Bincike Kan Bacci da Mafarki A Mahangar Kimiyya (7)

Bayan gushewar su Alfred Murray da Carl Jung, masana a fannin kimiyya da dabi’ar dan adam sun ci gaba da bincike don kokarin gano hakikanin abin da ke haddasa mafarki da kuma irin abin da mai bacci ke gani a cikin mafarkinsa.  Wadannan masana (Alfred Murray da Carl Jung) da suka faku, duk da shaharar sakamakon bincikensu a kasashen Turai da kasashen Gabashin duniya, bayan tafiyarsu an gano kura-kuran dake cikin abin da suka ce sun hango su ne dalilai na mafarki da dukkan abin da suka shafe shi.  Hakan kuwa ya samu ne sanadiyyar ci gaba a fannin kere-kere da likitanci, wanda ya sawwake samuwar na’urorin binciken kwakwalwar dan adam, da yanayinsa a halin da yake bacci.  Sanadiyyar haka ne kuma har wa yau, tsarin bincike kan mafarki ya sauya, daga hasashen zuci zuwa “neman ganin kwakwaf.”

 

Binciken Malaman Kimiyya kan Mafarki

Cikin karni na 20 (20th Century) ne masana suka yunkura wajen nemo dalilin dake sa dan adam yin mafarki.  Hakan kuwa bazai yiwu ba sai ta fahimtar alakar dake tsakanin kwakwalwa da ruhinsa, a sadda yake bacci.  Ta hakan ne kadai, a cewarsu, za a iya gano sadda mai bacci ke fara mafarki, da lokacin da yake yanke mafarkin.  A wannan karni ne masana suka kasa bangarorin bincikensu zuwa kasha biyu; da neman abin da ke haddasa mafarki, da kuma neman sanin hakikanin mafarkin da mai bacci ke gani.

 

Bayan ‘yan gwaje-gwaje da aka ci gaba dayi kan masu bacci ta amfani da na’urar gwajin kwakwalwa mai suna ”Electroencephalogram” wato EEG, mai dauke da wayoyi da ake likawa a kan mai bacci, an fahimci abubuwa da dama.  Wannan na’ura babban aikinta shi ne karantar bugawar kwakwalwa (Brain Waves), da yadda bugawar ke sauyawa, da kuma bambancin dake tsakanin sauyawar bugawarta da yanayin da mai bacci yake ciki.   Misali, akwai tsari da yanayin da kwakwalwar mutum ke kasancewa a ciki idan yana farke, amma idan bacci yake yi wannan yanayin bugawa kan sauya.  Bayan wannan har wa yau, wannan na’ura tana ganin dukkan jijiyoyin sadarwa dake cikin kwakwalwa (Brain neurons), wadanda ke dauke da sinadaran sadarwa dake yawo da bayanai tsakanin bangarorin kwakwalwa da sauran sassan jikin dan adam.  Ba wannan kadai ba, na’urar tana iya ganin wilkitawar jijiyoyin idanu a sadda mai bacci yake bacci.

 

Ta hanyar wannan na’ura ne aka gano wasu alamu guda biyu, a cewar masana, dake nuna sadda mai bacci yake fara mafarki.  Hanyar farko suka ce a daidai lokacin da ya shiga marhalar “Wilkitawar idanu”, wato “Rapid Eye Movement,” (REM).  Wannan marhala kuwa mai bacci na shigansa ne daga minti 90 na farko da fara baccinsa.  Idan yayi mintina kamar goma a cikin yanayin sai ya fice daga marhalar zuwa marhalar “Rashin Wilkitawar Idanu”, wato “Non-Rapid Eye Movement.”  Masana suka ce sun gano haka ne ta hanyar tambayar mai bacci bayan ya farka; me da me ya gani a mafarkin?  Idan ya musu bayani sai su ga hakan ya dace da daidai lokacin da idanunsa ke wilkitawa sadda yake bacci.

 

Alama ta biyu, masana suka ce ita ce motsawar gabobin jikinsa a sadda yake bacci, musamman al’aurarsa; ga wanda ya kwanta bacci bai samu gamsuwa ba.  Suka ce sun lura duk wadanda aka ga al’aurarsu na motsawa sadda suke bacci, sun tabbatar da cewa sun yi mafarkin suna saduwa da mace ko wani abu mai alaka da kwanciya da mace, a sadda suke bacci.  Masana suka ce wannan bai rasa alaka da halin da masu wannan mafarki suka kasance a cikinsa na matsuwa da son samun biyan bukata, abin da basu samu ba har bacci ya dauke su.  Wannan shi suke kira “Pre-sleep Stimuli,” wato wani abin da ran dan adam ya kwallafu a kai, amma bai samu ba har bacci ya dauke shi.

 

Bayan wadannan alamu da aka gano sanadiyyar wannan bincike da masana kimiyya suka gudanar cikin shekarar 1950, har wa yau sun gano cewa lallai akwai alaka mai karfi tsakanin kwakwalwa da ruhin dan adam a sadda yake mafarki.  Har wa yau suka ce bangaren dake da alhakin haddasa mafarki a kwakwalwar dan adam shi ne: “Pontine Tegmentum,” wato daya daga cikin salar kwakwalwa dake karkashi.  Bayan wannan, suka ce mafarki na aukuwa ne a daidai lokacin da sinadarin “Nor epinephrine” ke fara gangarowa cikin kwakwalwa.  Wannan mahalli na “Pontine Tegmentum” da wannan sinadari na “Nor epinephrine,” su ne ummul haba’isun “Wilkitawar Idanu” a sadda mai bacci yake bacci, wato “Rapid-Eye Movement.”  Don haka ake danganta su da samuwar mafarki ko haddasa samuwarsa.

