwaji, don tabbatar da ganin tana aiwatar da abin da yake so.  Wannan aiki shi ake kira: “Software Testing.”  Ya kasu kashi biyu; akwai gwaji da ake yi sadda ake gina manhajar.  Ma’ana idan an karkasa aikin bangare-bangare ne, duk bangaren da aka gama, sai a gwada shi, don tabbatar da ya kayatar.  Idan aka gama kowane bangare kuma, sai gwaji kashi na biyu, wato gwajin manhajar gaba dayanta, bayan an hade dukkan bangarorin da juna, cikin tsari mai inganci da kayatarwa.

 

Wannan gwaji na karshe yana daukan fuskoki da dama, dangane da iya girma ko mahimmancin manhajar.  Akwai gwajin da maginin ne kawai zai yi.  Idan ya gamsu sai kawai ya antayo wa masu bukata.  Akwai kuma wanda dole sai ya tanadi mutane na musamman, wadanda ake zaton su ne ko irin su ne zasu yi amfani da manhajar, su yi gwaji na wani tsawon lokaci na musamman, don fitar da matsaloli ko kalubalen da ke ciki.  Manhajar da aka fitar da baiwa masu amfani da ita damar gwaji, ita ake kira: “Beta Version,” waton nau’in gwaji kenan.

 

Rubuta kundin amfani da manhajaKowace manhajar kwamfuta tana zuwa ne da kundinta, kamar yadda kowace mota ko wayar salula ko kwamfuta ke zuwa da kundi na musamman dake taimaka wa mai wayar ko kwamfutar ko motar hanyoyin sarrafa ta cikin sauki.  Wannan kundi, a fagen ilimin gina manhaja shi ake kira: “Software Documentation.”  Aiki ne na maginin manhaja ya samar da wannan kundi don amfanin masu mu’amala da manhajar.  A ciki zai yi bayani ne dalla-dalla, kan yadda tsari da kintsin manhajar suke, da kuma yadda idan aka ci karo da matsala, ga yadda za a warware.  Wannan aiki ne na musamman da sai bayan an gama gina manhajar ake samar dashi.

 

Lura da rayuwar manhajaBayan an gama gina manhajar jama’a sun fara amfani ita, aiki bai kare wa maginin ba; kamfani ne ko wani kwararre ne.  Dole ne ya rika lura da rayuwar manhajar, don samar da kare-karen abubuwa masu armashi ko sawwake tsarin mu’amala da ita ko aikin da manhajar ke yi.  Wannan shi ake kira: “Software Maintenance.”  Shi ma aiki mai zaman kansa da maginin manhaja ke shagaltuwa dashi bayan ya sako manhajar ga masu saye ko amfani da ita, idan kyauta ce.  Wannan aiki, a galibin lokuta, shi ke zama aiki na karshe.  Amma fa ba shi da karshe, sai sadda maginin manhajar ya jingine manhajar gaba dayanta.

 

Wadannan ayyuka guda takwas, su ne mahimmai daga cikin ayyukan Magina manhajar kwamfuta.  Karkashin kowannensu akwai hidima mai yawa, da tsare-tsare masu tsauri ko sauki, dangane da kintsin manhajar da ake son ginawa.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *