Dabarun Gina Manhaja (Programming Languages) (2)

Dabarun Gina Manhaja

 

“C#” da “Visual Basic” – Wadannan nau’ukan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta na kamfanin Microsoft ne, wanda ya samar dasu. Ya samar da yaren BASIC da jimawa, daga baya kuma ya samar da yaren “C#” (ko kace “C Sharp”).  Da wadannan yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta ne yake ginawa tare da inganta babbar manhajar Windows, da manhajojin sarrafa bayanai irin su: Microsoft Word, da Excel, da PowerPoint, da Access, da Publisher da dai sauransu.  A farkon zamani kamfanin Microsoft na amfani da “C++” ne wajen gina wadancan manhajoji, amma daga baya sai ya kirkiri yaren “C#” ta hanyar kwafan tsari da kintsin yaren “C++” da “Java.”  Kamfanin yayi haka ne don samar wa kansa ‘yanci, ta hanyar killace hajojinsa da irin tsarin da ya dabbaka su a kai.

 

“Objective-C” da “Cocoa” da “Swift” –  Wadannan dabarun gina manhaja ne da kamfanin Apple ya samar don gina manhajojinsa, kamar dai yadda kamfanin Microsoft yayi.  Asalin yaren “Objective-C” daga yaren “C” ne, kamar yadda Microsoft ya samar da “C#” daga “C++.”  Da yaren “Objective-C” yake gina manhajojin dake kan babbar manhajarsa ta kwamfuta, wato Mac OS X, sannan yayi amfani da yaren “Cocoa” da “Swift” wajen gina babbar manhajar wayar salula ta “iOS” wadda ke dauke kan iPad, da iPod, da kuma iPhone.

 

“Python” –  Wannan yare an samar dashi ne a shekarar 1990, ta sanadiyyar kokarin Guido Van Rossum, wani masanin kwamfuta dan kasar Holland.  Ana amfani da wannan yare wajen gina shafukan Intanet, da manhajojin kwamfuta masu amfani da Intanet.  Shahararru daga cikin manhajoji da shafukan da aka gina da “Python” dai sun hada da: shafin “Youtube”, da “BitTorrent”, da wani bangaren manhajar “Facebook,” da “Yahoo Maps”, da “Google”, da “Pinterest”, da “Instagram”, da “Drop Box,” da “Firefox” na kamfanin Mozilla, da manhajar “Blender,” da “Cinema 4D” da dai sauransu.  Sannan a daya bangaren kuma, ana amfani da “Python” wajen gina manhajojin wayar salula na Android, ta amfani da wani yare mai sauki mai suna: “Kivy.”  Wannan yare na “Python” yana da matukar sauki wajen koyo, kuma da “Python” kana iya gina duk irin manhajar da ka ga dama, muddin kana da kwarewa da kuma zimmar yin hakan.

 

“PHP” da “ASP.Net” –  Wadannan nau’ukan dabarun gina manhajar Intanet ne, masu lura da uwar garke, wato kwamfutar dake dauke da shafukan yanar sadarwa.  Su ake kira: “Server-Side Web Programming Language.”  Yaren “ASP.Net” (ko kace “Active Server Pages Dot Net” ko “ASP Dot Net”) na kamfanin Microsoft ne, wanda yake amfani dashi wajen gina manhajojin da suke muke mu’amala da masu ziyara a shafukan Intanet wajen bayarwa ko karban bayanai cikin sauki.  Shi kuma “PHP” (ko kace: “PHP: Pre-Processor”) yare ne shi ma da ake amfani dashi wajen gina manhajar dake mu’amala da mai ziyara a shafukan yanar sadarwa.  Kashi 70 cikin 100 na bayanan da muke zubawa ko debowa a Dandalin Facebook, duk da wannan yare aka gina su.  Hatta shafukan da muke mu’amala dasu a Facebook, da PHP aka gina su.  Duk shafukan Intanet na kasuwanci, ko dai ya zama da “ASP.Net” aka gina su, ko kuma da “PHP.”  Tabbas akwai wasu takwarorinsu, amma wadannan sun fi shahara.  An ma kiyasta cewa kashi 78 cikin 100 na shafukan Intanet dake duniya an gina su ne da yaren “PHP.”

