Dabarun Gina Manhaja (Programming Languages) (1)

Dabarun Gina Manhaja (Programming Languages)

“Programming Languages” na nufin “Dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta” ne; ko kace “Yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta,” a wani kaulin. Su ne nau’ukan dabarun da ake amfani dasu wajen rubuta umarnin da ake son baiwa kwamfuta don aiwatar da abin da ake son ta zartar.

 

Asali da Samuwa

Wadannan dabaru dai sun samo asali ne tun samuwar kwamfuta a duniya, sai dai a farkon samuwarsu ba kowa ke iya fahimtar irin umarnin ba, saboda sarkakiyar dake cikin bayanan, wato: ‘Source Code.’ Ba a fara samun dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta masu saukin fahimta ba sai cikin shekarun 1950s. A wannan babi, yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta na farko da aka fara kirkira shi ne: FORTRAN (Formula Translator), wanda aka samar a shekarar 1957. A shekarar 1958 kuma aka samar da yaren LISP (List Processor) da kuma ALGOL (Algorithmic Language). Sai kuma yaren COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) a shekarar 1959. Wadannan nau’ukan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta guda hudu, su ne tubalin dukkan nau’ukan yaren gina mahajar kwamfuta na zamanin yau.

 

Bayan su an samu yaren BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) a shekarar 1964. Da kuma yaren PASCAL, wanda aka kirkira tsakanin shekarar 1968 da 1970. A shekarar 1969 sai ga yaren C, wanda shi ne yaren farko da aka fara amfani dashi wajen gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta (Operating System).

 

Wadannan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta dai suna da yawa. Bayan wadanda na zayyana a sama, wadanda su ne asali, akwai kari, irin su: C++ (C Plus Plus), da C# (C Hash), da C#.Net (C Hash Dot Net), da Ada, da F# (F Hash), da Flex, da Haskell, da Amiga, da Clojure, da JAVA, da PHP, da JavaScript, da J# (J Hash), da Objective-C, da SmallTalk, da Swift, da PowerBuilder, da Python, da Ruby, da Cocoa, da J++ (J Plus Plus), da L#.Net (L Hash Dot Net), da F, da B, da ABC da sauransu.

 

Wadannan kadan ne cikin kadan, na ire-iren dabarun da ake amfani dasu wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta a halin yanzu.

 

Shahararrun Dabarun Gina Manhaja

Kamar yadda mai karatu ya karanta a baya, dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta suna da dimbin yawa.  A takaice a iya cewa babu wanda ya san yawansu.  Domin daga cikin kwararru a wannan fanni, duk wanda ya nemi hanyar warware wata matsala ta amfani da wani nau’in dabarar gina manhajar kwamfuta amma ya kasa samu, yana iya kirkirar tasa dabarar.  Wannan shi ne dalilin da ya haifar da samuwar dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta irin su: “Python” na Guido Van Rossum, da “Java” na James Goslin.  Don haka, wadannan dabaru suna da yawa matuka.  Amma duk da yawansu, akwai wadanda suka shahara, wadanda galibin abubuwan da muke mu’amala dasu a kwamfutoci ko wayoyin salula a yau, an gina su ne da wadannan shahararrun dabarun gina manhaja.  Ga wasu daga cikinsu nan:

 

“C” –   Dabarar gina manhajar kwamfuta mai suna “C” na cikin dadaddun dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta da ake kira “Low Level Programming Languages,” kuma yana da tasiri matuka har zuwa wannan zamani. Da wannan dabarar gina manhajar kwamfuta na “C” ne aka gina  madarar babbar manhajar kwamfuta na “Windows” (wato “Windows Kernel”), da madarar babbar manhajar kwamfuta na Linux, tare da sauran manhajojinta (wato “Linux Kernel”), da madabar babbar manhajar kwamfuta na kamfanin Apple mai suna Mac OS X.   Wadanda suka fi mu’amala da wannan yare dai sune kwararrun masana a wannan fanni.  Bayan amfani da yaren wajen gina babbar manhaja, har wa yau ana amfani “C” wajen gina kananan manhajojin dake lura da rayuwar babbar manhajar, wato: “Operating System Processes and Threads.”

 

“C++” – Ko kace: “C Plus Plus”! Wannan yare an samar dashi ne bayan samuwar C, kuma yana cikin dadaddu shi ma.  Ana amfani da wannan yare wajen gina babbar manhaja, kamar yadda ake amfani da “C”, sai dai an fi amfani da shi yanzu wajen gina shaharrun manhajojin kwamfuta da jama’a ke amfani dasu a yau, irin su: “Adobe Photoshop” da galibin manhajoji masu amfani da tsarin “Graphical User Interface,” (GUI).  Wato manhajoji masu baiwa mai mu’amala dasu damar sarrafa su kai tsaye, ta amfani da alamomi da hotuna ko tambari.

 

“Java” – Wannan yare mai suna “Java” an samar da shi ne a shekarar 1995, ta hanyar kokarin James Gosling. Tsari da kintsin “Java” sun samo asali ne daga yaren “C++”, bambancin dake tsakaninsu ba shi da fadi sosai.  Ana amfani da yaren Java wajen gina abubuwa da yawa, daga manhajojin sarrafa injina zuwa na wayar salula.  Kashi 80 cikin 100 na manhajojin wayar Android duk daga yaren “Java” aka gina su.  Haka galibin manyan manhajojin kwamfuta na zamanin yau, duk da “Java” aka gina su.  “Java” ita ce “amarya” a tsakanin dabarun gina manhajojin kwamfuta.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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