Dandatsanci: Wani Sabon Salon Yaki Tsakanin Kasashen Duniya (1)

Wata Sabuwa…

Tsawon shekaru ashirin da biyar da suka gabata, fannin Kimiyyar Sadarwa da Kere-kere (Science and Technology) ya shahara matuka wajen gamewar tasirinsa, inda bayan sawwake tsarin sadarwa a bangare daya, a daya bangaren ya samar da sabuwar hanyar inganta tsarin kere-kere wajen samar da motoci, da jiragen sama, da jiragen kasa, tare da inganta tsarin tsaro tsakanin kasashe. Wannan ya dada taimakawa sosai wajen ingancin rayuwa musamman a kasashen da suka ci gaba a fannin tattalin arziki, da siyasa.  Wannan fanni har wa yau ya game dukkan fannoni da harkokin ilimi da rayuwa. Daga makarantu zuwa harkar safara. Daga siyasa zuwa harkar tsaro. Daga kiwon lafiya zuwa kasuwanci; duk harkokin rayuwa idan ka duba wannan fanni na kimiyyar sadarwa da kere-kere sun shiga cikinsa, sun yi ruwa sun yi tsaki.

 

A duniya yanzu kowa so yake ya danganta kansa da wannan fanni. Likita ne; jami’in tsaro ne; dan siyasa ne; kamfanoni ne; ko malamai ne na addini. Duk da ‘yan matsalolin da ake ganin wannan fanni yana haifarwa a karon farko, kowa ya yadda cewa babu lokacin da wannan duniya tamu ta samu ci gaba da wayewa irin wannan zamani da lokaci.

 

To amma duk da wannan ci gaba, akwai alamun tasirin wannan fanni ya fara jawo kace-nace a tsakanin kasashe, musamman a bangaren siyasar duniya.  Daga cikin miyagun tasirin bunkasar kimiyyar fasahar sadarwa misali, akwai matsalar Dandatsanci, ko kace Hacking a Turance.  Wannan harka ta Dandatsanci ta kunshi amfani ne da kwarewar ilimin sarrafa kwamfuta wajen aiwatar da ta’addanci daga wata kwamfuta zuwa wata, a ko ina ne kuma a duniya.  Wannan mummunar sana’a dai da farko ta samo asali ne daga kwararrun matasa masu neman nuna burgewa ko jarunta. Sai dai mai karatu zai yi mamakin jin cewa a halin yanzu, wannan tsari ko sana’a ta shahara, ta yadda gwamnatoci a duniya ke amfani da ita don cin ma manufar siyasa.

 

Kwararru a harkar kimiyyar sadarwar zamani suka ce hakan bazai haifar da da mai ido ba, musamman idan lamarin ya koma tsakanin kasa da kasa.  Suka ce a  kasashen da suka ci gaba a fannin tattalin arziki da siyasa, inda kusan dukkan harkokin rayuwarsu sun ta’allaka ne da tsarin sadarwa, duk lokacin da wata rashin jituwa ta taso a tsakanin wasu kasashe biyu, daya na iya amfani da sana’ar Dandatsanci wajen kawo cikas ga harkokin rayuwa a daya kasar. Wannan ke nuna cewa nan gaba ana iya samun wani sabon salon yaki da cece-kuce a tsakanin kasashen duniya.

 

Shekarun Baya

Idan mai karatu ya koma dakin tarihi zai ga cewa lallai wannan hasashe na masana ya dauko hanyar faruwa.  Domin a halin yanzu ana samun rahotannin aikin dandatsanci a kusan dukkan wata. Ire-iren wadannan ayyuka kan samo asali ne daga manyan kasashen duniya, irin su Amurka, da Ingila, da Sin, da Rasha, da Taiwan, da sauran makamantansu.  Cikin farkon watan Maris da muke ciki ma wasu ‘yan ta’adda masu fasakwarin yanar gizo sun ruso cikin kwamfutocin manyan kamfanonin kasar Amurka, da bankuna, da kuma wasu daga cikin hukumomin tsaro na kasar.  Nan take Shugaba Obama yace ‘yan kasar Sin ne, wadanda gwamnatin kasar ke daure musu gindi don aiwatar da ta’addanci ta hanyar kwamfuta.  Nan take gwamnatin kasar Sin ta karyata wannan zargi.  Ire-iren wadannan abubuwa dai ba ba baki bane, musamman ga wanda ke lura da ci gaban kimiyyar sadarwar bayanai a duniya.

 

Tun kafin kasar Amurka da Rasha su tsagaita wuta don kawo karshen yakin cacar baki, an yi ta samun ire-iren wadannan aika-aika a tsakanin kasashen biyu.  Cikin shekarar 1982 ne wasu ‘yan Dandatsa (Hackers) suka kutsa cikin kwamfutocin da ke lura da injin tuttudo man gas na kasar Kanada, inda suka sace asalin masarrafar da ke wannan aiki.  Haka na faruwa kasar Amurka tace ai aikin hukumar kasar Rasha ne.   Don haka nan take sai hukumar CIA tai amfani da masana harkar kwamfuta suka canza asalin tsarin masarrafar, daga inda aka sace.  Ashe bayan sace masarrafar an kai kasar Rasha ne, aka shigar cikin kwamfutocin da ke sarrafa man gas daga kasa zuwa kasa, na kasar Rasha. Bayan canza tsarin masarrafar, nan take sai ya haukatar da kwamfutar da ke lura da tuttudo man gas; ta rika cillo man fiye da kima har hakan ya fasa manyan bututun da ke aika gas din, ta kama da wuta.

 

A shekarar 1991 daidai lokacin da kasar Amurka ke darkake kasar Iraki a yakin Tekun Fasha, akwai cibiyar ayyuka da kasar Amurka ta bude mai dauke da kayayyaki da sojoji, ciki hard a na’urorin kwamfuta, wadanda ake aikin aikawa da karbar sakonni dasu tsakanin cibiyar da hukumar tsaron kasar Amurka a Washington.  Daga baya an gano cewa kasar Amurka ta makala wata masarrafar kwamfuta (Computer Virus Software) a ma’adanar na’urar buga bayanai (Printer Chip).  Aikin wannan masarrafa kuwa shi ne, don ayi amfani da ita, a tura wa kwamfutocin hukumar tsaron kasar Iraki masu sarrafa makami mai linzami, wanda ke darkake jiragen yakin kasar Amurka kafin sui so.  Wato da zarar an tura wannan masarrafa cikin wancan kwamfuta mai sarrafa makami mai linzami, za ta tsayar da kwamfutar ne, ta hana ta aiki baki daya, har jiragen yakin kasar Amurka su shigo su darkake sojojin kasar Iraki.  To amma hakan bai yiwu ba, domin kafin jami’an kasar Amurka da ke wannan cibiya su gama kintsawa, sojojin kasar Iraki sun darkake cibiyar baki daya, inda komai ya kone.  Wannan bayani daga baya ne hukumar tsaron kasar Amurka ta bayyana shi.

 

Haka a shekarar 1998 lokacin da sojojin taron dangi na Amurka da NATO suka yi wa kasar Yugosilabiya kawanya, daga cikin dabarun da gwamnatin Amurka tayi amfani dasu akwai harkar Dandatsanci, wato Hacking.  Ta kirkiri masarrafa ne na musamman, wadda aka cilla wa kwamfutocin jami’’an tsaron kasar Sabiya (Yugoslavia), masu lura da kwamfutocin dake baiwa jiragen yakin kasar umarni don kai hari.  Sun kuma ci nasara.  Domin sadda wannan masarrafar bogi ta kwamfuta (Computer Virus) ta shige cikin kwamfutar sojojin da ke baiwa jiragen yakin kasar umarni, ta rika shiriritar dasu, har aka samu nasara a kansu, aka yi kacakaca da kasar baki daya.  Bayan wannan yaki har wa yau, a watan Mayu na shekarar 1998 ne hukumar tsaron kasar Amurka ta gano wata masarrafar kwayar cutar kwamfuta (Computer Virus Program), wadda kafin a gano ta, ta kwashe shekaru biyu cikin manyan kwamfutocin hukumar tsaro, da na kamfanonin kasar, da manyan bankunan kasar, da wasu cibiyoyin binciken kimiyya, inda take ta aikin satar bayanai.  Da bincike ya kai makura, sai aka gano cewa wannan masarrafar kwayar cutar kwamfuta dai ta samo asali ne daga wata dibgegiyar kwamfuta irin ta zamanin da, wato Main Frame Computer da ke rusasshiyar daular Sobiyet, wato Rasha ta yau kenan.