 

To amma da yake ilimi kogi ne, kamar yadda masu iya magana ke cewa, bayan wasu ‘yan shekaru da bincike yayi zurfi, sai aka gano cewa babu wata alaka mai karfi ko mai tasiri tsakanin haddasa mafarki da marhalar bacci mai dauke da wilkitawar idanu ko kwayar idanu.  Domin an samu wadanda suka yi mafarki bila adadin cikin marhalar bacci wanda ba ya dauke da wilkitawar idanu.  Suka ce da ace wannan shi ne babban dalili, da dole a yanayinsa kadai za a rika mafarki.  Bayan haka, bincike ya sake gano rashin alaka tsakanin matsuwa da mutum ke yi da wata bukata (musamman na saduwa da mace) kafin bacci, da mafarkin saduwa a sadda mai wannan bukata ke bacci.  Domin, a cewarsu, ba bangaren al’aurar mai bacci ba kadai, akwai wasu bangarorin jiki masu motsawa a sadda mai bacci yake bacci, amma a tare da haka idan ya farka sai aji bayanin mafarkinsa ma ba shi da alaka da yanayin motsawar jikinsa da aka gani sadda yake bacci.  Wannan a bangaren binciken dalilin samuwar mafarki kenan.

 

Bincikensu na biyu ya kunshi tsantsar amfani da hasashe ne da kokarin fahimtar abin da mai mafarki ya gani a mafarkinsa, ta la’akari da yanayinsa, da hali ko dabi’unsa, da kuma tsarin mahallinsa.  Wannan shi suke kira “Content Analysis” a harshen Turanci.  Masana sun zage dantse matuka a wannan bangare, saboda matukar mahimmancin da mutane ke bashi a kasashen Turai da Amurka.  Wadannan masana galibinsu kwararru ne a fannin ilimin dabi’a, wato “Psychologists.”

 

Shahararrun masana irin su Calvin Hall  da Robert van de Castle (a shekarar 1966), da kuma William Domhoff (a shekarar 1996) sun shagala ne wajen kokarin fahimtar tsarin mafarki gama-gari; wadanda jama’a suka saba yi yau da kullum.  A karshe suka fitar da sakamako cewa galibin mafarkin mutane duk ba su wuce matsalolin iyali, da neman aiki, sannan akwai alaka mai karfi tsakanin irin abin da mutane ke gani a mafarki da hakikanin abin da suke gudanarwa a rayuwarsu ta zahiri.

 

A nasa bangaren, Harry Hunt (a shekarar 1989) ya fadada bincike ta hanyar kara wasu nau’ukan mafarkai da mutane suke yi wadanda suka saba da al’ada.  Kuma shi ma kusan sakamako iri daya ya fitar da irin wanda su Calvin Hall suka fitar.

 

Bayan ‘yan shekaru sai ga Don Kuiken (a shekarar 1993), wanda ya dauki tsawon lokaci yana bincike kan nau’ukan mafarki da jama’a ke yi.  A karshe, a cewarsa, ya gano akwai mafarkai kala hudu da mutane ke yi.  Wadannan mafarkai su ne ya kira: “Existential Dream” (nau’in mafarkin da ya kunshi tashin hankali, da damuwa irin na sakin aure, da kuma salwancewar mutunci), da “Anxiety Dreams” (nau’in mafarki mai dauke da tsoratarwa, da barazanar kisa, da harkar lafiyar jiki), da “Transcendent Dream” (nau’in dake dauke da farin cikin rayuwa, da yanayi mai ban al’ajabi), sai na karshe, wato: “Mundane Dream” (wanda ke dauke da abubuwan yau da kullum da dan adam ya saba gudanarwa).

 

Cikin shekarar 1991 kuma sai ga Tore Nielsen da sakamakon nasa binciken kan yanayin mafarki da abin da ake gani a ciki.  A bangarensa shi kuma ya gano wani nau’in mafarki ne da a cewarsa ke samuwa tsakanin marhalar bacci mara wilkitawar idanu, da marhalar da idanun mai bacci ke wilkitawa; wato “REM-NREM Sleep” kenan.  A cewar Nielsen, galibin miyagun mafarkai masu dauke da firgici da tsoro suna faruwa ne a daidai lokacin da mai bacci yazo shiga wata marhala daga wata marhalar, a halin baccinsa.  Wannan nau’in mafarki shi ya kira: “Apex Dreaming.”

 

Wadannan sakamakon bincike dai har yanzu basu gamsar ba.  Domin har zuwa wannan lokaci da mai karatu ke karanta bayanan nan, babu wani ra’ayi ko sakamakon bincike karbabbe da masana suka amince dashi kan dalilin samuwar mafarki da hakikanin abin da mai mafarkin ke gani.  Shi yasa a nasa bangaren ma, Kelly Bulkeley, wanda kwararren masani ne a fannin ilimin dabi’a, kuma marubuci a wannan fanni, ya nuna cewa lallai babu yadda malaman kimiyya za su iya gano wadannan abubuwa sai sun hada kai da masana a fannin addini.  To me yasa?  Kelly yace domin mafarki wani yanayi ne dake samuwa ta sanadiyyar alaka tsakanin kwakwalwa da ruhin dan adam.  Idan aka tsaya bincike kan kwakwalwa ne kadai, za a samu sakamako nakasasshe, domin ba komai na’ura take iya hangowa ba.  Sai an hada da malaman addini, domin su ne ke da kwarewa wajen fahimtar rayuwar dan adam ta la’akari da ruhinsa ko alakarsa da mahaliccinsa.

 

Idan Allah ya kaimu mako mai zuwa zan kawo mana ra’ayoyin addinai kan yadda mafarki ke samuwa, da hakikanin abin da yake kunsa. A karshe kuma muji ina ne mafita?  A ci gaba da kasancewa damu.

 

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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