 

“MySQL” da “MariaDB” da “Microsoft SQL Server” – Ko kace “My Sequel” cikin lafazi, ko “MySQL.”  Kalmar “SQL” na nufin “Structured Query Language” ne, yare ne da ake amfani dashi wajen kirkira, da zubawa, da saukewa, da kwashewa, da karawa, da ragewa, da mayewa, da gyattawa, na bayanan dake cikin rumbun adana bayanai, wato: “Database.”  Dukkan bayanan da muke gani a shafukan Facebook, da Whatsapp, da Instagram, da bidiyon da muke kalla a shafin Youtube, ko hotunan da muke karba ko aikawa a shafukan Intanet, ko sautin da muke ta’ammali dasu a shafukan SoundCloud, duk suna dibge ne a cikin rumbun adana bayanai da wasu kwamfutoci ke dauke dasu a duniya.  Kai, a yanzu ma tsarin adana bayanai ya koma tsarin “Tafi-da-gidanka,” wato: “Cloud Computing.”  Wannan rumbun adana bayanai ita ake kira: “Database.”  Da wannan yare na “MySQL” ake kirkira tare da taskance bayanai.  Shahararriya daga cikinsu ita ce: “MySQL”, sai kuma kamfanin Microsoft ya kirkiri nasa, daga asalin wancan din, don killace hajojinsa.  Ita ce “Microsoft SQL Server.”  Ita kuma “MariaDB,” ita ce dai “MySQL” din.

 

Dalilin samar da ita shi ne, sadda kamfanin Oracle ya saye “MySQL” daga masu lura da ita, sai asalin makirkirin “MySQL” ya lura cewa nan gaba suna iya killace ta suce dole sai an saya, alhali shi kuma ya samar da wannan fasaha ne don ayi amfani da ita kyauta.  Don haka yayi wasu kare-kare da kintse-kintse daga asalin “MySQL” din, ya samar da “MariaDB,” wadda ni kaina da ita nake amfani a kwamfuta dina a halin yanzu, a duk sadda nake son yin gwaji na abin da ya shafi adana bayanai.  Duk shafin da ka shiga za kayi rajista, ka ga an budo maka tafkeken fam don ka cika da bayanai, to, da zarar ka gama cika bayanan ka aika, nan take za su zarce ma’adanar wannan rumbun adana bayanai ne kai tsaye.

 

Yaren “MySQL” na amfani da yaren “PHP” ne wajen ne wajen karban bayanai daga mai ziyara a shafin yanar sadarwa.  A nata bangare kuma, yaren “Microsoft SQL Server” na amfani da yaren “ASP.Net” ne wajen karban bayanai daga mai ziyara a shafin yanar sadarwa.

 

“JavaScript” – Wannan shi ne yaren da ake amfani dashi wajen kawata bayanai a shafukan Intanet da wayar salula.  Asalin yaren “JavaScript” ba wai daga yaren “Java” bane; babu ma abin da ya hada su.  Yaren ya samo asali ne daga wani yare mai suna: “ECMA Script” wanda ake amfani dashi wajen taimaka wa mai ziyara a shafin yanar sadarwa ganin bayanai cikin sauki.  A halin yanzu wannan yare ya bunkasa matuka, domin har manhajar kwamfuta da na wayar salula ana ginawa dashi, ba matsala.  Sannan, galibin kyale-kyalen da kake gani a gidajen yanar sadarwa na abubuwa masu motsi da masu kai komo, wasu gwagwai ko hotunan halittu masu kama da aljanu da za ta ka gani ana kawata shafukan Intanet dasu, kusan duk da yaren “JavaScript” ake gina su.  Haka galibin bidiyo da sauti da kake gani kuma kake iya mu’amala da su, da wannan yare ake gina mazauni da dabi’unsu.  Galibin aiyukan “JavaScript” na aukuwa ne a manhajar lilo (Broswer) da muke amfani da ita wajen lilo a shafukan Intanet.  Shi yasa ma ake kira kiranta: “Client-Side Scripting Language,” wato kishiyar su “PHP” da “ASP.Net” kenan.

 

“HTML” da “XHTML” da “HTML5” da CSS3” – Wadannan sune yarukan da ake amfani dasu na asali, wajen ginawa, da gyattawa, da kuma inganta shafukan yanar sadarwa a Intanet.  Ma’ana, dasu ake gyatta rubutu, da mazaunin hotuna (a wasu lokuta a baya, kafin zuwan “JavaScript”), da launukan shafukan yanar sadarwa.  A yanzu ba a cika amfani dasu kai tsaye ba, kamar sauran yarukan da suka gabata, sai dai an gine su ne cikin wasu manhajoji masu saukin koyo da ta’ammali, irin su: “Adobe Dreamweaver,” da “Adobe Edge CC,” misali.  Suna da matukar tasiri sosai.  Kuma su ake kira: “Web Programming Languages.”  A zamanin baya dasu ake cin duniya wajen gina shafukan Intanet, amma zuwan “JavaScript” sai ta kashe musu kasuwa.  Wannan ba ya nufin ba a amfani dasu, sai dai ba kai tsaye ba kamar yadda na fada dazu, kuma tasirinsu ya ragu.

 

Wadannan, a takaicen takaitawa, su ne kadan daga cikin yarukan gina manhaja, tare da shahararrun ayyukansu, da wasu daga cikin abubuwan da aka gina dasu.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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