 

Cikin shekarar 2003 har wa yau, wasu ‘yan Dandatsa sun bargo cikin kwamfutocin hukumomin Amurka, da manyan kamfanonin harkar sadarwa, da hukumomin tsaron kasar, inda suka sace tarin bayanai masu muhimmanci wadanda mizaninsu ya kai dubunnan tiriliyoyi.  Har suka gama, ba a iya gano ko su waye ba, balle ayi maganar kama su.  A cikin shekarar 2008 kuma sai ga wata masarrafar kwayar cutar kwamfuta ta karkashin kasar kwamfutocin hukumar tsaron kasar Amurka. Abin da wannan masarrafa tayi kuwa shi ne, ta hade ne da dukkan masarrafan da jami’an tsaron kasar Amurka ke amfani dasu wajen aikawa da karbar bayanan sirri, tsakaninsu da gwamnati da kuma wadanda ke fagen fama a wasu kasashe.  Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, duk tsawon zaman da wannan masarrafa tayi, tana aikin liken asiri ne, tare da kwafo dukkan bayanan da ake aikawa ko karbansu, ba tare da kowa ya sani ba.

 

Wannan na daga cikin hare-haren da suka tayar wa gwamnatin kasar Amurka da hankali, har yasa ta fara daukan mataki kan ire-iren wadannan bi-ta-da-kulli da ake mata, kamar yadda shugaban hukumar tsaro na kasar Amurka Mista Williams Lynn ya tabbatar.  Shi yasa nan take ta fara neman hanyoyin kariya da kuma ramuwa, kamar yadda masana suka tabbatar. Hukumar Tsaron Amurka wato Pentagon, ta tabbatar da cewa ta kashe sama da dalar Amurka miliyan dari ($100 million) wajen gyara barnar da ‘yan Dandatsa (Hackers) suka mata, wajen satar bayanai, da samar da hanyoyin kariya.  Ire-iren wadannan masaloli basu takaita ga kasar Amurka kadai ba, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani nan gaba.


Sanarwa

Na samu sakon neman bukatar wasu daga cikin kasidun baya da suka gabata a wannan shafi daga wurin masu karatu kamar yadda aka saba. Sai dai za a min uzuri na dan wani lokaci, domin barayi sun shiga gida na ranar Lahadi, 17 ga watan Maris kuma daga cikin abubuwan da suka dauke har da kwamfutar da nake amfani da ita, wacce ke kunshe da dukkan kasidun da na gabatar a baya. Duk da cewa nakan taskance bayanai na a wata ma’adana daban, amma ma’adanar ta samu matsala, wannan ya sa a halin yanzu na rasa dukkan abin da ke cikin kwamfutar na bayanai. 

 

Don haka duk wanda ke bukatar wasu daga cikin kasidun da suka gabata, yana iya zuwa shafin da muke taskance su a Intanet, wato: http://fasahar-intanet.blogspot.com.  Wannan na cikin da suka sa ban samu gabatar da kasida a makon da ya gabata ba.  Domin duk bayanan da na taskance zan yi amfani dasu wajen rubuta kasidar makon jiya, suna cikin jakar kwamfutar, har da muhimman takarduna na aiki. A takaice dai komai ya koma sabo yanzu. Don haka a gafarce ni. Akwai wasu daga kasidun da nake kyautata zaton na taskance a kwamfutar da nake amfani da ita a ofis, zan duba. Idan har na samu zan yi iya gwargwadon abin da ya kamata ga masu bukatar kasidun baya. Idan kuma ban samu ba sai ayi hakuri. 

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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